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SKETCHES 



OF THE 



LIFE AND CORRESPONDENCE 

. OF 



MAJOYl GENERAL OF TUE ARGUES OF TV1E U.WTED STATES, 



*n tljt e^ac of t9t iUboiuHoii. 



COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM ORIGINAL MATERIALS 



BY WXJMM JOHNSON, 

OF CHARLESTON, SOUTH-CAROLINA. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL II. 



CHARLESTON : 

HUNTED FOR THE AUTHOR. ftY A E. MILLER, 

KP# 4 2 JlJ((tALi-!lTJLEi¥, HfcAJL Till, U-i V 4 



B * e *i BE It Remembered, thai on |he ■ vir^iieili dfiyflf .NViveintari, Aflftfl Uwhjim, Mti" 
thai.. thouirtpid eight htmdred jirid nv*nty-onc, and intJir Fnny-^Jilti yeiit'tifthe hirLepi'mli»(i'>r- 
£soos4 of lhe Cultetf States nf America,! he Honoruhlu VWitU^M Jaicxaox, one nf the Wu- 
ciatc Justices of the Supreme Court of tlifl United Siace?, drcpoateed in thjs Oflice t ihi; title m" u lioojjj 
the right whereof Ire claims as smtlior ;md proprietor, in the lvctfd-* following, ro vii ' r 

« Sketches of the Lift and Correspondence 0/ Naihanael Greene, Major General m" itip? ArcuU'* 
*i of die United States p in the War of the Revolution, compiled chieffy from orifftnal imMoriulv ftj 
'■' William Johjuoii, of Charleston, Smith-Carolina.-" - 

In conformity to the Act of Congress of l |lE UniteU States, eittUled » An Act f.ir th# es]^ftur»gi% 
aitftttof learning, by weuringihe Copies of Mops, Cham and Uuuki, «p she Authors mid Proprietor? o l 
such copies during the timi* tlweln mentioned," and oho, to the act entitled " Art Aci jupplewpji- 
tary to an act entitled/ An Act Tor ihetncnwnigeniciil of learning] hv st^rinj 1-tf capias of Map* 
Chartiand D-ooksj to the Authors eiihI Proprietor* of -inch conies* owing i\ie tintfe (herein raun- 
tinned, 1 and axfexidlng the benefits thereof to tbt art of d«ugning r *n^ra \iag and fcichinsj hiaturirrt 
and other, prints,' 1 

JAMES JERYET, * 
Dhtrict Ckrfr. SptffA-CflTPfmfl District. 



Chapter XL 

Battk of Guilford — Grtcne retrerds over the Ha\o—Lard C'onuvatlis retrcutu 
over the Deep River, then to Wilmington — Greene purmes — descent into 
South Carolina. 

Chapter XII. 
1m Fayette detached ( Virginia. Generul Philips' invasion. Lord Corn-imtfu- 
Ttioves from H r dmington for Petersburg. Forms a junction irilh Philips* 
Qmwuid. Advances ttpon £0 Fayette. The latter retreats across the Rnp- 
pftfauwjch Form a junction trith Way tie, Tarktoti and Srntm^ int^r- 
Wt, Comiealli^ marches to support them* Lit Fayette throw* himself in 
fact of Loni Coniumllijs. The Hfflkt retreats to Richmond, to Norfolk, ami 
then takes pint fit York Town. Ut Fayette forms ft junction with Steuben. 
Pttrstow Cornwallis. Fall of York Totbfb Re-eriforrtments ordered to the. 
southern army, Lee),* Motewmts. Capture of Fort Wmon, Battk of 
U'thkiiWs Hill. Cwic-ptmdencc. 

Chapter XIII. 
Trcoiwnt of Capttrin Smith vf the Mftryloud tiite. E.rcctaimi* for desertion. 
Mm-Pinem ttf Marion, Stonptrr ami Pirkeas, DoyU mid IVatSM get into 
Camdtift. Greenes aiore uwiit beyond the U'sitree. His increasing evtbat* 
fttswute. Marion qfetuffd. Offers to retire from service EforU to detain 
him. Lard Famdo<t n treat* from Camden- Greene mow to the Consaree. 

Fed! of Fat i Motte, eflk* Foil at Oimurehnnrh, Sttmpterhtiit&iion t h- ttftfTOjfr 

rMt.. Faft cf Fort Giatiby. Simpler ojjhuled. Lee mores to Augusta . 
t 'iiu&vi xits down before Ninety-Six. Capture of Forts GrdjMit, GrirrSOu 
nail Cornwallis. Murder of Cohmt Grkrsait. 

Chapter XIV. 
Siege of Wnety-Siz, Lord liawdoti re-enforced — Marches for Ninety-Six. 
Aswidl of and reh-pftt frosi that pott. Country laid waste. Lord Rniedofi 
divides his force. Ufa res down- for Granby in person. General Greene rid- 
■iii tnrc.fi to meet him. Attempt on Stewart's Detachment. Junction of the 
etttMtfs force at Oratizebtrgk. Greene offers them, battle. Descent under 
Sutilptef. Battle of Quinoy* 



Chapter XV . 
Camp of Repose at ike High Hills ofSantee. State of the Army. Re-etiforced 
fvm North. Carolina. Measures to cover the Country. Exchange of prisoners. 
Colon el Hayne. Rumours of Lord Conueaflis 1 r final through North Carolina. 
Measures to meet him. Attempt to drict the enemy into Charleston. Battle of 
The Eutaus, 

Chapter XVI. 

(iaitrui Greene reaosses theSuni.cc. lies tr me* his post tit the High f fills* Cor- 
respondence, British army re-vnforccd, returns to the bonks of the Stutter. 
Takes post at Monk** Corner. Extreme distress of the American army. 
Rvmovr of Lord Cornvruffis' fighi retired. Gruil efforts to prepare to meet 
him. Gate) nor Burke, of Xortfi Carolina. His laudable- conduct, Valorous 
enterprise of Hector JPNeiL Burke and his council are captured, and sent 
prisoners to Charleston, State of thing, m North Carolina and Virginia. 
Siidby and Seciere join the army — are detached nnder Marion. American 
amy cross ike fVateree and Congarcc* and take post at Ruund-O. Affairs of 
Fahtatcn and Dorchester, British urmijfurcttt hetoir the tyumter- House. The. 
mountaineers desert Marion. American unnij without am m un'aion — th c causes. 
General St. Clair, Gist, and Wayne join the urmj. nith the Pennsylvania liiu 
and recruits from Maryland and Delaware. Wayne detttclwd to Georgia. 
Preparations for the Jacks&nboroitgh Assembly, American army advances to 
coeer it. Colonel Laurens. Attempt on Colonel Crai?. General Greene 
takes post at Colonel SkifiitiL r, s. Campaign doses. 

Chapter XVII . 

Jacksonhorough Astanhly. Ckil Gocemment re-esiahlishd in Sfewk Carolina 
and Georgia. Votes of '.httnh and comptmatiott. Campaign in Georgia, 
SavannaA evacuated. General. Pickens. General Susi^le/ resigns, tmd Gene- 
ral Henderson succeeds h-isi. Gt-netnl Mnri&A. Skirmvthes m Si, Tho;nas\ 
Disputes between Mayhem md Horry. Surprise of Colonel APDousdJ. < Ajfair 
at Mrs. Tydbna>i$. Virginia — Xorth Carolina — South Carolina — ikeirrrmpec- 
lixt measures towards the general government and the southern army. Dis- 
rresscsofthcanny. John Banks. Plot against G mend Greene. Cofonoi Let 
retires, ftemnnstmn ce qf'he Pennsylvania, captains $$4 lien ten a) its. Cap hdn 
Guiin. Colonel J, Lauren/*. Gritzral Leslie prepares f& scizi provisions. 
General Gisps brigade formed. Disputes H&k the legbn ojjicer*. Thehrave 
rewarded. 



Chapter XVIII. 

Marian returns over Santee River. LoyaJkts excited. North Carolina irodps 
discfitirged. Weakness of the Army. Bold ftttventwe of a f§l$i§ iaytrfist in 
capturing Mayhem. Expedition- against Gftiiey. Leslie wht& jwovisions on 
Santee. His fleet strihfbr Part. Royal Affair of Wtnhoo terminates Morion's 
military ^career. General Gists* expedition to Cumbahcts* Fa/1 of Colonel 
Latueat, Kosciusko takes the post of Lumens. United Slates and matt 
rights corns in collision. Wibnotfs death,. PickfniJ lust expedition against the 
Indians. Great accession of territory to the stftie of Gnoreia, Array tafia 
post at Ashley Hill Fa$ fevers, [/regular supplies- Great distress. Amy 
again stitsisted by impressments under United S&i&tt (mlkorinj. Clothed b$ 
contract with Banks. Convtufitwces. Charleston trucitttfed. At my hailed an 
Jame^ Island. Dispositions fay protecting the tuo states. Army grans un- 
popular, h east upon South Carolina, exclusively. Banks' contract fb* 
rattens- 

Chapter XIX. 

Banks 1 affair continued, Secret service. Disputes witk the State ttvthoriiies,- 
Army mutinous. Preliminaries of peace. Preparations for disbanding. 
Cavalry remit. Newberg Letters, Evidence of a Conspiracy. Journey to 
Vie Nortlt. Honours bettoiced by die States. Cannon voted by Congress. 
Returns to Rhode- Island* Sequel of Banks* affair. Posti offered by Con- 
gress. Returns to South Carolina. Sacrifices. Appeal to Congress. Visit* 
Georgia* CltaUenged by Gnnn, Duelling, 

Chapter XX . 

Miscellaneous. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 



CHAPTER XI. 



Battle of Guilford— -Greece retreats over the f£a\e—Lord Conuvallis retrcah 
piffi the Deep Rker } then to JVilmhtglon — Greene pur arcs — descent into 
Smith Carolina. 



THE action of Guilford Court-House, was fought on the 15th of March, J 781, ^hap 
a lit tic to the iiovdi and west of the village, now known by the name of Mar- 
tin's VilJe, the county town of Guilford. The battle first ccmnuencrri on the 
great road leading to Salisbury, aiul was terminated in Hie ; ingle lying between 
that road and the l-oad leading to tin? upper S&itfa Towns. Like most 
other interesting battles, the descriptions handed down to as arc very con- 
fused, and although all the incidents may be gather etUVom a careful examina- 
tion of the several accounts, the connexion and depnudenee of the several 
incidents, are invoHed in much obscurity. This is lite necessary result of 
tlu; manner in winch snr.h narratives arc collected and U-aiuiulttcit. Eoch 
paiiy publish^ an account most favourable to himself ; tlicse are token tip 
by writers, imdet the influence of opposite partialities, and seldom collated 
by those who follow, with the petienee necessary for the attainment of truth. 
Nor is it always practicable, for the most kibnrifws investigation to detect 
the errors or impositions practised upon the public; since it is very much 
in the power of die parties imeieftted to conceal material facts, at Least 
from the existing generation; and as to motives, by a comjiaijsou with wlrich 
coc tfr 



1 MA JOB. GENERAL GREENE, 

CHap, alone, can a fnfr estimate of the merits, talents and success of the parties 
ho formed, thi'y may lrc forever concealed in the bosoms that conceived 
theui, Yet Tills battle wm fought so much in detail, that there is no insupe- 
rable tlJLNcnlfy in proeiuing an accurate account of it- and Us ejects weva 
too nonspicuoui to admit of much doubt as 10 the injuries sustained in it 
by l\t£ pariies combatant. 

Whh rej^trd to the relative strength of the two armies, »-c can onii 
[jfi'^rot she opjjnsue accounts, *n$| the reasons tor giving credit to either. 

J .oid Coruwuilk asserts, that when he resolved to attack the American 
army, he understood their numbers to amount to D or 10,00 J. Tliis ua^ 
indeed an act el" intrepidity to he hosted of. lie afterwards concludes, 
I Vinii nil the information he could collects that they amounted to at least 
TQOOh Colonel Tarleton and some others make the in six thousand. Colonel 
Let 1 fedueea them ro double the number of the enemy. This last esti- 
mate is lUiEir the truth. The returns of that day* ^ive 42h3 infantry of 

which 27."j5 were militia, and l-^>tj regular soldier*. Of thc*e there was 
nm regiment of Man landers, and part of another that had been in battle. 
The txst were ah recruits that had joined the army since General Greene 
a ruined the, command. Many of them ho never, had seen service under 
previous enlistments. 

The continental troops were distributed hue- four regiments. Two of 
Maryland under Colonels Gunny and Ford. Two of Virginia under Cot- 
oneN Greene and Hawes : die hitter of whom, commanded in die ahsencc 
of Cnjunel Eluford, The detachment recently 'arrived under colonel Camp- 
bell, iud been distrthuuxl through the ranks of the Virginia regiments 
couv L hu(iji£ die Virginia brigade of 77G men, under command of General 
Iliu^r. The two other regiments constituted the Maryland brigade, ccm- 
po.vA Qi* \ hi vy hinders and Del a wares, 680 strong, under the command of 
Colonel Wilikuns. The artillery of die army, counted of four :si.i>poimdcrs 
linger com in and of Lieutenants Singleton and Khiley, with about sixty ma- 
r ros ses o f "\ ' irs: i u i a mi d "S hi r y h 1 1 id . Ti s e cava 1 r v w ;is eo tnpo ;cd of the! egio na j w 
horse, under Lieutenant Colonel Lee, not exceeding To mem and of four smaEl 
eontpantes under "Washington, which in the whu'e did not amount to POinore.* 
The infantry of the legion, already reduced by severe service, and desertion, 
in- !>2. made up the total of the enlisted troops. Themilida were distributed 
into four brigades, two of Virginian^ and two of North Carolinians, and two 



* See retiirns 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- $ 

rifle corns. The North Carolina bridles, of about 500 men each, were com- <w. 
manWby Generals Eaton mid Butler ; and those of Virginia, of about 600 
men each,* were commanded by Genesis Lawsan and Stevens; the rifle corps 
of about 200 men each, composed of about 3-OG Virginians, and 60 North 
Ciu-ulininns, were commanded by Colonels Lynch nod Campbell, both 
from Virginia. This was the w hole American force brought Into action- A 
few of Armaml's legion joined the army the day before the action; bin they 
appcar to have been employed in patrolling. 

In the quality of the militia, the diversity was very great. The wretched 
policy of North Carolina, iu making tho defence of the country a punishment 
for oifrutes, and forcing the disalfcc.tcd into service, had planted a mortal 
disease hi the constitution of meir brigades. A great many of the tjuota fur- 
nished by that state, are averted to have been of those descriptions. Tt is 
oolv wonderful, that they found officers of such respectable standing to com* 
nui ml them. The Virginia brigades, were quite a different body. About i 
oi GOO of .wren's volunteers were still with him, and had partaken largely 
of Ids discipline and spirit: the rest wm mostly substitutes or drafted men* 

The riflemen who joined the army under Lynch, were all volunteers; and 
even the substitutes who served on such occasions, pressed all the advan- 
tages over drafted men, justly ascribuble to volunteers. In some respects. 
thev are better adapted to military service; they claim fewer privileges and 
iudulgeuecs — nrc subjected more easily to the restraints of discipline— and 
arc generally of a elass of men better able to sustain the privations of a camp. 
We tmvc seen how the men of this description distinguished themselves on 
the day ^f the Cowprms. In common with them, many of the militia who 
served on ths* occasion, were discharged soldiers. When the advocates for 
milichi requisitions, quote lliti conduct of those men at the battle of Guilford* 
these facts ought to be recollected. 

It h no easy undertaking to determine the number of men brought by ihe 
enemy into the battle of Guilford. The assertion of Lord Cornu allis, that 
they amounted to only 1360 t k sneered at by Sir Henry Clinton, and not 
even contended far by the lirhi'h historians. It is an unfortunate fact for 
the suoport of this us-scrrioUs that lie adiniEs a loss of more than oOG killed 
and wounded, and yet admits a totul on the 1st of April, of 1723. Deduct 
from this number, Hamilton'* lovul rt e/mieiii, which docs not appear to have 
been in the action, and there will still remain more than 2000, exclusive of 
the artillery. It in also observable- that Colonel Tail cton admits his cavalry 
to hare amounted to '200, and vet die whole legionary corps is set down, in Corn- 
wallis" account, at 17k By the army returns of the Hi of March, it appears, 



k MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, that his total was 2213, which will leave 2000, after deducting Hamilton's 
^^v-^ regiment. Sir Henry Clinton supposes, that Lord Corowallis ought •have 
had with him, after the affair of the Cowpens, 3000 men, exclusive of ca- 
vahy and militia : and General Greene constantly insists, that his force, when 
at Hillsborough, as ascertained from his daily rations, and other means usually 
resorted to by military men, exceeded 2500, and approached 3000. No 
author that we recollect, ventures to state it at less than 2000. 

When General Greene advanced to Guilford, Lord Cormvallis had changed 
ins position, and lay encamped at the New Garden settlement, or the Quaker 
Meeting-House, about twelve miles distant from Guilford Court-House. To 
advance within that distance of an enemy, is a military challenge. 

Very early on the morning of the 15th, accordingly, Cornwallis, knowing 
that his enemy meant* at length, to meet him, sent off his baggage to his for- 
mer position at Bell's Mill, under guard of Colonel Hamilton's regiment of 
. loyalists, and a few infantry and cavalry ; and with the remainder of his army 
moved directly forward towards Greene's encampment, by the route which in- 
tersects the road to Salisbury a few miles below Guilford Court-Housc.. 

Early on the same morning, Colonel Lee, with his legion, and a detach- 
ment of riflemen, had been advanced upon the Salisbury road to observe the 
movements of the enemy. With this view, taking down the road that turns 
off from the main Salisbury road to New Garden, he encountered the British 
cavalry, led by Colonel Tarleton. A short but severe skirmish ensued, in 
which, as usual, both parties claim the advantage. Lee, it appears, was de- 
cidedly successful in the first onset, and made some prisoners ; but, pressing 
on, in hopes of some more important achievement, he unexpectedly encoun- 
tered the enemy's advance, in such force, as to oblige him to retreat pre-' 
;-, ' eipitately. 

It was now clear that the British army was at hand ; and intelligence dis- 
patched to head-quarters, produced immediate preparation for battle. Every 
■' - arrangement had been previously made, and very iittie time was necessary for 
each corps to march to the position which had been assigned it in general 
orders, and carefully pointed oat and explained to the respective commanders. 
So much care had been bestowed upon this subject, that during the whole of 
this hard-fought day, there was no one instance of doubt or difficulty felt by 
any officer, as to the post or duty assigned him. 

About half-past one o'clock, the head of the British column made its appear- 
ance, and the battle commenced by a cannonading on both sides. 

The course of the road from Salisbury to Guilford, is nearly north cast. In 
approaching the latter place, and when at the distance of about a nhle and 









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MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 5 

a half from it, the road winds between thick coverts of copse- wood, leaving chap. 
a defile of only a few iods between Mi em. The thickets then trend off to the 
right and IcA, and the ground ascends gradually, and with some undula- 
tions until you reach the court-house. On the first stage of this ascending 
ground, siiid at a small d Stance I mm where the road emerges from the copse- 
wood, the land had been cleared and cultivated on both sides the road, and 
tin: fences of the fields were still standing. Beyond thesn fields, a thick wood 
extended to the right and left, an unascertained distance, and for about half 
a mde in depth along the road ; there, the wood terminated on the borders of 
the cuhi vmed grounds adjacent to the court-house. These grounds lie to the 
south ami west of the eminence on which the court-house is ei-ected. Near 
to the left of the road* as yon approach the court-house from the south west, 
that eminence terminates, presenting a rising ground of an eliptical outline, 
and looking obliquely to the road — Its front being nearly due south. This was 
clear of wootl, having only the usual growth of shrubbery, or small saplings, 
found in old I i elds. Alongside the road atso ? in the lane between die fields, 
there was a growth of saplings which overtopped the fell cos. 

If the reader will now place himself in the great Salisbury road, where it 
crosses the skirts of the eminence on which the court-house is erected, and 
direct his eye towards the advance of the enemy, w T c shall he able to present 
him with a panorama of the battle, 

The first object that meets his view, is the Maryland line commanded bv 
Colonel Williams, drawn upon his right, fronting the south west. His eye 
ranges thr whole rear of this line, and falls upon the rear of the Virginia line 
drawn up beyond it T conformably to I he face of die hill, and facing south 
castwardlv ; this is under General linger; and between the right of the one 
line, and the left of the other; the angle is tilled up with u\o pieros of artil- 
lery. Below the eminence on which these troops are drawn up, extends a 
plain intersected, at irregular intervals, by ravines or hollows, (as they are 
termed in vernacular language) and terminating in a rising ground, at the 
edge of the wood which fmunds the cleared land, and to the west of the road— 
tin* wood is about two hundrci yards distant, in front of the position of the 
M a ry 1 ;i n rl midVi rgi u ia br i ga( 3 es. A h out o 1 1 e 1 u 1 1 u I rei f jnrife 6 N her ad va n r cd 3 
ami altogether in the wood, are drawn up the two brigndes of Virginia militia 7 
nearly at right angles with and crossing the road — the right commanded by Ge- 
neral Lawson — the left by Genera! Stevens.* Three I umd red yards farther in 



* Gwiwril UVfitllS to Gmifral W^in£[on r ltiili fifefcfc 



u MAJOR GENERAL GRKrAX 



t 



uap, advance is seen the North Carolina mililk, drawn up also at riglu angles with 
the ro atl, Their position Is in the skirt of this wood* dose behind the north 
fence of the fields in their front, und having those fields open before them for 
ah nut two hundred yards — General Eaton commands tbclr ri^ht— (*eneral 
B tiller their left. Agnail (Hvi^Ion only, of this line, did not possess the cover- 
ing tfi tlie fence, because there was an inter in] of open woods between the 
fields extending to the south of the mad. In the road, in advance of this line, 
and at .short ranj^e from the dehk\ are placed two six -pounders under com- 
mand of Captain -Singleton, On the ri^ht of the I me, a covering party com- 
manded hv Colonel Washington, and consisting of Kirk wood's Del a wares, 
about fiO eii number, and a battalion o£ riflemen under Colonel Lynch, of 
about 200, are extended behind the east side of the fields, ubJiquily towards 
the Mvump] whilst rhc cavalry is drawn up at a little distance in the wood, 
in the rear of die an^lc formed between the covering party find the rl^ltl of 
the front lino. On thtf If ft of this Hue also, is another covering party under 
command of Colonel Lee, similarly situated, but close to ihe frnce that 
bounded the field ro the south* — ibis consisted of the legion -infantry and a de- 
tachment of rillemeii under Colonel Campbell, about 250 in all. The cavalry 
of the lea;! on, like those under Washington, were posted at the point where 
the covering party formed the angle with the line?, and under cover of [he 
wood. It is obvious, that in miming his eye over these objects, the reader 
mnst assist bis sight by the aid of imagination, as the woods before him covered 
those in advance from his point of view. Conformably to military language, 
vvc must deuom'mr.f.e the hue most, in advance 6&fi hYst line, Enid tiny others 
numerically in success iun + [f t lie reader will then recur to (he second line, 
he will observe in the rear of Steven^ brigade, a line of eentmeis extern ling 
from rid it to left, at about twenty yards distance from the tine. These ivere 
chosen confidential men, selected by General Steven? on pergonal knm*|. •t\%p i 
and posted there with orders to shoot down auv individual who broke from 
the ranks. This may appear to have been a ^niiig measure ; but ii is one 
which, H-ith irregular troops, or troops composed of divert tied mati-rials, ought 
never to be omitted, h is dne to t lie safety and worth of than- who, if not 
abandoned by the cowardly, will dtf their duty. The good effects of it will 
be presently seen, and whence this, as well as some other materia I parts of 
the order of the battle originated w ill be disco yered, when the reader is at 
leisure to p erase the subjoined notCnf 



M,eittrtu Minrjrm, March £0(li I 7St. 
t Central Morgan to General CrttMt f 2Qlk February 1"S1.— tC I !>aw been doctoring tiicsa 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

Tf the reader will now run his eye over the whole field of battle, he will be CEfcfc 
struck with observing, that the army is all in lines — that there is no corps set, 
apart iXH a reserve— and this will lead him to penetrate the views which di- 
rected the whole arrangement, and governed many of the events of the battle, 
The regular iroops are so stationed, as to serve as a reserve to the whole army* 
There were two avenues of retreat — the one leading to Boyd's Mill on the 
Reedy Fork—the other to an upper pass over the same stream to the Iron Works 
on Troublesome Creek, the north branch of the Reedy Fork* The continen- 
tal troops are drawn Lip with a view to secure the choice of these routes , 
according to the point to which the enemy should direct his attack, If pressed 
upon the right whig, the avenue hy the kit. could be resorted to ; If pressed 
on the left, that by the right would answer the object in view. The resolution 
cviiich I'ovemed every movement of the American general was, in no event, 
to hazard the destruction of the regular troops, To cripple the enemy by his 
militia and light troops, and insure their retreat under protection of his regu- 
lars, was his motive, If, in pursuit of these objects, fortune should prove 



several days, thinking to \f6 able io take the Jirkl, but I find I yet worsts Jtfy pains He §pfy *u> 
com] >&niHil with ei fever evt.:ry ihiy. I ex|><?cL Lw-d t^niivnllls will posh you ami] fC&1 uru Q$&*5 
10 fcUi him, on which much will dppmttl. Yotrli bvc, from what I mw, ;\ great number of militia. 
it" tliev lt«hl vuu'U bunt CuntwsLHis, if not. he *Sil : f#flV vow. *tid |3trEjn[js cut your trailers lo [jiec^i 
v?[iidi will bu losing Hi! your tinges, 1 am,; Iwfob'^.d^ariion? thr> milkia, will I is; 'a number i>i pig 
aohLkrs. 1 think It woul.S ln> ivJvisaiili' u> *;!;% iSi^t: : |frwm ttttfftift^j gftti put thimi iti the rank* 
widi tin 1 K*ttfcj*» Stw&l tfa t$fe&9& ttlwt'J^Jiifflf lh*ft O}} tlw flanks Hnrter ertt$rpri$inz officers 
Kitv tfri fitwr'tfttiflf! trit'h fJtttt kind of fighting; aarl pnT th? romaimk-r of the militia in the centie 
with -fun •; ptct&$tre&jtl& t'.'fii- t'Cffrj tctth urfii-f* to sitavt. thuni tfrp ji>-&.' /.•(((» (hut Nfl*& If nny 
tlihw will m('wii;I. a dLs[u>sitiun of this, kimi vfli& t Isop-? you will not !uok BfMtj iIjT* as [Jictafm?. 
but as my I'uiuiijy in a matl"r tfctt I VQ Ja;ich c^neeviU'n hi." 

This uitvicfS ww* fefbVfetfU- 1 liHItivwl. hotb in tlw ^institution ftf ilie nankin? mirtlcs ; mid in thr* 
(Jl^jOBition of ita toediui [hie. The ti$H%j$« ronh! not, m justice to Ste-vm* ami Lnwiwn fyp whh- 
thfiwii ir!>iii ikelr brisnrlps) nor did it compn]-; with Lit Lier lUMm^e jurists and vhmsj u» i>hw? tlitr 
mi El Li a in im: centre of jfc Effrtfc tf Morgan icK-ant the miadle Ni'.e. when speaking of the centre 
(ulikh iijU'^ar* 3'iiiilily U'liba'jh.'jtiien w«* his advice in ihU parti nil ar 1i(yru!ly prsdeii. We ar- 
r>ft n i h I*- urrn-^tc to rirn^rid ("i^x-nv; the oii-,fii!aiiiiS nt iinnasures conceived by otiienii Wt ihhik 
it mrnv- i-J"i'-.:l»iibje to ;t L"om:jiM:dcT ? to ri s e *ir t n'rinr [D the low j^;lni.isyj wliscli rejerts th^ stiK ifr of 
an luruj-JLi-L 1 . "T rernii'dsi ^jtJt envy thi" wdl romed lame, of B liivive coinji^titor- CJcrene reapecteJ 
Mor^in"^ Liiulei-^anrtinf iiiu! t^j"?rtaie.f: rlic ailvice was jood, tunl xv:i^ mhifiUiti. Il wus a» nim- 
iiGtiijLr i'i-olji di*' fttlfta l.iohl ami ■.n'^inal sreniiLiij which Hfmmi SO Ifa 1 nhsive urrtlnury viuws and meo- 
S»n-j:^ T on tlic diiy ct" ilie &ft¥|K!KSi 

Thi-i hmvcj msiu lind Jiat cnj' y.-M chfl «dv!0U5i^ of ^Htc^uon, This kttet^ls in hk own haaij 
«TL".tiaz ; ii ad ^VtT.v word ol" I'r- J.. ; "::injL'r ori^inrd l I'm gj'iLinmai' unfl oiln^riinliy ftT.e ton'^ctcJ. 



MAJOR GENERAL GliEENE, 

chaf. propitious, there was nuiple preparation made for availing himself of the 
.event. The cavalry find rifle corps, besides covering the wings of his own 
lines would be at hand to strike at t lie exposed flanks of a retreating enemy* 

The dispositions of ihc enemy for the attack were, of Course, regulated by 
those previously made by his adversary, and not only in the commencement, 
but in every part of the action, were they distinguished by every thing that 
could be expected of valour, genious, experience or discipline. 

Tim five of Singleton was promptly answered by the British artillery from 
ii Utile sweH of the ground, which commanded the road over the heads of 
his own coin m n ♦ And, watching the intervals of the fire of his adversary r 3 
pieces. Lord Corn wall is pushed - his sections across the defile, under the smoke 
of his own, }V$tfe very little loss* To the right and left as they passed the 
defiles they displayed under cover of the weed, according to the order of battle 
prescribed to the reapec five corps, 

Their right wing was commanded by General Leslie?* the left by Colonel 
Webster* The corps forming the line ranged from right to left, io the follow- 
ing order : The regiment of Bozc, the 71st, the 23d. and the 33d regiments 
3 n succession. The 1st battalion of the brigade of guards, was drawn up in 
the rear of the rlghii to act as a support to that wing. The second battalion 
and the grenadiers of the same corps, acted as a support to the left, under the 
command of Brigadier General O'Hara. The yagers and light infantry of 
ihe guards, remained in the wood abreast of the artillery, until the line was 
ready to move on, when they attached themselves to the S3d regiment. The 
cavalry under Colonel Tavlcton, was held in reserve, with orders to move 
under cover of the woods on the road side, waiting on the artillery, which, from 
the nature of the country, could move only on the mad. 

About hail' past I o'clock, nil the enemy's preparations for battle bring 
completed; their line advanced into the open ground and proceeded steadily 
to the attack. But they found no enemy to receive them- Let us hasten 
over the conduct of the North Carolina militia. They were condemned to 
a punishment, or a repulsive duty, and they fled from it. There were no 
riflemen placed in tin ur reai\ u> confine them to their ranks. It is said, that 
some flicd once— that there were those who fired twice: but. of one fact, 
there can be no doubt, most of them threw away their aims loaded — k nap- 
sucks, and even canteens, followed. Vet, let no national imputation follow 
from this un happy incident. North Carolina contains as stout hearts and 
sinewy arms $3 any other state can boast of. Panics are among the unac- 
' countable incidents of battle. Like a flash of the Egis, they may come from 



MAJOK GENERAL GREENE. § 

no mortal hand. All agree, that the conduct of tlie officers was unexcep- char 
tionablc. 

It is amusing to read the parade of prowess with which the English writers 
paint this first advantage. A bin tst of shouts and huzzas spoke the exultation 
of their army as they pressed tbrward with the bayonet, to overtake their 
■winged adversaries. But, a flight of balls on Loth their flanks soon con^ 
Tinned them, that the flight of the line had not shaken the linnness of cither 
of the flanking parties, A huh was instantly ordered — the regiment of Boze 
half wheeled to the rights and the 53d regiment, with the light infantry and 
yangcrs, did the same to tin- left, so as to present fronts to an enemy thai 
would not be despised. This movement left a vacancy in each wing, which 
was immediately filled up by the advance of the two covering parties into line. 
In the mean time, Singleton retired with hid yrtillory, and conformably to 
orders, took post on the left of the Maryland ers, on an imminence that com- 
manded the road. Washington and Lee also gradually retired, the infantn 
keeping up a destructive fire, and only re irea ling before die bayonet, from tree 
to tree- This brought them soon into the same position with regard to the 
American second line, as they had occupied relatively lo the first, 

The llritish lost no time in advancing Upon the second hue, except what was 
necessarily consumed hi preserving order, whilst galled on the wings hv the 
fire of the light corps. The air of confidence which their march exhibited, 
expressed the anticipation of another bloodless triumph. But, the delusion 
soon vanished. The Virginians stood firm, notwithstanding the abject ex- 
ample ser them ; gynd, opening then files, passed the retreating troops into tne 
rear, with taimts and ridicule. 

The opposition win eh the liritith army now experienced, soon produced fe 
considerable derangement in their line, The fire of [ho Americans was very 
destine dec, as this line was well armed with about equal proportions of mus- 
kets and rifles. Yet, these fuie troops, worthy of a better cause, never fhhered 
ill their progress, but sustained die courtier with ihe cooler valour. But, the 
opposition on their right, y^s obviously much stronger than that on iheir 
fell ; and the latter, pressing wilh greul an tour on tlie American right, Lawsoifs 
brigade, began to yidd ; yet, still sueh was tlieir adherence to order, that the 
American left and the British right became. respecJivdy, the pivots on which 
the two lines appeared to vyiicel. Wislfetati, laidiliil to the charge of co- 
ven ng his whig, necessarily full owed the eirde made by the right of the 
American line ; and this, at length, bron-ht both his command, and that of 
Ookiuel Webster upon the high road ; and when the retreat of Lawsoifs wing 
became general and determinate, Colonel Webster with the 33d, theyaugers 



vol. ii. 2 



10 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

chap, and infantry of the guards, found themselves on the road, and far advanced 

,^^, towards the open ground in front of the position of the continentals. The 

inftintiy of Washington*;* covering party, now finding that the retreat of the 

line was irretrievable, separated from it, and made the best of their ivav to 

i he line of continentals, taking post on the right of the Mary landers. This 

left Webster at liberty to nun his attention that way ; and hi evil hour he 

advanced upon that point of the third line which could be first reached. It 

proved to he the J 0th legion of the American army, the 1st regiment of 

;Uary landers, the same who, nndcr Howard, had already so pre-cmincntlv 

distinguished themselves at the Cowpens. Colonel Gunby, who had hitherto 

been employed as deputy quarter master at Hillsborough, now commanded 

them. With the most perfect composure they awaited the conflict ; and when 

the enemy haul approached within close shot, poured in such a lire upon them, 

as produced a general recoil \ then, fearlessly defending hito the plain, thev 

followed up the blow with such effect, as to produce a complete roue, I J ad 

cither corps of cavalry been present at tins time, the battle would probably 

havc terminated here, for the 33d regiment, and the two light companies attend* 

inji it, could not have numbered le?s than 4H0 men, considerably above the 

sireugtlujf the Maryland regiment ; and the Joss of so large a portion of his 

army j at this period] must have compelled the British commander to sound a 

retreat. There was still another method left of improving this advantage, 

and this was, by pressing forward another regiment to its aid, and pushing 

AYebstnr irmu the field { and this was> perhaps* the most trying moment of 

General G reruns military life. Such a measure might end in the defeat of 

his adversary j but it might nlso expose him to a close action widi the whole 

British army on the plain, stripped of all the advantages of his present 

position. Could he have reposed the same confidence in all the other corps, 

us he did in this Maryhnd regiment, he would not have hesitated long : but, 

no other of his regiments had ever been in action, and subsequent cv nits prove 

how judicious the decision was, to adhere to hi* original design, and recall 

the regiment before \t ad v a need beyond support, 

Although diseomlited, Webster did not lose his recollection ; and, although 
arierouslv wounded, with great ability he drew off his men beyond a ravine, 
in die edge of the wood, and waited the support of the other British regiments 
During the contest between these two parties, the artillery under Lieutenant 
jM-Lcotl, had reached the cleared fields* and taken an excellent posn inn on the 
rising ground at the edge of the wood- This was an event which ultimately 
proved of infinite importance, and to it, in a great measure, was attributable 
die final issue of the batita 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 1 

The bat tic si ill raged between the Virginians and the remaining force of cu.\i j . 
the enemy : fearful of the sabres of the cavalry, the fornix clung; to the woods, 
and were winding their Way round tlin cleared ground, to pass over beyond 
the upper fences, in order to get under protection of the line of continentals. 
When the fire been me animated between tiuuby and Webster, and evidently 
approached the left of tlic British army, General 04-lara, who, it will be re- 
collected* had brought the 2d battalion and gpCH&cftftifl of the guard i into 
line, next 10 the right of the 33d. now hastened to its assistance, and crossing 
the field in a direction between the combatants and the court- house, ad- 
vanced upon the c id regiment of Marylaiiders under Colonel Ford, Tim 
direction of his match, threw the thicket of saplings on the road side, between 
him and the 1st Maryland regiment, (now under command of Howard, 
Guuby being unhorsed) so as to conceal from Howard it* near approach to 
his flank, as he was retaining to resume his position in the line. It happened 
also, that the ranks of the Virginia militia were now so murdi reduced bv the 

— V 

parties that hat 3 moved olf through the wood, that Gent] ml Leslie concluded 
to draw off" ihe 23d and 71st regiments, and leave the contest on the right 'in 
the hands of the 1st battalion of the guards, and the regime lit of Eoze. 
The.^e two regiments, therefore, the 5,3d and 71 «r, were in the rear of Gen- 
eral OMara, and advancing, at the same time, upon the Maryland brigade. 
As soon as Colonel Washington perceived that the Virginians of the second 
Hue were now out of danger, and that the three British parties were marching 
upon the left of die ihii-d Hue. he, with most consummate judgment moved 
ofi'aiso in a gallop to the same point. In doing this, he passed ahead of the 
7 1st and 23t.\ } and approached in the rear oi' the 1st batudion of guards, just 
at i he crisis when the '2d Maryland regiment began to give way. That 
regiment behaved very badly, uoL^uhstandms; the. brilliant example so re- 
cently set them by ihe 1st, Th> Urnl port and !n-ill3uiu appearance of the 
guards, struck them with such termr, tbu they per formed linthinji worthy of 
die high character of their line. Their oiling did every fftlwg that men 
com Id do to keep diem steady, but they so;m broke entirely. This, of course, 
put Singleton's two ph; res oi' arritlcry iinu the enemy"?? possession; and ihev. 
too much occupied with the viri, r. [wftofja them, to notice the danger ap- 
proaching their Jlank, rushed on as the ALuyhnid regiment: gave nay, ivith 
loud shouts of victory. In live minutes, those shout* were swallowed up in 
the groans of death. Their rar;ks soon bcramc very much disordered, and 
Washington's cavalry hurst through them from the rear, with a forte that bore 
down all resistance. At the same infant, Howard, hhherto equally unseeing 
and unseen, rushed ttpon them from the left, and the battle was Itterallv 



1? MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cihp, fought Land to hand, Ic was a contest not only for victory > but reputation ; 
both these corps were elated with the pride of character acquired in many a 
bloody field, and were, in fact, each a national boast — officers and soldiers 
equally valued themselves as the Jovians and Horculians of the two armies ; 
nor, were the incidents of it destitute of the features of chivalrv and romance. 
Two combatants particular attracted the attention of those d round them* 
These were Colonel Stuart of the guards; and Captain John Smith of the 
Mary landers — both men conspicuous for nerve and sinew. They had also met 
before on some occasion, and had vowed that their next meeting should cud 
in blood. Regard I l ** of the bayonets that were clashing around them, thev 
rut bed at each other with a fury that admitted but of one result. The quick 
pass of Stuart's small sword was .skilfully put by with the left hand, whilst 
the hr,uy sabre of his antagonist cleft the Britain to the spine* In one mo- 
ment; the American was prostrate on the lifeless body of his enemy : and in 
the ncxt T was pressed beneath the weight of the soldier who had brought him 
(o the ground. These arc not imaginary incidents — they are related on die 
best authority, A ball, discharged at Smith's head as his sword descended 
on that of Stuart, had grazed it and brought him to the ground, at the in slam 
rhai dm bayonet of a favorite soldier, who always sought the side nf his cap- 
tain in the hour of danger, pierced the head of one who appears u> have been 
equally watchful over the safety of die British colonel. This incident, it will 
be found in the sequel of these sketches, was productive ol 1 some inter est in£ 
consequences. 

Bui \ much greater con sequences were now rm the eve of result ins from the 
present conflict, it attracted the solicitous attention of both the commanders. 
It was obvious, that the victory now hung on a thread. Could this body- 
which, with the grenadiers, was 350 strong, and the ilower of the British 
army, be annihilated, the victory was decided. Both tile commanders, 
anxious to provide for the event, ami regardless of personal safely, hastened 
up to the scene of action, Washington perceived Lord Cornwall!? near him, 
and completely within his reach, and whilst he waved his sword for some of 
his officers to follow him, the string that bound- nn Ins cap. by pacing beneath 
his chin, broke, and the cap fell from his head. It was like the blow of Apollo 
on the shoulder o( Pmroclux The fall of his cap obliging him to dismount, 
save lime to the British general to provide for his safety, without perhaps 
having noticed his danger. For it was not with a view to his own safety 
that he hod, at that instant, hurried away; it was to put in elocution one of 
those dread fnl expedients to which the exigences of war sometimes impel a 
commander. Tie had ascertained, that the rout of the guards was irre- 



MAJOK GENERAL GREENE, W. 

IrievabJc, and hurried to (he post occupied by the artillery, to require M'Leod C} ^- 
to repel tfee pr ogress of the cavalry by volleys of grape poured tli rough the 
rank? Of i Li- retreating guards, O'llara, then bleeding fast from a grievous 
wound ? was compel ied io turn Ills back upon the afflicting spectacle, and sub- 
mit to trie: pahifui sacrifice, after remonstrating in vain, against it. The 
expedient succeeded, but this battalion was? half destroyed. 

In the i meantime General Greene, whose anxiety for the fate of the troop* 
en^a^cd in the woods, hat! drawn his attention thai way, was attracted also to 
the place of these interesting occurrences. The 71st and 23d regiment, had 
now reached Lbs? open ground, acid tha British command cr w as again forming 
bis Jimr, wlmst ttic S3i\ was advancing from its covert, to resume hs place on 
the left, uJid flu.' remnins of the rallied guards were already up* fruch also 
had been the apprehensions entertained for the consequences of the defeat 
of the 2d battalion of the guards, that the 1st battalion had been ordered up 
from the 3 eft, and had reached the road on which Greene was anxiously ob- 
serving the progress of events. The brush on the road side, had so effectually 
concealed the advance of this corps from view, that General Greene had 
approached within a few paces of them, whim they were discovered by one 
o( his aids* and pointed out to him. He had the presence of mind, to retire 
in a walk; a precipitate movement would probably have drawn upon him 

a volley of musketry. 

An awfuf pause nnw ensued, interrupted only by the mutual cannonade, 
and occasional vol lies of uiuskuiry. The British army ivas once move in 
line, with the exception of the regiment of Bo s,r, whi eh was sijIl warmly en- 
gaged in the skins of the woods on the American left. On the other hand 
the 2d Mar viand regiment, wan irretrievably broken, notwil Islanding the 
desj jcrate efforts of every officer to rally it, lis de feet ion was in some mea- 
sure com pen sated for, by die presence of Kirk wood and Lynch with ihe 
iufautrv of Washing qii ; s covering party. But stllL notwithstanding the firing 
was kept up, neither advaciced, but bruli panics appeared to be waiting (In; 
Issue of the content on the left. L 1 tifoi hmatcly that was too soon decided for 
the American cause. 

Soon after the left of the Virginia militia b^an to ^ive ground, General 
Stevens unlortuiiatHv received a ball through the thigh, nhich caused hi in 
to be borne from the field. This greatly discoursed the volunteers who 



*■ GvntTiil Lv:e^ In* li - - = -■■■!. i.-- 1 . r c i i -■ w:is Cat.il-Uft f >n<-LL^ 1 1 z . Wv tyft tJL |>os;^^rhi **f hn oriEjirod 
|tf|te*j ivrkU:3L l» Mrs. tjjv<T>-- lilt* d:iy ^J"t' h r thf* bn»:l"- in which tliyG'TKTuI birv^ i[ v-',a M;rjfir }Irjrrk. 



11 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

c.H.kv fanshi unto him, and had much effect in hastening the retirement of the whole 
.^v^Iine. Still, however, the reputation of Cam jibe 1 1, the discipline of* the legion- 
ary-! nfaiurv, and the protection of Lee ? s broadswords, induced a number of 
Stevcnr brigade, to unite themselves to Lee's covering party, mjder Campbell, 
and eonduuc ibe conflict: living and retiring when approached by the British 
bayonet. So &$# ft&s the progress of the British regimen is, and such the 
superiority gS the American fire, that the light troops had greatly the advan- 
tage in this kind of warfare. Still, however^ the men were dropping off, 
leaving tbo ground in small parties, after discharging their pieces-* Yet even 
at the time, when the guards were recalled from the right, there were enough 
of them present to follow the enemv hi their march ; and a number of their 
wounded, holh officers and privates were picked up and made primmer*, Un- 
fortunately, upon the departure of the guards. Colonel Lee gave orders first 
10 iits cavalry, and afterwards to the infantry of n& Irsion to re tired and as 
he says, -take pp$t on the left of the continentals, and there to act until they re- 
ceived iWlhcr orders." 'Whatever may have been die intent of this order, if 
was so execmed, that though they did take past on the AEncrican left, it was 
so remote from it } that their presence was neither known or felt. And that 
it was iiot intended to connect this movement with that of the main army, 
is proved by its having been preparatory to a retreat hy a different route, from 
that by which the army moved off; J to wit, first up the road to Utiyd r s Mill, 
and I hen across the country to that on which the main army retreated. The 
fate of his coi-ps was not known nntH its arrival at die rendezvous the next 
morning, 

In the meantime, the regiment of Bo/.e was still completely occupied by 
the marksmen, who remained under Campbell; |j so much so as to induce 
Lord CornwalUs to order up Colonel Tarletuu, to extricate it and bring it off. 
Whether at that time the British commander knew of the departure of Lee's 
cavalry or not> we are not i n formed : hut, had it been present at the time of 
Tatletou's arrival.^ it oujrht nor to have been a work oJ" perfect security for 
Tarletou to make the charge upon the militia, vihkh recovered the prisoners 
they had made } and brought oft' the regiment of TSoze. 

When the firing ceased on the left, and the regiment of Boze accompanied 
hy Tarletou : s dragoons, appeared advancing on his exposed whig, General 
Greene, having heard nothing of the fate of the party, that had been engaged 
with it, and apprehending the worst ;*"* knowing also that the North Carolina 



* Thrlcinn. f Lee** Mflmciii'fi vol. l f p. S40. J Ibid, p. 332. || tj$l 
£ Tii rto ty OTs Trf. * » i io& Mew bJcjj Oil. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 13 

and Virginia militia, tod generally gained his rear, and were proceeding to chap. 
the rend r^ous, ordered Col nueJ Gaelic to advance with his regiment, and^ 
cover dm retreat. The di root Ion that the fefttUfi had taken , having led die 
enemy to die American loft, tins regiment hud never been j&^Sg$li ^ai<l re- 
mained fresh Etftfl entire. When die preparations for retreat were discovered, 
the enemy's line advanced; and the lifing was for some thin ; kept up willi 
t&jfc t n S3 ih and so 1 1 1 e e \c e i u ion t YKfi f i rm eo a n t ei 1 anr e of G reei it's vvs} m ent , 
ami the crippled state of the enemy, pi evented hi in from pursuing for ; ami die 
American army, after halting some hours at ihe. distance of three miles, to 
collect st rubers at id make urran^enicnTs for the care of the wounded, pro- 
ceeded im molested beyond the Reedj- Fork, and look post at the Iron Works 
on Troublesome CrcHk. 

Tims terminated tlii-^ bug and obstinate contest. l\\ it were exhibited, the 
opposite ex f re i nra of human bravery and human cowardice; of wild irregu- 
larity an d i n d i s noli i hi e or s 1 1 ! r . T 1 1 e sea I e& of v re to jy h 1 1 n g 1 o pg i n cqi li ] poise — 
diseipl'nie alone gsrtffi preponderance to that of the eoemy\ General (heene 
liad not in his army above live hundred men, who had ever mm ^rvke. 
The British commander asis Lit the head of two thousand of die finest troops 
in the wovhl Tb-M fleet oft hi* advance docs not depend upon theory — it W&9 
exhibited In several eons | fie no lis occurrences (luring the battle. \\ Jien ihs 'Wd 
rCiiimfiKh with its attendant eonipanies, was chased from the field, it did not 
disperse, but rallied under cover of the wood, and returned with confidence 
into action. Wben the 1st batni'ioii and grenadiers of the guards were 
routed, I heir- officers ull killed or wounded, and I ail f their number [jro^raterk 
the scan i ■■red remains soon enw^fiicd under the mllni'nee of discipline, and 
were led to resume their pluce in the line, But t when the Maryland regi- 
ment oh i lie left whs only forced from Us ground for a few minutes, the dis- 
order became irreirli-vuhlt'i The sadden prosi radon of die enemy fhey fled 
froiii, eoidd ml banish their ahtnn. K.veeptiug die inlaiUry of ihe. legion, and 
KirkwoodV Jittlc corps of Delaware*, die bst iv^inif i of Mary lander* ivus 
the onlv foody of men in I he American amn\ who eonhl he compared to the 
memy it" diseinline.and experience ; ami it is with confidence, thai we chal- 
lenge the modem world to pr-odnee elii instance of better service performed 
bv die same number of men in The. Same time. They did not cveccd |$5 
"in number. Vet, unacted, they drove from die field, In I he llrst mstaiiee. 
die 33d regiment, 3'2'Z sirnn^,.suppor ted by the yaiii*eis mid li^ht infantry of 
die i^iumls. Llefbre uVv had ver hreatEied from tlic performance of this .ser- 
viee. diev pureed the t-ank of the 1*1 batahou uf the guardx, and aided by 
the cavalry of Washing niu dissipated a corps, far exceeding their own ill nam- 



lo MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

caim*. ber, and the very bost of the British nation. Vollies of grape shot poured 
,^^1^, through their own ranks by the enemy i and the ne*ir approach of two British 
regiments on tbeit Id! dank, arrested them in the pursuit- bui they calmly, and 
in perfect order, returned to their possission and e\hibitcd a spirit that seemed 
ouiy to covet more arduous service* The pertinaeity with which the Virginia, 
in ili litt mail indued a Jong and arduous romest against the whole British line, 
ev In hits a brilliant instance of undisciplined valour; but die push of die 
bayonet, uns not Hie service for which such Troops were calculated. fVothiog 
but the absolute subjection of every liinnan feeling to die restraints of disci- 
pline, can dissipate die real or Imagined terrors of such a conflict* The good 
conduct of the covering partis was highly conspicuous- The perfect recol- 
lection whh which they maintained the desultory warfare assigned them, die 
coolness with which that on the right retired from line to line, and the perse - 
\(tuiicc whh which the contest was kept up by that on die left* merit rhe 
higher comuietuUuions. Why* when the latter was extricated from ihe guards 
and the regiment of Ro/e. and found leisure to red re imniole-rcd io the 
rear of the A me vi ran left, it was not brought up to the ground, then vaeani 
by the (light of die 2d Maryland regiment, must ever re main a subject of specula- 
Eion. C olon el Lee , who a Ion e con I d h a v e answ lt ed the i nq n i ry , is n o w j 10 m o re, 
JSy this movement, it would again have faeed the corps which it had so Jong 
held at hay, am] by covering the American flank hi its most vulnerable point* 
it might have done much towards producing a drawn battle* Or even had 
it fallen into the line of retreat of thcmaiiinrmv.it might have obviated many 
ol the inconveniences necessarily resnhJi:^, frnm ihe absence *jf light troops 
on snd 1 an occasion* Perhaps the ariillen might have, he en suied. The 
fcc rv i ccs rend ere d by the two corps of cavalry on die day of the halde of (.i mi- 
lord, were of very different natures No language can ilu justice to the 
gallantry, with which Washington conducted himself: he was even where t 
where duty called* and indefatigable in searching for opportunities of service. 
There cannot be a doubt, that the cavalry of die legion, 'would bsve di^plavcd 
equal inti-e jjlrllt-^'j had they been called upon 31 any period to en^a^e hi the 
pending conflict. But, the only oppommuy diat the events of tlie djry pre- 
sented on die part of the field where they acted, was suniehed from them by 
their removal* before the inlansrv retired. Had they remained, they must 
have m ea^ arc? d swords witlt the dragoons of Tarleton. As it was, they jjad no 
opportunity of distinguishing themselves* 



*0]ii- o[j[i Art limit ori-iii mL ^"lifeEi i> rliu-i svLili'cl bylliutale vent-mllf p'tttl i'i. f"<?iurnl r?;n]<\ 
^\ iitr Imri'iffi (\>\-}-\ ol>7crvcd, tluu L'Lijnfil-i 1 !!'^ trprnvul v\~ rilltjjntMi :\w*.[ ^^ jlIl Let:* i>u jfoijj left 



MAJOR CENEKAL GREENE. 1 

Although General Greene was compelled to relinquish the field to his ad- CI ^ P 
versa ry, eould lie |jftH$ retired widiont the loss of bLs artillery, be would have 
gairtfid all he had promised himself, though not all he had hoped for. Admitting 
his object to have been, as expressed to Mr. Jefferson, to incumber bis enemy 
with a mimlin- of wounded men — he had succeeded beyond bis expectation. 
Out? fin nth oft be 13 ri fish army was put hors fit: row.kf.t ; and among them, all 
their distinguished officers exrept Cornwall is and Leslie : the former, we have 
seen, escaped unhurt almost miraculously, when the sabre was brandished 
over him; he had two horses sliot under bim. lie was present every where, 
where die action grew nor, and exhibited through the whole afiair, a perfect 
conviction, that lie must conquer or surrender. Greater bravery or talents 
have seldom been inhibited by a military commander. 

The enemy acknowledge lows In killed, wounded and missing, amounting 
to S3 1. General Greene, however, asserts, thai from undoubted authority it 
amounted to 63ti> Of these, one colonel and four commissioned officers werf 1 
killed on the field ; and Colonel Webster, Captains Schultz, jMayuard, Good- 
rich, and several others died of their wounds General Q'llara was so se- 
verely wounded, that bis recovery was king hi doubt ; and the service not 
long after, lost General Leslie, whose health sunk under exposmc and fatigue, 
and obliged bim to retire, for some time, from his diiiy. Colonel Tarleton 
was sltghdy wounded, as alio i\ General Howard, who volunteered on thin 
da v. Twentv otlur commissioned olneers were anion & die wounded. 

The American killed find wounded could never be ascertained with any 
preeisiun. The return* of ihe day could furnish no correct ideas on the 
subject: fur tun: half of tile Xoi'ib Carolina militia, and a lai-jre number of tin* 
Virgin iaiw, never ludwd ufter He pa rating from their o dicers, but pushed on to 
th eir o w u ! i u 1 1 1 e s . N ei the r d o those ret u rns c K h i b i % a c orr ec t vi e w of t he kiss sus- 
taiited in the regular troops, for they are dated on the 1 7d] ; and a number 



Llauk fiT t!i" :r.isiy. frfbit ll"' - uinin Em fly of (he Hffflrt IwA b*vn fttrflftil n ^" &£ fivbh idfsf iroujiK 
r^iuniivi-.l i-ik. 1 : i-.^-l ivitli Tii-r v-im^i'is $ iiiovL'hui'in $f- \nw\ )tfm l%* court-tnm*.-. ttini* of riieiu 
toVi'n'J Sy tUp (nv.iscs b i^rif^'i ]\y A nkiil n|" itarV. w\»-»). hi llih MUlialoLl dry wcvf ^[uu'jfit by l][\- 
FniLlsli rr'tv::b-v h ^sin.1 strati 1 wr" (fn."ji Vt^fe ■c;! tl-n^vrj. Lt'e^ tvit ™!ry WW il^twrt iiji <m r ici- ■«.■< Il^l- oi 
tlif 1 u;ij]i cri'i : in-] ii?u*vf tkf' iT.iiiri'huii^'. n!nni* Lvn> Inirtilrttl y n nls ff( t v,\-.i) in ("o}infcf CttinjdjcU ty- 
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■ ■x(n'j]ivK- iiuli^ it M rls^ imnvun-^r. iikiii >j:nkr I'rvily nf f .ff'i l' i ■ Midi H. 1 1 , I.i.t ^"ns, 'lyXvi'^ i'J. i-L!ii( 

Eti :■ siL]]ii' tiny, tm wiitcli Uu' I'jU'fity's ii[OV<?jiU'iii-, :inL C.';=:!i-[i1i!-ll'^ rrjMiH'jir w^Er^Dqii Jrrij-r fiiwhill^jefdj 
tu-i wr. th^Jnl E]iMii(jn(-(.ir it.* — V Letfrrii) thtt :&ui/iwr.} ^: , Iu:j;l; Dju'Ji: S'.vjlli only t,-> \i K '.\C- niisf^kfH^ 

Vi)T, f 11, ?* 



IS MAJOR GENERAL 68UBSSS. 

C xf Fj °^ ^ l0se sv ^° flrc marked missing, afterwards rejoined ihcir corps* This 
inference ji drawn from a return now before Hi, made two days after, in 
which the Virginia brigade is .set down at 752. and tfce Maryland brigade at 
350. Admitting their those tw corps went into battle with 1490 men, this 
uiEI reduce their loss to 138. instead of 261, as represented in the returns of 
(he 17lh* Thi^ error was lobe expected from the confusion m which the 
2d Maryland moment abandoned die field. H educing the whole loss 
in the same proper tio», it will barely exceed 200- The difference in the loss 
ah $ a sued by tile two armies is easily accounted for* by considering the ad- 
vantages of the rifle over the musket, in the contest so long kept up in the 
wood ; and the free use of the bayonet against the 1st battalion of guards 
Nor must we ftfrgjE t the saerifice of so many of this ill -fated corps, made by 
the lire of the British artillery to the safety of the whole arm v. To the 
British artillery Is to bo ascribed , a great part of the loss sustained by the 
American regulars* The fire from the hill occupied by M'Lcod, was galling 
and destructive, and painfully tested the passive valour of the Ameriean army, 
There were but two officers of die American regulars who fell this dav : bin 
one of them was Major Anderson of the 1st Maryland regiment, the same 
who so eminently distinguished himself at Gates' defeat. In him, the service 
truly sustained a loss. General linger sustained a slight wound in the hand, 
and about a dozen other officers were wounded. 

The loss o( the militia brigades and rifle corps, were surprisingly small, 
not exceeding in the whole righty men, killed and wounded. Among the 
former were several excellent officers, but no one above the rank of captain. 
Among the wounded, the whole army regretted, that General Stevens 7 scf- 
vices must necessarily he withdrawn from its support. 

But, these corps were reduced by desertion to one half the numbers they 
reckoned before the battle. The Virginians now amounted to only 1021, in- 
cluding Lynch ? s riflemen — and the North Carolinians to 556. The whole 
army, including men of all arms, amounted on the 19th, to 31 15. 

With regard to the merits of the American commander, on the day of Guil- 
ford, there never has been entertained hut one opinion. Both friends and 
foes agreed in acknowledging, that the ground was chosen with judgment : 
the troops disposed so as to hn prove its advantages to the utmost ; and evzry 
thing conducted with coolness, precision and effect. The eye of the Ame- 
rican commander was, Indeed, every where ; and throughout the action, the 
■#&ffijf8kl wilh which he often exposed himself to the hottest fire, when 
observing passing events, and issuing orders, or making dispositions to coun- 
teract those of the enemy ? is spoken of by bis aids with aw T C. 



MAJOR GENERAL (IftBfiSfe tf) 

"With regard to the nattd of the battle, it is untjue^tioiiubh imribumble vo emu 
the numi'itarv conduct of the North Carolina nuiiua. mid of the 2d re- 
giment of .Alary landers, liut for the last, the American general need not 
liave feared the return bl the regimem of liozc into action ; and but ibr the 
first, the fall of officers that must have ensued from a few deliberate dis- 
charges of marksmen so very advantageously posted, would have introduced 
the most fatal confusion into the Uriiifili ranks, in the multiform consents. 1st 
which ihey \TOfc afterwards engage!. [Jew fur the conduct of Colonel Lee, 
in withdrawing; from [he contest with the regiment of Do?C, contributed to the 
issue of the battle, must ever rest in conjecture, it is certain^ that the fire of 
that rcghneut on the rear of the Virginia. line, through the opening made by 
the ils^Lit of the 2d .Maty J Anders, gave the coup de %&#£$ to the hopes of the 
AuiL-rican commander, His letter of the 16th declares it. and a El historian* 
concur in n. But for this that day mi n hi have terminal ed in a repulse : The 
next, might have eventuated in a surrender of his adversary. 

Colonel Tarlccon has made one critique upon the conduct of the American 
general, that bear* strong marks of sagacity and sound judgment. It is this : 
t; One opuortunii v beinsi overlooked by funeral Greene, towards the dose of 
the action* gave that advantage which uaa long doubtful to the disciplined 
perseverance of the king's troops, IT one brigade of continentals, after the 
repute of the 2d battalion and grenadier company of the guards, had taken 
possesion o\\ and remained at the eminence on the edge of the wood, from 
whence (he three-pounders afterward* fired upon them, they would effectually 
have broken, &c. ;? 

There can he little doubt, that, the measure here suggested may have been 
productive of the most important consequences. J3m> how could the Ame- 
rican commander vents uv with untried troops, upon so hazardous an enter- 
prise t If it succeeded, vlctury would ccrtainlv follow ; but, if it failed, his 
own destruction was cerium* This was a imVoriLmc. he was resolved no 
prospect of advantage should induce him to expose himself Ku H$H linn ad- 
he run it tf> this resolution, as well at this point of time as on the repulse of 
Webster, is not the least honorable trail of character exhibited on this memo- 
rable day. :i He rliwt gnvernclh his own spirit. Is more hoimorautc .than he 
that takulh a city." Had the American force consisted of such material 
as constituted the Maryland 1st regiment, or of sueb as composed the Hrirish 
nrmy, it is uot to be doubted, that the repulse of Webster would have been 
improved to the vary purpose suggested by Colonel Tar Jc ton : and, at that 
time, the British artillery beimr unsupported, must have falicu into the Ame- 
rican hands lint, a blood v conies. um«t have followed, in which, if Greened 



xt 



20 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

ciiap. raw regiments had shrunk from tltc test of the ha\ "onct, (as the 2d Maryland 
actually did mirier more favourable circumstances) all would I Live been irre- 
trk vablv lost, and the enemv would have iu arched over their neck 9 in safclv 
10 die Che? n p (rake. 

ColcmH Lg&te observed, that — "Had General Greene known how se- 
verely bis enemy ^ a$ crippled, and that the corps under Lee bad fought their 
way to hie comhiental line, he would certainly have continued the counict; 
nnd. in all probnbility, would have made it a drawn day, if not have secured 
to himself I he victory."* 

Why was General Greene not informed on those two points r Colon el l^re 
eon Id not have forscen the wei^J of responsibility wliich ibis observation 
rust* on himself. The first would soon have been discovered hy the general, 
had time been allowed to make the necessary observations; nnd this time wa* 
denial by the rapid approach of the regiment of Boze on hi* exposed wins:, 
Ijnd Colonel Lee, there fore, continued to occupy the regiment of liozc, h\ 
means nf the light corps, it uould have allowed the American commander 
7 he time and leisure necessary to reconnoitre the remaining strength of the 
Lincmy. And us to the second point, from whom ought the information to 
have come, but Colonel Lee himself; There was no want of time on his 
part, for he informs us t that his cavalry and infantry had both been tejft off 
before the movement of Colonel Tarlcton to thai una iter; and even the 
riflemen of Campbell, who seem to have been left to shift for themselves, 
would most probably have reached the vicinity o( the American left sooner 
than die extricated red mem of I lesinuus.f The cavalry and Colonel Lee 
himself, ccnainly did reach the rear of the American lcft T before the regiment 
o( Boze J and this important piece of information could have been eommu- 
nieatcd, either by a message, or more properly, by a junction with ilic left 
of the American or my. That this was not done, is acknowledged by Co- 
lonel Lee, and could be proved, If necessary, by other evidence : and its not 
being done, certainly leaves Colonel Lee exposed to the charge, which he 
attributes to the want of intelligence in the American commander, Nay, the 
acknowledged, and otherwise web known fact, of hist having retreated by 
nnother.ro nte, leaves In m also exposed to the charge of scparaihur himself from 
the nossfblf fate of the arm v. and therebv adding to its dim" cubic s and ex- 
po&urc. 



Ucc's Mpiuprri, vol. I , j>. StfJ ■ * tl>d,k a, ftjft i %$& pi 3&& 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 21 

The only trophies which the American general left in the hnnds of the tiui*. 
enemy* were Ids artillery, two Bitimujiiijoji waggons, and some of Ins 
wounded. As to prisoner^ those nmde by the Americans exceeded tho.se who 
fell into the hands of the enemy. " Flic re was no point of time in whit -It the 
enemy had leisure or opportunity to make prisoners; and only h few furtive 
stragglers, nearly aJ] ununded, fell into (heir hand?. At the tinie of the mul 
of the in it ids, a mnuher of prisoners were made iim 1 secured by die Ame- 
ricans: and the muse of Mr. Si. George Tucker* who shaped in the 
honours of this field, has recorded a fnct T which proves that more might have 
been made, had the American army had time to distinguish the real dead 
from those, \vho t tike Shakespeare 1 * fai knight, thought discretion <he better 
part of valour** The rjefun nosh men) of the artillery was a sacrifice to the 
sparing of human life. When the retreat vw ordered, lite horses were re- 
ported to be a early all killed* The remaining Ldternativc was T to move them 
olfby ihc dra^rope* At that time, the commander thought himself stripped 
of hia light troop?. Tin' movement of Tarlcttti to die lit had not es- 
caped him— die firing in that quarter, snon after Ceased — the regiment of 
B«zc emerged from the wood, and the horse of Tarlcion folio wet I. The 
inference naturally w f as, that i\w party engaged with them had been cut up nr 
dissipated- To have moved oil 1 the artillery, under any circumstances by the 
drag-rope, must have been ft t tended whh delay and exposure of the covering 
party. To have done it with an army deprived of half its light troops, could 
not fail in add mtirli to it* embarrassment. The general* therefore, determined 
to render them mult for service, and abandon them. 

It was al>nut half past 3 o'clock in the afternoon, when the retreat was or- 
dered. The army hud been under arms from an early hour* and loiring 
through JivAny a stene of death and danger, calculated to fatigue hmh hotly 
and spirit, lim, still a place of safety most be reached, before it couhi haie 
a respite from itii to i k At first the enemy exhibited- a disposition to pursue, 
but it was not persisted in. a ad ai three miles distance* the army halted, ua- 
mokstrd, whilst it collected its stragglers, and soughE rest and refreshment pre- 
paratory to a fitrilier movement* A day of pern, was soon succeeded hy a mght 



1 This was itr tli* etfc of" i\ C&rJlftfH JLcunllof Uir eu;uds, from whose G>Ep a .Man'Etind suhJECJr 
found leisure oil the fitrM of twill*, [a ttt&B n v«y twrf4sicime iwikh. U^Uiigutti pijhterrl Utf 
ttaicli of tin: mUjeT, unci L&vril Ih-Idij ni'iJhcr reiuji]i j J n* killed m HTriciicfr'cJ, ||it h coqcIusjojj w& 
otjviyLjft. It jifTtirduiJ mini! iu ibi> Ani]rri*vni upon 1 , Ij'nr i* t.jfcl in Ijhw iumpelleci iiiin to rniije from 



32 .MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

anv. of suffering. Tlio weather had he en clear and cool, but as the gun declined, 
tlu; $ms& gathered oyer the horizon, and a cold driving rein endued. Many» 
us had been tk9 anxious and sleepless nights of the American commander, 
jfbvv had ever brought with them* a keener sensation of anguish lhan this, 
iYlnuy brave men sill] lay exposed on the field of bunk, sufleruigdic complicat- 
ed mi? cries of pain, cold, and hunger. To aftbrd them pres-t it< w h< ■[", was 
hiipo^ible, mid die usages of war as well as natural feeling, would postpone 
their claims on the humanity of the enemy, to those of his own wenrded- 
\ur was it (in their account nlouti, that cause was afforded for painful i"A\CQ- 
lioiin Hie lime has long since gone by, and it is not ea*v now to realize die 
feelings which such things are calculated to cjve present exercise to, but let 
die reader contemplate the naked, barefooted soldier — one too of the 1st 51a- 
t viand reghneut, toiling through the deep roods mid driving r id as of that 
night, and he will not envy the feelings of a commander* retiring through die 
m< leniencies of such weather, before a victorious enemy— h nib elf mid all Ms 
imh exhausted with fatigue, but sharing in the common exposure, and main- 
taining a position In the line of inarch, best calculated to provide for the se- 
nt rity of tile whole. The following extract of a letter addressed to his Iady s 
the dav aim - tins battle, will furnish some idea of the fatigues and feelings 
which crowded into those moments. " Our fatigue has been excessive. ] 
have not had my cloths off for upward* of six weeks. Poor >kjor Burnet 
is sick, and in a situation worse, than you would think tolerable for one of 
your negroes. Morris too is not w ell t indeed my whole family are almost 
worn our. The force coming to the southward, and the situation of General 
Arnold in Virginia, opens to ns more hVierhig prospects. Cut, how uncer- 
tain are hum fin a flairs, 1 should be extremely happy, if the war had an 
honourable close, and I were on a faun uiih my liule family about me. God 
grant the day may not be far distant, when peace with all her train of bless- 
ings, shah diffuse universal joy through America. 1 ' it is in this letter that 
lie mentions his narrow escape during the action, We cannot return it to our 
liles without giving the passage to the reader. "The action was long, bloody 
and severe, many full, but none of your particular I Wen da. Colonel Williams, 
who is adjutant general, was vtrv active and greatly exposed, 1 had not the 
honour of being wounded, but was very near being taken, having rode in the 
heat of the action full- tilt , direct iy into the midst of the enemy; but by Colonel 
Morris' calling to me ? and advertising me of my situation; i had just time to 
retire," 

The depth of the road, and the precautions indispensable on a retreat, pro- 
tracted the march until the approach of morning. The distance from the 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 2 

fii hi of battle to the iron works, on Troublesome Creek, is estimated at ten ctup, 
rnifr* T ycl the army did not reach dus place umil near daylight. Scarcely 1 1 a e I 
they halted, when every heart was relieved by flic arrival of dir-na|uk<tuz pariy ( 
commanded by Coloin^l Lrc. By pursuing the mute to the High Rock Fttftfj 
unlit hu fell into a road which struck across to the Iron Works, lit' had been 
ihc whole night bat a short distance i'rom the army, though no intelSJ^cnec 
had reached tliom of fm approach, And, us if fortune was not yet fatigued 
with persecuting the. American army, his arrival was attended with a ludicrous 
ev^nt, followed by a very serious misfortune. Thtf cavalry of the legion were 
famished with short red chubs. The rain had, of Course, brought these eoni- 
(hrTalile starments into remi'^iiion. It happened that a corps of u limit three 
hundred militia, who had arrived in advance of the army, had established 
their ramp, and kindled their fires in th^iftiarier by which die legion approach- 
ed* Seeing these red cJoftk* through the woods, the militiamen thinking the 
whole British army was upon i hem, broke away and returned no mare. 

It was an agreeable surprise to da: General in [in 1 morning, to find his loss so 
small comparatively, nud his men in the finest spirits. The Virginia militia, 
proud of tht: stand they had made, professed I heir wil fineness to march Im- 
mediately 10 battle* The remains of the North Carolinian*, crest fallen at 
their loss of reputation, declared they would not cjnii the field, without retriev- 
ing I heir character. The 2d Man land regime at eunld not look their 
comrades in the fact 1 , and the Virginia regulars expressed nothimi hut regret, 
at not helving had un Opportunity of rivull'mg Cintihy's regiment. In fact ilir 
whole army bad been witnesses to the Jhcf, that hi hoth attempts made on the 
third Jim*, the lirhadi bad been repulsed ami routed, and this tuo, by a regi- 
ment much their inferior in number*; and such was tin 1 happy di-|n^hinn 
manifested by the whole, that orders were directly given lo prepare for battle. 
They were obeyed with alacrity, and after a day*s rest, the American army 
was withheld from advancing npon the enemy t only by the hoj>e that the 
enemy wu ii U I again give them die choice of ground, by advancing upon them* 

In the course of the day after the battle, Geiicrn.1 Greene received satisfac- 
tory intelligence, of the state of the British army. His mind was also relieved 
on the subject of bis wounded* The utmost an cut ion that circumstances 
would admit of, had been Shown toward* them, by the British commander. 
An J indeed, rbe American wotmrled, sufl'ered less than those of the enemy. 
For the wounded of the American regulars, bad fallen in the vicinity of the 
eoiii'E-housM, arid were s*mii collected; and those of the militia, laid generally 
been construed by their eomrades to the hit mane care of the neighbouring 
farmers. This gave occasion to thai passage in Lord CoruwalhV ofhchd ue- 



2i ■ MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

ai a|*. count of the battle, in which lie says, « that the surrounding farm-houses, for 
many miles, are ft ill of their wounded." Still many were the victims that 
breathed their Jtist ihat night- 

The first act of the general, after alighting from his horse, was to send 
surgeons with a flag into the enemy's camp, to attend the American wounded; 
H] id along wh]i them were forwarded, provisions and every articEc of comfort 
or necessity, that the slender resources of the American army could furnish. 
The next care was, to write the innumerable letters, both private and official, 
which the occurrence 9 of the nay rendered indispensable. In all these, he 
uniformly expresses the most thorough conviction, that the victory would have 
been his, had the North Carolina militia done their duty ; a confident hope, 
that, " although Ills adversary had gained his cause, lie was ruined by the ex- 
pense of it ; M and a fixed resolution to meet him and fight him once more. 

From the innumerable letter* before us on this suJtjuci, we shall gfejfc an 
extract from one only, addressed to General Morgan, and written on the 2uth. 
The writer had thun had time to look ahout him, co collect intelligence, und 
« rite with the greater confidence on the several points which it touches itt>on. 
** The battle was fought a Imle west of Guilford Court-House. It began 
about 12 o'clock, and lasted upwards of two hours, The conflict was bloody 
and severe; and had the North Carolina militia done their duty, the victory 
would have been certain and easy. tint> they deserted the most advantageous 
post 1 ever saw, without scarcely firing a gun. The Virginia militia behaved 
with great gallantry, and the fare of die day was long doubtful. 13 m, finally* 
we were obliged to give np rfiu ground r and, lis ail our amllcrv horses were 
killed before the retreat began, we were obliged to leave our artillery on the 
ground. 

• ■ 

" The enemy's Joss is very great^uot less than between G and 700 men. 
and perhaps more. Our loss is much less, though considerable. The 
greatest pari fell upon the regular troops. We retreated in good order three 
miles, and there halted and collected all our straggler*.; after which, wc re- 
tired about ten miles from the place of action, where WC have remaned ever 
since. The enemy are now retiring from us, find have* left us TO or SO of 
their wounded. They arc monng towards Bells Mills. We shall folhnv 
them immediately, with a determination for another touch. I have not time 
to be more particular. God ktem you with Utter health." 

Next to the approbation of one's own lonscieuec, that of those whom wc 
honour and esteem, is the legitimate consolation of the ingenuous, in the hour 
of humiliation. Although General Greene had nothing to rcproneh imn^jf 
with in the a'Vair of Guilford, and had succeeded almost to the utmost of what 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 25 

he had suffered his hopes to aspire to, it was natural for him to covet the solace chap. 
of the wise and fe gSEMk His letters to several of his most valued friends, 
breathed the language of a spirit unsubdued; hopes undiminished, and some- 
thin^ of a proud consciousness that would brave, rut her than deprecate cen- 
sure. But, the answers are full of inflection* and the most encouraging 
reflections. We will give but one extract, and that from him, whose approba- 
tion was ever a primary object of the actions of General Greene's I he, and 
"minutely more grateful to him than popular applause, Tins uas General 
Washington, it is dared April TRUi, 178K il Your private letter of the UJth 
ultimo, came safe to hand. Although the honours of the ficJd did not full to 
vour lot j I am convinced you deserved them. The chances of war arc va- 
rious, and the best concerted measures, and the most flattering prospects may. 
and often do, deceive us, especially while we arc in the power of militia. The 
motives which induced you to seek an action with Lord Corn wall is, are sup- 
ported upon the best niilitm-y principle; and the consequence, if you ran 
prevent the dissipation of your troops, will no doubt be fortunate, Every 
support that is in my power to give you from this army, shall cheerfully be 
suonlcd; but, if I part with any more troops, I must accompany than, or 
have none to command, as there is not at this moment more than a garrUou 
for West Point, nor can I tell when there will be. 

u I am trill}' sensible of the merits and fortitude of the veteran bands under 
vour command j and wish the sentiments I entertain of their worth , could be 
communicated whh the warmth I ieeh 

" 1 have the pleasure to tell you, that as far os ] am acquainted with the 
op hu on of Congress, with respect to your conduct, it is much in your favour. 
That this is the sentiment of all the southern delegates. 1 have ^reut reason 
to believe, because 1 have it declared to me, in explicir terms, by some of them* 
That success, equal to your merits and wishes, may attend you, is the ardent 
desire of, dear sir. your auectionate friend and obedient humble servant, 
George Washington/' "Since writing the above, 1 have receiver] a letter frotu 
Mr. Cuius, dated ihe 2[hh ultimo, in which are these words — " General 
Greene has, by his conduct, gained universal esteem: and possesses> in 'the 
fullest degree, the confidence of at I ranks of people*'"— lie had then just re* 
mi tied from the assembly at Richmond. " 

To have abandoned an advantageous post, and sought the enemy on his 
own ground, whilst there was a hope of hiring him to the attEick, woutd have 
been not less unmiljtary, ihan inconsistent whh the cautious policy which 
General Greene had resolved to pursue. With every preparation, therefore! 
for immediate action, he lay four days at the Speedwell Iron Works, anxiously 
vol. it. $ 



2S MA J Oil GENERAL, GllEENE. 

ci^jp, looking far fht approach of his adversary; but, $tt£ British commander was 
all that timc T mournfully mcoj taring a precipitate retreat To snuggle any 
longe-r against the complicated distresses Eliul environed him* was impossible* 
When he destroyed his baggage, ho had promised himself, long ere rjtis, to 
have been participating in all the enjoy incuts to be found in a British camp on 
till - ; Chesapeake:, of in the richest eounticK of Virginia. Bur, with his numbers 
reduced to one half — his mm ha retime — his stores exhausted: — au euenu hang- 
ing upon him, eqtia'Jy skilful to light or to fly^d eg (ruction now stared him in 
the I'aec. h became his turn to retreat — the game of skill was reversed, bur 
it furnished now scope* for the talents of the respective commanders, and pre- 
sented neu- occasion for the developcuicm of ihose resources, and thai enter- 
prise which equally distinguished bom. 

On ihe 1 8m, the enemy commenced his retreat, but still he availed himself of 
a tfetttf^ which placed his future vi^ws in much uncertainty.* Although Jie 
left all the wounded of die Aiumcniis who fdl iiuo ins hands,f about 80 Lit 
number, at Guilford Court -J louse, his owu were transported in waggons and 
litters tis far as New Garden Meeting- House, [n cumbered witb diis retinue, 
St seemed impossible that he could meditate a retreat; and white it served to 
mask his intentions, it removed bis men to a more friendly and abundant set- 
tlement ; but, the immediate advance of the American commander, left him 
no time to deliberate or to manoeuvre. Leaving about 70 of the worst of his 
wounded at New Garden, he immediately pressed forward across the Deep 
RtVW, hi a direction towards Salisbury, This movement was also calculated 
to keep Ins adversary In doubt; for, as it looked towards a return into South 
Carolina, a measure recommended by many considerations, it might have 
induced a less w r ary commander lo lake the direct route from Guilford to 
Camden, in hopes 10 ituercepr his retreat to tha? place, Bot, Greene was on 
his guard, and siifl pansed mud his adversary, by rccrossing the Drop Kiver, 
and march] u g down its east hank, left no doubt as to his rcul intentions Hie 
American army was then pressed forward by \)i£ direct route from the Spr -t d- 
w r ell Iron Works to Cross Creek, by Buffaloo Creek, and Jiamsav^s jVill - 
leaving the Ihhish army but very little advantage with regard to distance, 
from the latter place. 

The ehoite of a route seems to have been suggested to the British com> 
mandcr, from reflecting on the previous movements of his adversary. The 
advantages of the double comer gained !>y the American army vtheu it 
crossed the Dan, were obviously in view, in this movement of the liruish com- 



* [mwt to «, Ltllijisrtoiij Marcli '26. ITSJ. i Lutier tu Cutoiu-t IteEwr, 30rh .March, l^Si. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 27 

mandcr ; and they were successfully and skilfully improved upon. Pressing ciuv. 
forward a parly of pioneers, he com ®#m preparation for dM»ft« * bridge < 
across die Deep River, at Ham say's Mill, near its confluence with Mil- I lun v. 
This indicated an intern i oh W cross at that place, and was calculated to direct t he 
march of the American army down the opposite bank by crossing above him ; bnt 
his adversary was nut to be out nit ted* He sau , that the consequence uf pursuing 
that route would be, that the British army would crass the Haw, and securely de- 
scend on the east side of the Cape Fern-. Yet, so well planned was Ibis measure of 
ret rcat ? th at there w a s no eoi 1 1 1 tc vac t\ 1 1 g it , A nin v em em ( 3 ir e ciJ y for w a id, woi 1 1 d 
only force the cue my across his bridge ; and breaking that down, mid removing 
the boats in the river, would leave the American army no alternative, bnt to 
ascend to the lords of the Deep Bivcr, or to cross the flaw and descend on 
the eastern bank. In either case, the it was lime and advantage gained* — 
Suspended between ad m i rat ion of his enemy's ingenuity, and vexation at the 
utter im prat' usability of effectually obviating its effect, the American general 
con hi <mly resort to u roup de mtihi, the success of which had nearly t orrcs- 
ponded to his hopes. Twelve mites above t be bridge, there was a ford called 
Kitten's ; to tii is lie direr ted 3 ns march, and lor one day the two armies lay 
watching each other's movements, each suspended on that which should be 
first made by his adversary. Had Greene crossed the Deep, Cornwallis 
would have crossed the Haw. If the former descended directly upon his ad- 
versary, his adversary u &$ prepared to throw his army eutoss the Ucep lliver, 
and by destroying his bridge, suspend the pursuit until it could be rebuilt, or 
mil 1 1 tlic army eouid remount the stream to Kigdcn } Sj and there renew lhc 
pursuit. This would have secured two entire days. Hut, very early out he 
2Hth, die American eommander, resolving to make a rapid push at Ids adver- 
sary, pressed for ward his ll^ht troops, with urders to reach mil! eii£ay;e tho 
enemy, until die army could overtake and attack it. Bur, his enemy n as 
vigilant and had taken sueb precaution to ^jain the earliest Intelligence of even" 
movement of the American army, that he was apprized of hisdmipT in time 
to pass the bridge. Yet, so hot was the pursuit, that he had not urne to break 
it down effectually, or even to bury the bodies of some nf his wounded, who 
bad that night fallen victims, as many tubers had done before, to the e\posiire 
and fatigues or this march. Such was the eagerness with which the pursuit 
was pressed this day * that many of the American troops exerted themselves 
beyond their strength, and faintrd upon the road. They did not even halt 
to refresh themselves, but urged forward by an animated desire to muli the 



* Loner to President of !&aju$gftfc 30Ui March. T/Sl, 



23 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

chaf, enemy, every individual of the army appeared to have forgotten the calls 
of nature. Vexatious and general was the disappointment on arriving, to 
find the enemy gone. Eut t how much more vex alio us to the commander, to 
fi ml that 1 h c p u rs u i t cou Id be con tin ucd no fu r th er . The fat i sues of the in ar eh, 
and the sean lines* of the SLipplits, had overcome the constancy of the militia, 
and they demanded tlieir discharge.* This was a serious surprise upon their 
commander, Tin. 1 volunteers hail engaged but for six weeks, and the drafted 
militia, had been called out fur the same term. He had flattered himself with 
the hope, that the time would be reckoned from the day of their joining the 
army ■ bur. it was made to appear, that the time must be calculated from the 
day of rendezvous, and he could not resist their claim. J n treaties were tried, 
but ii'icd in vain. The cares of agriculture called the men to their fnrnip. 
Every step of pursuit ivas a step fur Hilt from their homes. A dreary country, 
affording but snialj quantities of the necessaries of life, was before them ; and 
what It did aftbrd, would be consumed by the necessities of the enemv. Al- 
most to a man they refused to proceed j and on the 30th, he was under the 
necessity of granting the in a discharge. His chagrine on the occasion, did 
not withhold from the Virginians a well merited compliment on their gallantry 
and zeal. Nor did the North Carolinians, who still adhered to him, depart 
without the warmer thanks for their perseverance in adhering to the army under 
many painful and discouraging circumstances. 

The enemy was now permitted to pursue his painful journey unmolested 
Indeed the suffering to win eh the British aim y was now subjected, eould al- 
most have moved an enemy to suffer them to proceed unmusued* New 
graves, marking every slep of their progress, proved the baneful cfect of this 
rii pi i i journey, on the health of their numerous wounded; and among the many 
victims of their present exposure and necessities, were some of the mo.st 
valuable officers of the army* Colonel Webster was one, and Captains 
Schultz, Maynard, and some others shared his fatc.f 

As soon as it was ascertained, that the enemy would descend the right 
bank of the Cape Fear ; couriers were despatched to General Lillington, 
and Captain Henderson, who were below with their commands of militia. 
There were still stores of the American army, at Cross Creek, to he removed 
out of the enemy's way, and a stroke at General Lillington's force, might 
have been thought an object worthy of an effort of Colonel Tarteton*s dra- 
goons. By removing the stores across the river, and destroying the boats for 
many miles, above and below, safety was extended to both stores and detach- 

* LfUer to Baron Steuben, April 3j 1^81, i Tarietcr/e Coiap. p. J JO, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 29 

ments, while the privations of the retreating army, were not a Tittle increased- chap. 
and bv securing I lie command of the J eft bunk of the river, it became wholly 
nnn-aeticablc for the British commander to use the river for transporting his 
ba^ugc or his wounded* 

It mts exceedingly mi fortunate for General Greene, that before Ihe battle 
of Guiliord, he had been obliged to deprive himself of the only menus which 
could have insured a successful persuit of the British army. This was by 
sending away the horses of his. militia, and thus depriving himself of a mount- 
ed infantry, which could have supported bis cavalry in pressing upon the rear 
of the retreating en e my- There was then no choice left ; nor would it have 
been possible now to retain them in service* The British army had. swept the 
whole country before it, and the British feelings of the inhabitants of the coun- 
try through which the two armies were now passing, concealed what little 
forage and provision still remained. Nor was this the only in convenience 
attend nig the march through this nest of loyalists. The American army was 
continually watched by them** Intelligence assiduously communicated to the 
enemy : as zealously withheld from ihe pursuing army; and the expresses, and 
even reconnoitcriug parties of the latter shot down from every fen re and 
thicket. This country was at that point of time ? in one of the most deplorable 
conditions that can be imagined* Oil the approach of the British armv, the 
whi^s had been persecuted, and driven out of the settlements, their houses 
destroyed, their families insulted, and many of them way Invert and put 
to death. The advance of the American army was the signal for their return, 
and they now exhibited a spirit of retaliation which disgraced them. General 
Greene in his letters fmjuentJy exelmms, " if this carnage between whig 
end tory is continued* this country must be depopulated." The consequence 
of this state of limits, was, that the inhabitants were all in the woods, and the 
opportunities and inducements of hostility to the American army, many and 
tempting. 

There was another embarrassment encountered by the American commander, 
which had previously compelled him to make an absolute halt hi the very 
heat of pursuit; and exposed him to die Tantalizing state, in which he was 
placet^ when embarrassed by the tL dilcmma of die bridge." 

When the army had advanced as far as BuiTalue Greek, so "^ uttering was 
the prospect of overtaking the enemy, thai it became necessary to make that 
hispccilou of arms and am muni don, which ever ought to precede the hour of 



* Letter 10 Prewdemtof Congress tfOlh jMarchj ifBl, 



SO MAJOR GENERAL Ott&SjSE, 

ci^p battle. WlmE waft the cling ri lie and venation of the general, at receiving the 
report, thut there was uu absolute deficiency of cam-idges and ride balls ? 
Such had beeti the wanton unauthorized expenditure of these articles by i; t 
irregular troops, that a supply^ thought a lew day? before to bo Eimplo, was 
now reduced to a state altogether inadequate KJ the GXlgjfi&rite of a buttle, 
l J uwdci- and J cad had been found rlic best article for procuring bread and 
meat* 

A hail became m dispensable; ufoile express were burned back to the 
teag*$gfl (winch lo facilitate iltc advance, had been left in the rear) not only 
Jin- cartridges, hut for moulds and lead to manufacture balls. Thus was a day 
lost in the American army, which could never be retrieved* The march of 
ihut day gained by the enemy, was decisive of the route of the purs tilt. Lord 
CormvuiJis wus enabled to reach Ramsay \s Mill, and pin lit Ins bridge, and 
phifu ftfa adversary in the s£atc of doubt* prhich precis led lb e day of bis reach- 
ing die same place. 

The pursuit hud been kept up with spirit for about sixty mile*, but Lord Corn- 
wall had still to it treat ucar oik- hundred and fifty before he could reach a place 
of refreshment and repose* Could the American general have prosecute- 1 the 
pursuit, incumbered as the British army was with their wounded, and obliged, 
from tbe poverty of the country, to trans port provisions on their ma rem [\ h 
scarcely to be doubted that he must have been overtaken. A severe conflict 
must tifivc ensued, in winch the enemy would have possessed die vust advun- 
va-j:" of .seven pieces of artillery ; but, destitute as he was of officer?, re Jutted 
hi u umbers, mid dispirit ml by lutigue and siutbrings. there cannot be much 
doubt entertained of me issue. 

The departure of tbe militia, once nt ore reduced the American commander 
to a decided inferiority, and it became necessary to cast about him and de- 
termine on the course next to be pursued. It only remained to ascertain, 
that the reduction of his numbers would not tern jit the enemy to turn upon 
him, m order to make up his mind on the subject, Tie never doubted, that 
if the enemy combined to vet mat, the interests of the service required, that be 
should move secretly and rapidly on the British posts at Camden and Ninety- 
Six ; while a corp-. lightly equipped, should be dispatched to pierce through 
the heart of the state, and aim a similar blow at tbe chain of minor posts which 
extended up the Santee and Savannah Rivers. 

it is necessary here to go back to some events that had occurred in South 
Carolina, whilst Greene was retreating before the British army, 

Great efforts, it will be recollected, were made to cvciie the militia in the 
enemy's rear, in order to alarm Lord Cornwall^ for the safety of the posts 



*(< 



MAJOK GENERAL GREENE. 31 

which be had left behind him. General Sumjuw, ah hough far from bring ri J* p * 
recovered of his wound, resolved to take the field* At that lime, many of bis 
officers ami bravest men wtTO in captivity, after the unfortunate aflbir of fish- 
ing Creek ; and some nf the former, having b$CQ purohYd,were scattered over 
the country on their plantations. Of these, Colonel Wade Hampton was one. 
A connrlenihd unitary wai* dispatched by General Surnptrr into ihc country 
through vJiicli he meant to make a descent^ to prepare the wejl-piffecud for 
\u> reception, mid to collect the intelligence necessary to direct his movements, 
Some treachery betrayed tin* measure, io die enemy ; arid. apprehensive of 
trusting Sum pier's officers at large, an order was is&LLcd for .seizing them, ami 
con ve vi «s diem tt» Charted ion- 

A pnrly uf twelve iTAAi bud taken off Colonel Hampton, and were trans- 
porting him lo pmon, when, by oner of those extraordinary ctforis which elnt- 
tttctt irizc. (he actions of men of thai day, he succeeds] in .seizing the musket* 
of uvo of them ; and, overawing the whole by his threats and his known 
character, he effected his e*t ape, bearing wit h him the wcapnna that h sored 
his mkiy. Hampton, now finding himself released from his parole, soon 
maJc his way good to join Snmprer, at the head of a litiln hand of gallant 
follower^ nod Smnpieiv [mvtitg collected a body of about two hundred and 
fifty North Carolina mm, made a nipid movement down to Fort Grunbv. 
Nothing COtlld exceed die astonishment f»f die enemy at bis sudden appear- 
ance. And such was the vigor with which he pressed the fori, then destitute 
of artillery, thai his uucrksmen, mounted on a pile of rails, (thru first tiscd f 
but afterward* attributed to Colonel Muhmn) were on the point of compelling 
the garrison to surrender, when mi unexpected encmj appeared on the oppo- 
site bunk or the river. Tbia was Lord Rnwdou, who, branny at Camden of 
Sampler's incursion, ami rniijccmriug what would he h ■ object, hod hurried 
over to Fori Uranby wifh n ibrre ihnt SumptCTcoufd not rope with. The al- 
ternative was, a precipitate retreat ; ami as me country above was loo hosrJle 
to be pC3ieJ rated, and that below presented hoih a prospect uf service and of 
forming h junction with Marion, be moved off with celerity down the river. 

Accident threw in his way a valuable prize* Cfchfew h*ul been left by 
Lord Cornwall*?, for establishing a post at Moue T s iloo*e, on the road from 
Charleston to M'Cord** Kerry, and a detachment of filiy rcgiihir?, with arms, 
provision^, eloihin^ a^unimntion, and every thing requMtC for esTnbTKIihjg 
sucb a ooaf^ was on its wny to the pfaee appointed, A wdl-ilireelcd shot 
from a vidwtc, unvoted the relarn of the seonr thai bad preceded (Ins party 
wi-'i due uiilhary precaution ; and Sunipter, by a JmhVinuu choice of a 
place Of ambush, maxle the whole lay down their arms without bloodshed. 



#J MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ciur. Haw to escape with this valuable prize was now the question ; and (or tins 
purine, no project appeared so plausible^ as to place Jt ill a boat, descend the 
river, and laud it some where below, where the inhabitants were well -affected. 
A boat was easily procured on iok river, auit the whole beting shipped^ 
dropped down under the direction of a hypocritical guide, who proved him- 
self a traitor. 

tr will he recollected, that there was a British past below at Fort Watson ■ 
It was srwaied on the bank of an old bend of the river* thai had been ncarfv 
abandoned by the current, which had found itself a shorter route. The pre- 
sent eh fi on el of the river would have conveyed the boar down in safety, hut 
the guide steered her into that which earned her under the guns of the British 
garrison, 

Suiii|ili.T T ru the mean lime* had crowed the river below^ by swimming Itis 
horses and transporting his men in canoes. Go hearing of llu: t reach eta 
which hid robbed ihem nf their pn7.fi* his men clamoured to be led ou to rc- 
fteaver il + But, the attempt whs vain : and although much bravery was ex- 
hibited* the Americans were repulsed by the pany in the fort, who were 
securely covered and most advantageously posted. 

Smnptcr then sought shelter in the swamps of the north bank of the Sautee, 
i^sdv^d to wait some opportunity of indemnity or service. But, if mjUJred 
all his firmness to pi event his North Carolina troops from deserting him. At 
the point of the ba^youet they were detained a ibw day?, and; he then Issued 
forth from hi« covert, made for the bank* of the Black .River, and availing 
himself uf thr. friendly set dements on dial mutt-, once more moved up to die 
neighbourhood of ChisHmie- 

This expedition excited alarm among the enemy— sustained (he sinking 
spirit* of ihe well-arTected — and, above all, secured a stock of intelligence, 
which was immediately transmitted to General Greene by Colonel Ham js ion. 

The day after die baitle of Guilford, Colonel Hampton arrived In the Ame- 
rican eainp ; and the view presented of to Wilt! C# ihr British posts, by one 
wbo^c inn I licence eouh.1 he so thoroughly depended upon, afforded General 
Greene the best gromnU on which to decide upon his future measures, ihe 
project of pennrtiiing inter ihe country was revived : and- in order to give it 
unerring efieel, a lei ter was immediately addressed to Governor Jcftereon, 10 
order a detachment of ioOOnnlhiaio advance to Salisbury, as a support to ihe 
army in its intended movement to Camden. 

Colonel Lnn has represented this plan of operations, as the suggestion of 
some other mind, ingeniously pressed upon the general^ consideration, while 
lie was meditating another of a very dLTercnt character. He does not ex- 



MAJO& GENERAL GREENE. S3 

pressly allege that the project was his own, hm o subsequent writer, inftm need oup. 
by ulim he !jU|ij](isiis an obvious imicmfu, pointing to a fuel only suppressed 
by The colonel's modesiy, has ventured on the assertion, that it was a sug- 
gestion of Crtlone! Lee's own. 

From the active pari assigned to Colonel Lee, in the execution of rite plan, 
his reputed intimacy whli General Greene, and supposed parnVipEiliun in 
liLs .serve? councils and above all, from the utter impossibility of adnriumg 
the supposition that Colonel Lee would pluck the wreath from the brow of 
his dead friend, to orumnent his own, ur that of any est her with it, the au- 
thority of the colonel on this subject, is certainly respectable; and as the move- 
ment Ems ever been considered as toe eta/ 1 *Paxivre of our hero, it claims nor 
Serious attention to inquire, with whom it originated. 

The first observation thai presents itself on the account given of tills event 
by Colonel Lee, fe suggested by a comparison of dates* His words are, * ( no 
sooner had lie decided, than lit: commenced operations. The legion of lice 
w\n\ C. : it plain Oldham V detach mem was ordered to move on the subseoncm 
morning, (thh of April) and the army wus put in motion ihe followtnu; day,"* 

Although in ordinary case*, time is not inmcriHl to tlte point in issue, yet when- 
ever at! historian auem pis precision in dates, it is lay i tig claim to a d^ec of 
authenticity not attributable to events related upon mere memory, or ordinary 
sonrres of infer matin u. in so minute a detail of tUe arguments used in a dis- 
cu^imt as, Colonel Lee furnishes, a positive reference to dates, is holding out 
the idea of resting on the authority of some written memorial of the transaction. 
Bin if, as Colonel Leo relates, p. his *n ingestion was nor made unii! the 5ih of 
Ajnilr we can confidently a^are '5ie rentier that be is mistaken j or tbaiii came 
urn hue; for we have letters be tor ' us tn Generals Washington and Sum pier, of 
the date of the 3tfthaiid 30th of Much, hi which the resolution to pursue this 
plan of operations is [Ji.^tinctly comm.uriVmcd, autl tlie reasons for artootbig it as 
distinctly set forth- We will uoi deny, i sal the measure may have been recom- 
mend Ci! and the nrgurrumiti used, an J if so, no doubt they were silently and 
comptaeentry listened m. bur the v had been piwiousrv considered and decid- 
ed on, mid it is not to be weidcrcd at, dint u the proposer" may have sup- 
posed that the measure was of hi* suggestion* since such was flier profound 
secrecy observed on thcsuhiccl, and so inipurtHntWite secrecy lo its success, tlmt 
there i* great reason tn believe thut before ttw? 3*1 it was communicated to none 
but die grncvu] officers, If even to them. So particular was General Urcene 



VOL, IU 5 



34 MAJOR GENERA?, GBEEN^. 

chap, on this point, that his communications appeared to have been rimed according 
to the dismnee of the correspondent, so that 5i could not be divulged hefoj^ ii 
should h-r; developed by hi* own movements. Thus, although he makes the 
communication to general Washington on the 29th, and to General Sinrpicr 
on die 30th Mni-f ".h, he does not liiaki -it to Steuben or La Fnjeite undl thr 2d 
April, because die lauer being m Virginia, would receive their letters earlier than 
the farmer, In the letter to General Sumpter he scdnlausly Inculcates secrecy, 
and expressly tequires that his views should he communicated to none but the 
generals. And alt i it » ugh from the 30th of March to die aih of April, he writes 
several letters fo the governors of states, the boards of war, and even tin.- 
president of congress t and *o several tail itnry and oihcr officers, requiring &er- 
vices, having la view this veiry moie.meiu, he cautiously avoids connuunicaizi'g: 
his design w ttuy one- 

As the passage of i he "Memoirs 11 on lid* subject is vd&Ji&d wiili much mi unto 
ucas and pevskivcucss. It may well lead to the conclusion, that Colonel Lee 
could have [ernished the name of" die proposer : n and, as he has not done so, 
U Is nut surprising that the idea should be suggested, that he was himself" the 
proposer," since there could exist no reason, otherwise, for suppressing the 
name. But, it is damn injustice to Colonel Lee's candour, to charge the design 
upon him, of thus ingeniously evading falsehood, vet leading Into error ; 
since, ihirr orders under which he commenced his march, as appears from ihe 
official file*, are actually dated thv 3d of April; and (bat he was iheu absent 
from lifittd-ijunrttTSj is proved by fcbletter, acknowledging the receipt of those 
orders fllK ' thanking ihegcnaral for honouring him with the command. And 
that he proceeded on his march on the 5th, ia also proved by his own com- 
munication to General Greene. From the same smirce also, we derive the 
evidence, that Colonel Lee was no stranger to the fact, that General Urecuc 
harl long mcduaied the descent upon South Carolina, uhennvcr die Stale and 
position of i he two armies wouhl sanction Lt We have future mentioned that 
tins design had been communicated m Ciiural Murium in Jannai y> with a 
i^nw<si to confer with no on r* apou ii, except Colonel Lee, h appro r*, rliEil 
tin? day after the date c( thi* letter to Marion, die eomniumrauon was also 
made to Colonel Lee ; for, on the 30il* January, tie writes from Tort's Rrry — 
■ la vour letter of the 30th, }oii suggest an idea of a very extensive move- 
ment and intimate u desire for a correspmideitt movement in me at the 
proper moment, il practicable. My part oi the game can be played ; and, m 
my opinion, will he of the most durable mid comprehensive services. 

H | pray to hear from yon hilly, and heg you to cherish the movement BUg- 
Sestet in your letter of the 26th. 



MA-TOR GENERAL GREENE, & 

The ropy of this letter of the Wt\\, from what canst:, or by what accident ttM CiLtf\ 
know imr, is not among the official ftlt^s ; but, a subsequent letter from Colonel 
Lc«i flf the date of the 3d of February, sufficiently points out the leu ding fea- 
tures of the movement suggested to General Greens'* commujilcuciou of (he 
2&th. This letter was written from Gulp's Ferry on tlie IVc Deo, on the march 
to overtake the army then proceeding to join the croons under Morgan* The 
following passages are extracted from it ; 

4i The Invitation which the posture of affairs on the other side of the Santec 
and iuthe state of CSeorgkt, held out to a proper attempt, w T as so pleasing, that 1 
regiTi exceedingly my recall from (bat country. 1 regret it not only as a 
soldier mixiotis to acquire honour, but as a citizen* 

" A party of horse and foot from your army* equal to breaking doivn all 
the out-posts on the two states, and rem filling the enemy to Charleston, George- 
town, Niraty-Six, Camden and Augusta, would increase daily ; from SOO. 
they wot i hi ^ro w to as many thousands." 

He then goes on with a mast brilliant anticipation of the services thai might 
have hi wen performed* extending even to the liberation of the tionEiiicuiaJ 
troop? then perishing in the prison ships. 

it will be recollected, that at the date of the 26th of January, Lord Curn- 
wallij* was in morion, endeavouring to overtake Morgan, or cut hint off from a 
junction with the main army. A eidm review of all circumstances, rendered 
it iiol at all improbable, [hat he would succeed, at least in throwing hiiusdf 
between the two divisions of the Anicrinin army. The piu.ii u\' Luiiernl 
Greene, it seems, was, in that easo T to withdraw him (rout Ins views; upon the 
states of North Carolina and Virginia, by advancing with dm main army upon 
Camden, whilst Lee should cross die ^antce. and ascending its right hunk, 
form a junction with Morgan in the neighbourhood of Niimir-Six, or Augusta, 
The object to be answered, at the mm* we have now arrived to, was pre- 
cisely the same, only with the addition of a prosper, from the remoteness of 
x3ie LSriuslt army, anil the feeling of security which probably prevailed at the 
British posts, [hat by making a secifii and rapid march, lo rfie'.ct that, which* for 
want of uniJIery, coub) no I he effected in any other way — to wit, to reduce wine 
or all of those posts, before the British army could return to their relief. And it 
appears from the communications of the l*ririsli commander, rhat nothing but 
the successful deception practked upon hhu by the American general,* by 
which, the I titter gained a march of several days that could not be retrieved, 



Sri' Lmrt ('oi'iiwiiIHk" Itlier. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, prevented him from making the attempt to succour the posts at which the blow 
was level icd. General Greene, reasoning to what would be done, from a 
knowledge of what ought to have been done, was strongly of opinion, that 
Lord Corn wall is would return to South Carolina, upon the A men ran army*g 
peiTorratlng into that tdm.; and Lord Corn wall is avow^. mat in resolving to 
advance towards Vienna, he was influeneed by the hope, that it would induce 
the American commander to reirace hi* steps, and fly to the relh i of the latter 
state. But, Lord Cornwallis was not. at that rime, hi posfsses^hm of the in- 
formation then laid ttp hi the bosnm of his antagonist, ofthe preparation then in 
agitation, for indicting the blow which awaited hi in on the shores of York River. 
The identity of the views whieh influenced the measures of the American 
commander in January and at the present lime, must have been strongly 
brought to the notiec of Colonel Lee, by one part ofthe letter of msrruetinns 
of the yd of this month. It is to this effect — " It will he of infinite impor- 
tance. If it can be easily urcoiuplislicil, to have all the boats and era it 
sceured upon the Fee Dee s Iroui the Great Bluff upwards, This mav delay 
the enemy should they attempt to follow you or 115. and will give lime to effect 
our designs, You must also govern yourself by circumstances, in crossing 
the Saniee. Should the enemy pursue us pretty close out ofthe state* it will 
31 nr be adviseable for you to be separated from us." T 111* letter contains ihc 
outline of Colonel Lee's expedition into South Carolina, ns related hy himself— 
it instructs him t[ to take the rot Ue towards Cross Credit, and pass the Pee Dee 
at Haley's Ferry? or higher or lower as he may think necessary, either for his 
own safety, or to effect a, surprise upon the euciny's posts on the Santee/' It 
then proceeds lints — " The post garrisoned by Watson's corps, is the only one 
whieh I think you will have a chance to strike at, I have d eta died Captain 
Oldham's company to join your legion, which, I hope, will en a hie you to ac- 
complish the business. But, you must govern yourself by the intelligence you 
may get. You have only to remember, that our force Is sttrotJ, atid thin we 
cannot afford to waste men T without u valuable object in contemplation. 1 do 
not. mean, that you should march far towards Cross Creek, but only such a 
distance as you mav think neees^arv to mask our real designs. Remember, 
that yon command men, and that their powers may not keep pace with your 
ambition.* 1 

There is another remark sueijrested, by the account that Colonel Lee gives 
of the discussions which preceded the ad op Hon of die feso Union whieh led 
to the decent into South Carolina, too obvious not to strike every reader* To 
have made such a measure the subject of gen era f and protracted discussion* 
would have been wholly inconsistent with the seereey whieh was indj>pf.n- 



MAJOR GENERAL CREENK $} 

sable to its success* Yet, fmm the account we have of it from that author, one cbap t 
would suppose it to hove fieen i he a /w>«r purler en pifcsmu" of the whole 
camp* The general, who is himself hi tlio daily liable of using spies and em- 
droppers, in collect iiitdli^neej will natural fy suppose himself surrounded by 
both; and if possessing the wariness which uniformly distinguished every 
movement of the American commander, wilUnon^ly be inclined toad upon 
the riviui jji-le^ thai Ai every man's seem;* are safest in his own bosom." In the 
case before us, it is notoriuus, thai the question was not even submittal to a 
round i of wan and a stronger proof roukl scar eery be required to prove Loth 
the anxiety of die conun under ro conceal his designs, anil ilie ahsenc:e of every 
doubt from his mind on ji* e legibility, In all the letters written on the subject 
there is not a shadow of a douht exhibited, os to the course he ought lo pursue, 
nor the leasi anxiety expressed for the appmhaiion of hi* friends. He confi- 
dently expresses his reasons for the measure, and uniformly writes upon the 
presuntpiinn, dim no one can t Unapprove of it. We will transcribe the passage 
in which he makes die conn lumica lion to Genera] Washington* 



" Head- Quarters at Coknel Ramsay-^ on Deep Rher t March ^ih, 1781, 

" la litis critical ami distressing situation, 1 art ele tor mined to carry the war 
immediately into South Carolina. The enemy \v\]\ be obliged to follow us T 
or give up his pasts in lh.it slate. If the former takes place, it will draw the, 
war out of this state, and give it an opportunity to raise its proportion of num. 
Jf they teave iJieir po^s to fall, they mmu lose more ilmn they can gain horc. 
If we continue iu this sUue> the*;ue.my wiil hold their possessions in both. AJl 
things considered* 1 rhinfc the movement is warranted by l.hc roundest reiisotLfi, 
both political and iniliiary. Tin 1 uiaiueiivre will be rrifical Eind daogfwus, 
and the troops exposed to every hardship. Bur, as I sTmrn it with them, f 
hope they will bear up under it with thai uiii^imuiniiiy winch has idi^adv 
supported them, and for which thtw deserve every tiling of their country. I 
am persuaded thfl movement u ill he unexpected to the eofiny, and I htfrml ft 
shall be ax little htmn its possible. Our bto§2^gu an if store*, how widi the 
at'iuv, I shall order by the route of (lie Snwra towns mnf Shallow Ford, to 
Charlotte. Uy having them in the open country, we shall always him a aaie 
reireat ; am! from those hi habitants, we may expert the greatest support. I 
slaill lake every measure In avoid a inWornme, but fflppeftara obliges me to 
commit myself to chance: and I trust my friend* witi (in justice to my repu- 
tation if any accidental ends tno>" 



m MAJOR GENKEAL GRKEX'E, 

mm This letter, it will be recollected* hears date rjfi the very day that it was 
ascertained that Lord Comwallis could not be bright to action at Ramsay's 
Mill, or he pursued further; and it was conducive to prove, that General 
Greene would not have hesitated, or consumed lime hi listening to debates to 
determine, what course he was i^xt to pursue. 

The letter to General Suniprer. written die day afrer that to General Waeh- 
i list mi, present* some further views of this expedition, (i They." (die enemy) 
the w liter observes, (; are on the route to Cross Creek, and probiiblv will njijl 
down tiie country as low as Wilmington, but this is not certain. The greater 
par) of our militia's term of service being out> will prevent Our further pursuit; 
especially as the difficult Is very great in procuring provisions. Indeed it 
would lie i ni possible to subsist the army in the pine barrens ; and } as we arc 
obliged to halt a day or two to collect provisions at this place, it frjjj give the 
enemy such a start of us as to leave me no hope of overtaking them if they 
choose to eon thine their flight) nor can we %3i( diem upon equal terms after 
our ml lit in leave us. All these considerations have iteier mined me to change 
my route, and push directly into £oudi Carolina. This will oblige the enemv 
10 give up their prospects in this Staie. or their posts in South Carolina ; and if 
our aimy can be subsisted there, we can fight them upon as good terms with 
your aid, as we can here. 1 beg you ivili therefore give ordct H s t^ Generals 
Pickens and Marion to collect all the militia they can fo co-operate with us. 
!But the object must be secret to ttlt except the gtnerals, otherwise the enemy 
ivill take measures to counteract us. I am hi hopes that by sending forward 
our horse and some small detachments of light infantry to join your tnilitia, vou 
will be able to possess yourself of their little out-posts before the army arrives. 
I expect to be ready to march in about five days, and perhaps we may be In 
the neighbourhood of Camden by the 20th of next month or earlier. Vou 
will please to inform me of your prospects atid the probable force I may expect 
o co- operate with lis.'* 

To Baron Steuben, to whom General Greene always appears to open his 
views with full rices and freedom, and with a view to drawing upon the funds of 
that veteran's great experience , he writes thus: — ** From these considerations, J 
am determined to march immediately for South Carolina. bdlUE persuaded if 1 
continue in this state, the enemy will hold their ground in the southern states 
and this a l*o. Another advantage may result from it, which is T we shall live 
upon the resources the enemy have now at command, and the holdncss of the 
manceuvre wilf make them think [ have secret reasons which they cannot com- 
prebend* \f I can get supplies and secure a retreat, J fear no bad consequences," 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 3d 

To flu* Mnrqiris La Fayette, then in commune) in Virginia, General Greeny chap. 



also ievagiisunoihcr reason for the mevemcnr, which serves further to drvetnpe 
\ih fiords and views. " For these reasons I have determined to carry tin 1 \vm m 
inn Soul li Carolina, to proven! Jjoui Corawuttin jrvm fontuw a junction trifh 
Ainoid^ nnd expect by thai movement to draw him immediately out of Ike 
State, a n< I if cuu follow" on to support me, h is not import Me that we may 
give liim-t il rubbing, especially if General Wayne conns up wiih the Penpsylva- 
mans. Bur if you gp. immediately in the northward, Virginia will not be 
able to send us another man ; and the dangerous and crhieal skua Eton ihey wit] 
hi: left in, will prevent them from making the necessary exertions for raising (he 
continental troops. It iviJJ be our interest to keep the enemy a* much divided 
as i*o$sib1e, for many reasons, As mir force h composed principally of militia, 
we can avail ourselves of a much greater number when they arc divided rkni 
when they act collectively. We can also fighi them to mud; mure advantage 
divMcil ihtt 11 collected, as the force of (he militia does not increase from the 
increase oftmnibers, in the same proportion as the force of regular?/* 

We have ihua given ilie vindication of (his eel e bra red nnwe u( of General 

Greenes in his own words, uniformly preferring this method wherever prac- 
ticable, from a firm conviction or our incompetence to ilu the same justice to 
his military merit in language of our own. If farmer proof on the subject 
can be rcipniTrl, we ran £ivp il in a tetter of General Greene to the president 
of congress, Of the 2M April, in wliirh he mentions, tint I from the time of 
the bauie at Guilford, he had (his uiovemeni info f'roolioa in cmiU'ittphiiimi ■ 
and the positive declaration of Captain rVndlcton, thai it never was surmised in 
the army — I hut b had proceeded from any other source than the general himself 
Miuiy as have been I he ciiiimtTus&mMtts under winch wr bave heen obliged 
10 represent our hero rims far, it i* curious to pause and survey the accumu- 
lated prepare heaped upon liim at the very time that he adopted this brilliant 
rewohnien ; a resolution, which was the second step inwards ibe con elusion of 
the wftrvaiisl rlie successful lor in in ation of (Ins an] no us so infig fe- 
lt bus not lUlleti to our lot to present the render wifb "w threat man struggling 
Willi the storms of late/' Inn, struggles enough, Guil know*, ht had to nmkr 
agptiiisi d feeble policy, divided sentiment? exhausted resources, and inveterate 
follies. 

In the correspondence of tins flay, we read — n Virginia, from the unequal 
Operation of the law lor drafting is aot Jikely to get in tiny soldiers.* Mary- 
Iaud T as Lie as the Jftih, bar) not got a man ; nor b there a man raised in 
North Cai'omia T or the b 'a st prospect of t%P Another complains — " The short 

* Loiter to t'iuttrtl VVii^Jiiiijrtini^Utb Mnrrb. I^Sl- 



\K 



4o MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

nut*, enlistments which this unhappy country still perseveres hi, have marie enlisting 
Jf-L^ltirijE deserting a kiiid of btK&^» A man enlists himself for six or , tight lUov- 
sund pounds this spring, and deserts — He enlists in another part of the state for 
ckk W tt:n thousand more— deserts— mid at the next sc&ioii, practices the 
same \iliainies over again in some other part of the country, && ;"* and a 
third is SStot express to the genera J, informing him, that '* one hundred of my 
nun marched oJV this morning without my knowledge, and without officers," 

And all this at a time when the militia were all about to be discharged— 
no mure, coming: m — the continentals reduced to about 1300 — and 300 of 
these detached on die expedition under Colonel Lee. 

Yet, these were but minor evils ■ there were others of a more permanent 
and general nature, threatening to cut off every hope that the American 
"en era] could entertain, of ever seeing a termination of ins embnrrasimuiiK 

Virginia was. at this .time, a!] m a far incut : and t]ic situation of Stcubin had 
become so embarrassing and tip pleasant, that lie begged to be permitted to 
relinquish his fruitless la boms, and rejoin the army i White ihe British fleet, 
having regained an ascendancy in the Chesapeake, had driven off the French 
and released Arnold, just an he time that Greene amuses himself m a kilcito 
a friend, in exclaiming— 1 ' Arnold, the traitor, must fall J— Oh, Lucifer ! how 
liieat will be Uiy fall." Yet, under this accumulated mass of discouraging 
events, was it, thai the daring resolution was adopted, of penetrating into 
South Carolina : and, destitute of artillery, to attempt a coup de imtin against 
places strongly fortified, and garrisoned wilh numbers nearly equal to those of 

tli<: American army. 

The ferment prevailing at tins time in Virginia, is the same before alluded to 
as having arisen ont of the execution of the warrants furnished by Governor 
JcJferson for the impress mcni of horses- That gentleman appears to have 
shared largely in the popular odium excited on the o era s ion, and it cannot be 
supposed that cither the American army, the American cause, or the American 
general could have escaped brum visited with their due share. It is hut an act 
of" justice to a!], to point out mi whom the censure ought to have rested* So 
serious was the affair considered at the time, that it formed the subject of deli - 
1) er a 1 1 oi i i i i th c I eg islature , and o f a n official co m muni c ati on fro n i tl ie go vcr nor 
in council, to the commanding general of the southern department. " That 
tou mav form some idea," says this note from the executive, * ( of the indiscre- 

41 k * 



* Letter front Colonel Duvifis, April iC, f f8J. ? Letter from Colonel Lynch. April* % ]J$h 



\\. 



MAJOR GENERAL GKEENlL 

i]j&H whirli have occasioned a dlssatMkciion with rlir- impresses ofhorses, I on- ciwr 
do^e you copies of ma papers lodged wftjj me, against a Mr, Rudder employed 
iuihaT business. Instead of soothing the minds of the people and sfrfenipg the 
linrsfr act of taking tlicir vnl liable horses ^y force, it has been frequently ac- 
companied as we are informed, by defiances t si" the civil power, and circum- 
stances of ptsFaiontftJ i [Titan an. As tedious us kf}M operation of reasoning with, 
every individual on whom we are obliged to exercise disagreeable power, yet 
free people think they have a riglu io au explanation of the circum stances which 
give rise m the necessity under which they so lifer, Such baa been the general 
irritation under tfc»$ impresses, thai we have been obliged n» authorize the 
county lieutenants to restrain them tinder |1jc resolutions of assembly, J ftinuet- 

Iv en blasted you, 1 ' &C* 

This bears date me 6th of this month ; Twt lon»; before that day Genera] 
Greene had taken steps to cheek (he evil cu-niphiIiu:<J of, ami to pacify a people 
on whose good will he had been fbrsoiueiimr* so very dependant* 

The truth is> these wan-ants had been very oppress! rely executed. A strong 
national feeling* a* well as a favourite source of profit, amuseniem, and even 
individual distinction, had been imprudently Invaded, *tb& following exlract 
of a letter to Colonel Lee of die date of the J7ih July, will bctf explain both 
the nature of the injury complained of, and ihy pttu&l* measuresof the general 
m put a atop to it. " I ant this moment informed that a tinnier of the lirst 
covering horses have been impressed by Cnbncl Washington's officers, for ihe 
timgunn service, and such as will be valued at >300 or 1 000 hard dollars. This 
is so Contrary to my intention, as well as the public interest, timt. you are 
desired W give j particular orders to your officers not to have those high pri/.t:d 
covering hoises taken. Gei good horses and such us are suitable for dragoon 
scr i tee, bu t eo v eri ng horses a re no t. \ t Ma bust ucss n hi s t he eond U ej ed w I tl i g r cut 
delicacy, though necessity may nr^e the measure. All the horses you mi press you 
will keep a record of, and the names ol" Ike persons taken down, and also lei 
the value of eacb horse be iixed against lilt 1 ownura name* The officers must 
have particular directions to ^ive proper certificates, otherwise the people will 
think 1 3 ley an' pi umbered. 1 rely on your prudence In the execution of tin a 
IjusHicW' There are hut tew injuries diat a Virginian would not have borne 
with more temper than an attempt to wrest from him the pet that occupied ibn 
best stall in his stable. Ami u hud never entered into General Grcene ? s Ima- 
gination that his officers would luy violent hands upon animals so unlit for hi* 
purpose and 80 well calculated to array against bint all the predilections mid 
prejudices of a whole people* Wc fortunately bare it In our power to refer to 
ihe original order issued on tbe subject, from which we cite these words, ■♦ In 

vut„ IN i't 



m MAJOfi GENERAL GREENE. 

c ^ r A ^ die execution of tins warrant. Hie officers must be instructed to dear thelnhahi- 
tants witli (endemics, in mfiirm ihem of the expediency of the measure, and 
have thu horses valued and give proper certificates for tbein." 

The forest of complaint which this conduct of tile cavalry oncers excited, 
soon reached the genera] 1 *; cars; anrl T at the same time that the letter of tfefj 
1 7th was addressed to Colonel Len, one of the «tme import, was dispatched (o 
Colonel Washington. T he impressment of stud-horses was put an end to j 
but, ilie ftttfiEttjrt left a deep and luting impression on the minds of die people— 
furnished an argumem ffl the disaffected — trud u standing excuse to the luk< - 
warm, or ira-csolurc. It was not long after this occurrence, that thv rapid 
movement of Colonel Turk ton put him m possession of file beat horses in Vir- 
ginia; ami by enabling the enemy to mount entire regiments of infantry. 
Jaellitated the devastation of half the state. The same horses migJit Jinve 
mounted cavalry for the enemy 'a destruction. 

It won hi not be dmny jiratiec to the memory of the brave men who had 
been led into the commission of this offensive net, were we to withhold the only 
excuse dicy conld ever tirge hi their behalf. 

it uill be readily conceived, that an order fov impressing dragoon horses, 
must necessarily be executed with ereat secrecy and dispatch s or no dragoon 
ftOfiWp wo tiki he found to he Impressed. It ^ms, that the pitparaiion for this 
purpose did not escape the qnkk eye of private interest, or was neeessnrih 
confided to too many subordinate agents* to remain secret. It is said, (bin no 
doiibt mi Sir uit authority) (hat die riding horses suddenly disappeared, and 
nothing but the supposed jtimujmtie« of fhe steed* of the turf, secured their me- 
fiuricu. That* in despair of mourning themselves otherwise, the troopers thought 
it e-spcdk'm to impounding fleet Arabian, unli! Lb associate ofihe ne*r stall 
should reappear and redeem him. But, Ute success of the expedient does not. 
appear u> have equalled expectation ; or, if it did t it was attended with colt- 
rniuitirju rfi'ects whidi neiimdizcd or enunfrrhuhiiiced every benefit. 

It was with no small difficulty* fhut (.itineral Greene prevailed uprm Steuben 
10 continue Jib indefatigable and culighieued efforts, to eoiiect ami forward 
TAjppfe mid recruit ihmi Vhginhn Such were the iroivns and check? be 
now met with> that his situation became scarcely tolerable. 13 tit, public duly, 
as well as private fesling, was forcibly pressed upon him, to parity and drtahi 
him* Experience had rendered 11 unquestionable, dim iviilioul hi* presence, 
ev cvy l h i n £ \ v auh I a gain returi it a s tate of rie ra nge me nt a 1 1 d a u spe nsi on . A 1 1 
UU zeaf, experience and talents had been insufficient to effect much ; bin, with- 
out hm i T it was voi-y obvious, that his commander must expect nothing Vlhh 
very inadequate support bt had succeeded hi forwarding two detachments to 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 4 

the avmyauhe most rriiiral momenta at ihesame time that he held Arnold shm nur 
up in his strong hold, and kept vnnoua small establishments in action, in repair- w 
ing arms, casting camion, and furnishing cartridge*, lead, &c. for the main army, 
Greene felt that his OTgjaflbciiTg head, comprehensive mind, and steal, nuU'kcncd 
b> private affection, were of I he uiuiost importance to him in the present state of 
faiit affairs. After urging, hi several letters, I he necessity of his remaining, 
mixed with «he must imuifected regret at heiug deprived uHiis tahiuts in camp, 
the general concludes with observing r— ** However, my dear sir, when yon 
consider the critical and disagreeable si mat ion I ft in in — the little prospect I 
have .of acquiring gJnry — and the U In J oat certain disgrace that wilt neconipam 
my manoeuvres* (from the nature ami constitution of our army, and from 
the, many diflk.uEtics I have to encounter) ajul compme joutf shuaikm with 
mine, you may think yourself happy T llmt you iflft* not in as pcrpiexmtr a stale 
as 1 am. I wish both our prospects were hotter* — but mine, of nil men 1 ?, is 
mf^t disagreeable- Let -us labour and faint not — haply we may gft through 
ike thormj path in tin? limt^and hij ways and means not very clear to either of m 
at pf£$&tU$* 

Great as had been the onagri ne of the American commander, when he found 
himself compelled to halt at UarnsEty 1 * Mill, (he intelligence winch he enllected 
at thai place, was calculated greatly to increase it. It was the first lime shire 
the haUle of Guilford, that he hail occupied the gnu i ml recently a ha n finned 
by jhe enemy; and here he was enaNcd ro Either information relative in iheir 
disi it-sses, which set h beyond a doubL, that they might Imve been overtaken, 
ami must have been fiesiroyed.i" " I have it,*' says he, m a letter to the 
present of congress, lL from good authority, that I he enemy sn/frrerl in the 
hs&fc of Guilford, a Jo^s of G33 t exclusive of officers — ami most of their 
principal officers were killed or wounded. They have met with a defeEii in a 
victory. On Hornby, all the Virginia militia return borne, and once more 
I shall be left with a handful of men, exposed tl) a superior force, and he 
obliged lo seek safety in flight. These are some of the disagreeable effects of 
it temporary army. The greatest advantages are often last by the tmrij^s HU- 
bu tiding at ihe mast crii ien! moment- Never was an unity in greater distress 
lhan I he British. They were loaded with their wot mded T aud mast have fallen 
a sucfjOcc had nm the torkrs given ihrin support. .Many have juiiied the, 
enemy, ami many have fallen ulll Nothing but blood and slaughter has pre- 
vailed among the whigs and Tories ; mid theft Inveteracy towards each other t 



\\*ri\Ci ~ Match *Q t 



44 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chap, must. If it conijiuicsj depopulate the country- We have been exposed to in- 
credible. diiucuUics in stibsminy, the army, end the manner of doing it, has 
been clirtrfrtiiiig to many of tin: inhabitants 

* : I hope, when the dt(i'icuhics arc taken into view, which J have had to 
encounter, it will appear 1 have done every tiling ivhkh could he expected 
iron i One in my situation. It wiU be impossible to wppoil the swihrnt van 
itith inititkt. The obstruction to business, and the waste attending the service 
will soon pin U nut of the power of these states to make further exertions." 

It was not until the Gth of April, that Greene received the intelligence that 
sanctioned the commencement of liis projected operation?.* On that day, he 
wan informed that the enemy was in full march for Wilmington, and bad 
descended Cony miles below Cross Creek- The halt of the American army 

M 

at ltumsav ? s Mill — the e\ertions made to collect provisions — and the advance 
of Colonel Lee on the route of CormvalhV retreat, were ucll calculated to 
persuade the British commander, that the pursuit was not yet discontinued : 
and the prevalence $f thi* opinion had been countenanced by the American 
general, with a view to hasten the retire meat of the British army. Eur, in- 
depend an fly of the prospects which now opened in the south, Greene knew 
well, that Wilmington was too secure a post, for him to hope to succeed in an 
attempt at its rechiciiorh Craig had fortified tr. Tts peninsular situation, ren- 
dered it easily defensible while the enemy retained the un dispute* I command 
nf the com mm licutkm with It by water. 

Breaking op his camp at Ifefiis^s Mill on the 7rh + the American comman- 
der sent olT hi? hcaiy N|g$ge and all the stores filar could be spared fVcun pre- 
sent demands, on die rente by Sulphury to the head of rue Catawba :and cross- 
ing the Deep Hivcr, he descended a day's march on the direct route of pursuit, 
then taking the first convenient road to the right, he advanced directly upon 
Camden. The route which he pursued, crosses the Pee D^e, below ihe mouth 
of llocky Hirer, and passing through Anson county in rhe Piute of Vnrli Caro- 
lina, and the eastern part of Lancaster in South Carolina, rrosse* the 1 ranches 
of Lyuch 7 s Creek some miles above then- confluence. The i isuuiee to Camden 
was about 1#0 miles, the counrry poor, desart -xr- ' exhausted, \: r <Hieh was the 
perse vera nee with which this march was urged, thru ah hough delayed at the 
Pee Dee for want of boats full four days, on ibe 19th die American general 
made his appearance before Camden. 



* Letter to Steuben^ A pril £. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 45 

High rained and flattering were ihe hopes with which lie approached that chap 
place, he was sure thai tie hail pieecded nil relief from the army of Cornwulns, 
siml fondly imagined clmr his march was unknown and unsuspertett by Raw don, 
and theeuemy'sremforcenioutsruloflf by fSumptrr and Pick civs. U was hot so : the 
country from which he had marehed, and that through which he bad marched, 
were too much infested with loyalist* to ad in It of his making a single move- 
nt em unobserved. Runners from die tprjc» had preceded him six days, and 
long enough to enable the commander of the gnrrUoti to summon to his aid a 
considerable body oftoyalists arid recruits under Major Frazier, from the batiks 
of the Saluda and Broad Rivers ; and in his great moral! cat ion, Greene found 
that the garrison of Camden was fully eqrjftj to the force that Jie had brought 
against k. Still, however, he advanced, bunt on im attempt to carry it by 
assault, when, upon reeonuokerhig, he found thai im force w-as wholly inade- 
quate to the purpose. 

The place is situated on a gentle elevation* extending from the Swamps on 
the Watcrec River to Pine Tree Creek, and was covered to the south and west 
by tilOSE streams, while a chain (ft redoubts defended it on every open point, 
and strong stockaded lines in Ihe rear of these redoubts, completed the defence. 

Without battering cannon, co subdue it washopejess : and nothing remained 
hut to sit down belbre ii and tempt Lhe garrison from their strong; hokh With 
this view, on the 2th h } he took ptwi on a small rising ground, within half a mile 
of the enemy T s line*, at a place on the Waxsaw Road ; and the enemy mani- 
festing ho intention to accept ihe challenge, he retired a mile and a quarter 
further, and took posi on a rising ground »f moderate elevation, on the same 
road, known by the name of IJohkirk 1 ! Hill, With his left covered by an im. 
passable branch, and his ri^lu approaching a thicket almost impenetrable. 

Here we hum leave him for some days waiting and desiring the attack of 
the enemy, while we rim over u few concurrem e veins connected with, and 
having an influence upon the subsequent movements of the southern army. 



If; MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



HMAP. 
Ml 



CHAPTER XIL 



Ixt Fayette detached to l r irtr'mia. fknertd Philips* incasitm. I^rd CarmraUis 
hwvm from Wilmington fm Petersburg, Forms a junction uitlt Philip^ 
Command. Advances upon La Fayette. The latter retreats across tin: Rop- 
pitJitinnoch For ins a junction trith Wayne. Tarteton and Simcoe?* M€W* 
sion* Cornictdlix marches to support them* La Fayette *Atowa himself in 
face of Lord Cornicallis. The latter retreats to Richmond, to Norfolk^ vutl 
then takes post at York Town, La Fayette form a junction with Steuhcn* 
Pursues Comwallis, Fall of York Town. Re-enforwments ordered to the 
mnthem army, Lee** Mutemmts* Capture of Fort Watson* Daltk &f 
Hohkifkh Hill. Correspondence, 



THE rcailer will recollect, that at die time General Greene was appointed to 
die southern department, «¥* left tJie Freneli fleet closet)' blockaded in the 
harbour of Newport. The supcriurih' ssiid vigilance of the British CGift? 
mauiier., precluded nil attempt to escape until the Ta*t of January, l?9Ji when 
one of those tempts which .so frequently occur on this eoa^r at thai .season* 
dismasted, disabled, or wrecked the whole British fleet, h was this event 
which enabled the French admiral to dbpatch the am»B squadron under Dc 
Tilly, whose sudden appearance in the Chesapeake, had given to the t&m of 
the allies, a momentary ascendancy in the waters of Virginia, fini, Ad- 
miral De Touches, (for be Tiemey was then dead) well knew thai this small 
force wotftd soon be pursued by a superior fleet ; mid, therefore, ^w those 
orders which occasioned ihe early tviiremcnt of the French, after etketing 
only die indecisive purposes of a coup dc main. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. - & 

In The mean time General Washington ever watchful for the moment of chap. 
tufi-qiMSf , huil arranged with the French minister and ad mini L a joint expedi- 
tion by fiiiid an'] water, against the Urn Lsh force nnder Arnold, now daily 
p*i*ectingto be reinforced by thai ready to sail from New York under ( ie noral 
"Philips, JfortuisptupnseiheMarn.UH La Fayette, who (ever bent on joining Iris 
friend* had now proceed cd as tar souih as LMersbur^) was recalled to lake com- 
mand of a detachment of 1200 men drawn from the Jersey and Massac luiseit* 
lines, and ordered on by the American commander, into Virginia* In the mean 
lime, the French fleet* whli 1 lUCHroops on board, set sail on the nth of March 
for the Chesapeake liay* Bui such 3 tad been the expedition with which he British 
fleet was repaired* that hi two days after the sailing of Dc Tone lies, Admiral 
Athitthnot. got tinder way in pursuit of him. Every sail w T as bent and every 
nautical expedient resorted to by the British commander, to anticipate lih com- 
petitor The object was as interesting, the situation of the contending parlies 
as critical in this nam teal race, as in cither of those which we have reccuHy ten 
following w i th the eye, by land, Ai length the Cajws of Virginia appeared in 
view, on Ins starboard bow, with the French fleet fall in view, making for it 

from the south. 

Never was the military maxim more completely verified, " that in war days 
are years." But n very few horn's sooner, and the entrance of ihc French 
fleet into the Chesapeake must have effected a toml change in the aspect of ihe 
southern war- La Fayette had crossed to the town of Anna pub's, awaiting its 
arrival and prepared to defend by water and cueet a junction whh the French 
detachment ; and the vigilant and intelligent Steuben had constructed forts on 
James River, to see me to the fleet a safe mul commodious retreat. The French 
troops once landed, the Americans under La Faycilc milted with ihem, ihose 
scattered through Virginia ml leered, mid the whole supported hy the militia, 
the British fleet may have secured *i retreat to Arnold, bin nothing more, Vir- 
ginia once disembarrassed of him, and tttis vihole united force might have been 
turned igatet Coruwallis and produced that L-o-npcnicmn which it has been seen 
in a preceding pa <rc, Greene so anxiously wished from La Fayette. 

Gut, atl thi^c rxlrilirnun* hopes wrre now dashed r.o the ground. An eu- 
^a^ement took place between the two flms — thej parted with eo.ua! claims to 
victory — and the Firnrh ridmiral. instead of renewing die mutest with a force 
not superior to his own, sailed away to re-occupy his snug corner at New- 
port 

Here again occurred cme of those pranks of fortune- which seem ever to have 
haffled a! J the operations of the French fleets in the war of the revolution. 
General Philip in the interim, had sailed from New York in the wake of 



4a MAJOR GENERAL GKEtiNE, 

cumk ArbLirimOL, and how the French fleet gut back to Newport, without encotnv 
*" teriug and destroy frig nhi^ British detachment, nuist ever remain unexplained- 
Philips arrived in safely, and a junction of 2O00 troops of The finest quality, 
iv* Eh those* under Arnold, soon bore down all opposition. 

Before liitt departure of Philips from Neiv York, the situation of the Ame- 
rican army under Washington, wax 30 reduced, and so critical, as to make It 
necessary for La Fayette to make a retrogade movement, so as to be ready* 
*liou|d Philips threaten the commander in chief, to fly immediately to bis aid* 
If was on tlds occasion, that the frmtinous conduct uf the iroojis under his com- 
mand, drc\v forth from this inestimable young soldier, that effort of benevo- 
lence and patriotism, which rendered him so very popular amtut" the Ame- 
rican soldiery. Scarcely hat! In] succeeded in recrossiug his tronps from 
Annapolis to the head of Elk, when he was mcl by aft express from the 
commander m chief, announcing the Sailing of Philips, and bidding him 10 
hasten his march and oppose hi* meditated desceni upon Virginia, or junction 
with Cornwall] a. THo troops were immediately halted: and as (he command 
or the bay by the British, rendered U haj-ardous to attempt once more the 
piratic to Annapolis the line of march was then taken up for Baltimore, 
ascending (he easr side of the Isay. 

It was in the early part of the mouth of April] and die north winds in dial 
climate still blew keen. The half- nuked soldiers became sullen and intrac- 
table. The stains on whom the duly devolved, hud neglected to clothe dieni ; 
and the United States had neither money nor credit to supply die deficiency. 
Bat. La FnyelleV purse was as open as Ins heart — his private credit soon pro- 
cured til & neecssan' materials, and every fair band in Baltimore, vyas pL'nmpi- 
I y set in motion* in preparing his purchases for immediate use. Ue will not 
detract from the merit of the act km, by admitting the surmifie, that the z<-al 
of the American ladles, needed to be animated, by the presiMicc of the iiHcrCblin* 
youn!* commander. The services of the fair of Baltimore, nol less than of 
every other pari of the union, were ever ready when ihrj wants of their country 
presented an opportunity for bestowing litem* 

It ha 1 ? bf-en further added, that, on ihU occasion* the marquis resorted to a 
method of piquing the pride and awakening tin: soldierly feelings of his army,* 
by offering permission to retire, to any individual who was willing to accept 
It We feel no inclination to detract from the marquis, the reputation uf 
having successfully resorted 10 a measure so bold, ami whieh has before, and 



^Marshal** I4fe of Washington, Vol. 1, p. 1- I. 



MAJOK GENERAL GREENE. 45 

dinc-c added so much to the celebrity of other commanders ; nor, from the chai\ 
American ioUEiiir, diat of having blushed at the offer, a ltd shrunk from it, as 
from a temptation to dishonour. But, we fear, that lis ere would have been 
too much danger, under listing circumstances, in making the ofier, lest the 
marquis should hu involved in all the embankments, which would have 
attended a prompt acceptance : and we would not willingly leave him under 
the Imputation of an act of romantic indiscretion. It is not tor us to deny the 
fact ; we can only say, that the following original accounts of this affair, from 
the marquis and Dr, AITlimry, then at. the head of the board of war in Mary- 
land tagpsftl tf*a suspicion, that this was one of the unfounded or political 
rumours of that daj T . 



James M 7 Henry to General Greene, 

« Baltimore, April 16^,1781. [Extract,] 

" While I admire your policy, I have more than once pitied the marquis 7 
situation* Mis troops passed here yesterday, discontented almost to general 
desertion j destitute of shirts and proper equipments, and in most respects un- 
provided for a march. You know (lie marquis * Hi: has been with us bin two 
days; but, hi this time, he adopted an expedient to conciliate them to a de- 
gree, w lit ch i]o one but himself would have thought of. To-day, he signs a 
contract, binding himself to certain merchants of this place, fox above two 
thn-isnid guineas, to be disposed of in shirt s, overalls, and hats, for the de- 
tachment Without these the army could not proceed ; and with these, he 
has managed to reconcile them to the service. He is also bent upon trying 
the power of novelty on their minds, by giving to the march the air of a frOlk. 
His troo[)S will ride in waggons and carts, from Elkridgc^Umdhig to the limits 
of this stale, and how much further he will continue this mode of movement, 
depends on Virginia." 



The letter from the marquis, is dated the day after that from Dr. M ; Hemy, 
and contains an interesting and exculpatory account of the sufferings of the 
poor fellows, whom tie was obliged to punish with one hand, whilst he was 
relieving them with the other, Such had been the necessity for secrecy and 
dispatch, when they were ordered ofT from New Windsor, that they wen: 
hurried away under an impression, that they were proceeding on a march of a 
few days. The consequence was, that even the officers woe destitute of 

VOT.. II. * 



50 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. money, clothing, and cvory thing Thai could contribute to cleanliness and 
^^v^ com fort. Arrived at Trenton* ihey were crowded on board of sb a J lops, and 
passing down to Newark} were landed and marched across the isthmus to 
the Load of the Elk. Here they began to take a deliberate survey of their situa- 
tion, and- at this lime, their murmurs were suppressed only by the suggestion 
of a short mid rapid expedition against Arnold. On ihtir retrograde in arc! i, 
they were still contented, for they were approaching the depository of their 
wives, and of the few little comforts which their encampment had uflbrdi'd 
them, Money had also been trans loitted to head-quarters by the state of 
Massachusetts, for the pay of her troops ; and present .-urTerings were forgotten 
under the enlivening prospects of approaching enjoyments, But, every hope 
was blighted when the co miter man ding orders arrested their jTfeggrets With- 
out tents, (for many, even of the officers, slept in the op™ air)— their shoes 
wort i out — their hats lost in their repeated voyages — iu a state (as die; marquis 
expresses it) " of shocking nakedness'' — not the least panic] t- of bus^asc 
attending their marc It — no provision made for n protracted absence from dieir 
wives and families, (many of whom had joined them, and been left; at their 
winter quarters) murmuring at being thus hurried oft" without notice to pre- 
pare for the service they were entering upon, reason a hly fearing thai their des- 
tination was, to serve in a climate which they dreaded, and supported bv the 
general pity winch their case excited — such was the temper of his army, 
that many of the officers assured the marquis, it would soon he reduced to one 
half by desertion. Facts supported the suggestion, for thirteen out of one 
romoanv, de^ei'tcd in a single, dav. 

To add to the general state of distress, a nauseous and contagious disease, 
generally produced, and always aggravated by a nant of cleanliness, had 
nearly overspread the whole camp ; audi naked and exposed, and kept in 
motion as the soldiers wcrc^ the ordinary remedies could not be applied for 
their cure, with safety to their general health. Desertion cannot, for arty cause, 
be pardoned in an army ; but. h is impossible to view such a complication of 
, distresses in a camp, widiout admiring the passive merit which could resist the 

impulse to desert. 

After drawing this melancholy picture of the state of his army, the mar- 
qtus proceeds : 

:L Now, my dear general, that I have given you an account of our situation. 
f beg leave to submit to you the measures that F have thought proper ro take. 
My first object was to get the troops this side the Susquehannah, and request the 
miliua officers to pick up deserters and send them to me Immediately* [then 
made an address to the detachment which, enforced by the difficulty of eroding 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. M 

the river, and me shame I endeavoured to. throw on desertion, has alinust chat 1 
entirely stopped it. The men are now on the other side of thu Kidgc Ferry, 
which is a new barrier: two deserter* have been taken up, one of thciii I wilt 
km&kfflte&L ta-inonow* and die odier, as well as another soldier who behaved 
amiss, will be disgraced so far u* to be dismissed from their corns. And as om 
brave nnd excellent men (for this detachment is exceeding!}' good) are shock- 
Jikgly destitute of linen, I have borrowed from the merchants of Ball hn ore a 
sii:i3 on inv credit, which ™~U1 amount to about: two thousand pounds, mid will 
procure a few hats, soine shoes, some blankets and a pair of 1 hi en overalls ta 
eoeh man. I hope to sci The Baltimore ladies at work for The shirts, which will 
be sent tiller me, and the overall* will be made by our tailors. 1 will use my 
influence to have me money added to the loan which die French court have 
mnxk to the United £iatcs f and In ease 1 cannot succeed, bind myself to die 
merchants for payment with interest in two yeans. MTienry, now president 
of the Baltimore board of ivar 7 has jjivcu me a very Important nid to brin^ 
about this arrange til cut," 

Cheat and just was the eelat acquired by the marqnls on this occasion. HLi 
cotimiporarics appeared at a le^s which most to admire, his ingenuity, magna- 
uhmtv. decision or engaging urbanity. Yct ? we shull have occasion, In the 
sequel of diesc sketches to bring to the view of the reader, an instance of exact- 
ly the same effort made by the commander of die southern department, which 
Involved Usui in fiitr moi-it injurious suspicions, spread a gloom over die hours uf 
bis retbTment, atirl bad nearTv brought his family to an alms-house. 

Trau^uhliiy and discipline were once more restored m the command of the 
manjiiis, and every waggon or cart that could be commanded, being put hi 
requisition, die troops wore raj n illy hurried forward to Richmond. The novel- 
ty ami relief phased the soldiers, die increasing distance from their homes dimi- 
nished the facility of desert ion, the baggapc nnd artillery \vt*r% left to follow on, 
and the lime thus gained was barely suLfidcm to check tint advance of Philips. 
As La Fayette entered Richmond] die British army made its appearance at 
Manchester, on the opposite bank of James River. 

Rinbarking about 2500 men at Portsmouth, General Philips Inid ascended 
James [fiver in light vessels and landed below Petersburg* while Arnold, 
with nil the troops that could be spared iVom die defence of Portsmouth, ad- 
vanced up the west lank, Willi the view to joining Philips on (he route to 

Richmond. 

Sieubcn ? who was posted wjdi about 2000 mi lit hi be tow Petersburg, neces- 
sarily retreated across the Appomattox*, nnd by destroying the bridge across that 
river, succeeded in defying the march of the enemy, barely long; enough to 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chap, secure the arrival of the inan|ws. At Richmond drey formed a jnnciion, and 
La Fayette being; now at the head of about 1000 regulars, 20(JO militia and W 
cavalry, found himself in condition to check rhe advance of the British general* 
La Fayette's artillery onnlr.1 not keep pace with him, bin having brought on die 
matrasses attached to Ills command, he was enabled to man sncli artillery as 
the place afforded. 

A singular coincidence now presented itself to the public eye. The com- 
mander who opposed Genenil Philips was the son of one who had d\\Unt at thr 
battle of iVEindcn, by a shot from the artillery commanded by that offire-r* r l lib 
fact h noticed by La Fayette in a letter to General Greene, and is modestly 
followed by a solicitation to be continued in command again si his present ad- 
versary, in these words ; — ** As to the love of command, newspaper paragraphs, 
&ic* &c, you have so little ambition^ my dear general, thai yon cannot conceive 
my wishes on t&fte accounts, were h not from the know led^i you have been 
ahle to get from urn- intimacy. .But those moTive* ;ire to be cm nf inr question 
where public good h mterestfid, unci whatever can be done frflh propriety, 1 
know you would Lie glad to gratify me in. 1 nil I now only mention thai 
General 1' tulips 4 battery, at Mind en, having killed my father, I should have no 
objection to contract the latitude of his plans-" 

This hint had become necessary from the following cause : As the com- 
mand in Virginia had been delegated to Steuben, whilst La Fayette was 
designer! for a command in the main army, the baron bad expressed the most 
serious chagrineat being now superceded , at the very moment when an oppor- 
tunity presented itself for active service. To give nnibragr o» either of two 
officers whom General Greene valued so highly, would have been 1o him the 
subject of the most serious regret. Yet, all his address was neeessarv to 
manage so as to continue La Fayette in command, without dLtguslingr a man 
whose 7eal and fidelity bad rendered him such important services. But, Steu- 
ben had become unpopular m Virginia , and every (lung was to be expected 
front the strong public partialities In favour of La Fayette, and the high opinion 
justly entertained of his capacity as a Soldier, Greene addressed the baron as 
a rriend, a man of understanding, and a zealous advocate of die cause; and 
the latter submitted with a magnanimity and self denial, which furnish not the 
least of his claims on the gratitude of tins country. 

Philips, after consuming immense quantities of private, and some public 
property, and destroying or capturing alt the American shipping on the river, 
retired towards the mouth of the Apporncttos, at id soon offer, waft joined by (he 
detachment under Arnold. In this position, they awaited (he Approach of 
tntord Cornwailis, wbllsi La Fayette, on the opposite aide of James River, 



MAJOR GEINTERAL GREENE. $5 

retired to a convenient distance for watching in security the movements of caar. 
the etieniv,and took jmst near the Cbirkahomcray, waiting ihc arrival of his 
re-en force mrnts from the north- 

The [principal uf the expected re-en force men rs was the Pennsylvania line. 
This body of troops, whose celebrated revolt the preceding winter, shook the 
American cause to the very centre, was now on the march tinder \V:iyiiCj to 
re-enforce die southern army. Reduced, dcercpld, and way -worn a* was the 
force under Greene, lie had not hesknteri on hearing of die e\|H^luio[i under 
Philips j and the detaching of the troops, now tinder La Fayette, lo issue 
orders to this rc-eoforeement to join the marquis, and act tin tier his orders 
until the present d tinge r was averted fivim Virginia, With the moat opposite 
aniiripaiton& La Fayette now expected Its approach. The object next his 
heart was, to enter upon aggressive operations; but, still he foresaw that the 
junction of these Troops migbl prove in him die shirt of Ne&sns. Jt will be 
seen tit i lie sequel, thai they had nearly proved so to General Greene. Refer- 
ring to the mutiny which he had recently quelled in his own command, he 
oh*ervcs;—>' From what had passed between the Jersey soldiers, ami those of 
New England, I foresee some innum-mence (o join them to the Pennsyl- 
vania ns — the more so as the last, bemuse tkey have rfivohrtt f ate uwii r.kui f md 
izeH paid."* 



•Tins? ivaa literally tme, and was one of tbo&ounhiirrfty results u-htclj seldom fail to issue from 
(LgwwiiiiHni 1 * suffering Use]i to crt in Uic WW))£, The ytnat on wliicb I Ik FejjnsyU.ini,! Uitt omlly 
grounded their rcvuU T win* dwsnuir wfiidi hn* uwn mono i*m -surly much agitata] (mlwcun ihu \mc- 
ricj&n gnfcruiiu'ni aiid ir> ;trmy* Tht sohlio*ft i W»Ni enlisted for a Cfi-iaiii number nf yeur.t, at /fa- 
w«r. At the fxpir^riou of ih^ rerin of yenrs, tlwy ri>mnnded ilnir -lisrb.irge j ,irni nfify resisting 
iM* ju*l chim, and iLuinioW atJ the turrons am! rmf ilaugra of a i-evrdi, which hml tommi unrated 
pit- rniitiiriuii toother brandies of die or Fn>' t tin* govern eiicd! tvitzi oblk-vd la atiquies^c, Fttr$a 
many ifttwit, at tfa imc. certni n] y meant for (ling Ihrie, if the wur should vt lat^iast. Ulse, why 
ijjeftfy ■ H?rnt »f yean, v ptilbtmi'iita (or the war would hiive expressed die swiSiC of die «oii- 
tfttCJJQg (nn-rics? Vft t we hare Mun? us ihft njjinfcqa both pf Gi?nernt Washington ami uf General 
Gh«jH?, in ihcir private correspondence, llinT Ihe mutiny was not a pn'rucdiiacrd t-vt tit ? bot the 
result of mtidden ebullition rouse*] Eittni upun ilj.fi iticUsfreti-Lin^ uf suffrrnitf iht; soldier* to hirlnt^e 
thujTHuiJviu two freely w\ Ui lienor on n ew year's $ ny * To the (Wrfiynal inllircnce cf (i^ir;^! ReaJ 
And <jpncrid U'ayni>, ihv ffluoiry nwai thf (|m!lim; of the nuitijiy, without a Eiy very ss. L tjLfUi rr.-iuli. 
Weiu-t; in possesion of die o|Tici;tL attount of diUevcm, cornniuiiJCrtkd to General Grrfurin k'tter* 
Ooii! varitmi inwrt<*rs T |j ulT^-tl'tvlv froru .Mr- 31n(ljs«nr T (be latfr pre^iVknl ; but + wc ranruK outwit 
pect, djiit tl« accoubl ^hjblbilini tiftjg Bonifwhul gJws«il aver, ilutc we tmve tjefor^ us* eko fl. tc-t^h 



54 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. But, tli *y were no Inngrr as when (hey revolted, a body of thirteen hundred 
men, w r ith sue Acid pieces* Their number* were red Lifted to little more than 
otic half; and die ilisriplinc of thai half, La Fayette well knew, must have 
been seriously weakened by their triumph in the Uw revolt; for T not a man 
bad bc-cn punished ; nnd the triumph of it volt, whatever be the groin ids of ir, 
leaves nearly die same effect in a II esses upon libs sense of subordination in an 
army. Btfflfj however, ! t W||S accessary to bravo every thing from die. in, for 
he Could ilo little or nothing wirhniit them: although In the march Wayne did 
not dare to trust them with cartridges* 

From the lirst moment of General Greene's being appointed to the southern 
command, the friendly efforts of (lovernor Rcarl and General Vartiuni, had 
been exerted to obtain this body of troops *o re- en force the southern unity, 
liar, it was not until after the battle of Guilford, that General Washington 
could spare thejm Re- enforce m mis recently received from dm reward, ami 
the reduction of the force in New York by the detaelnuculs seat to Phnrlr-sinti 
and Virginia, enabled him then to uddrtfs congress on the subject, anil obtain 
an order for d eta chin* them to serve in the sondi. Their recent revolt, no 
doubt, recommended the measure from various consider a dons- It was not a 
popular service — they were the troops That could he best spared — mid a re- 
moval to a distance might control their mutinous temper, Yet. they never got 
to Carolina until die war was over, and were scare ulv at rest be lure their mu- 
tinous spirit reappeared. We shall have occasion to give an act u of the 

decisive steps which were then used inwards diem. One of the sergeants who 
led them in the laie revolt, there expiated oil the gallows, an almrtive repe- 
tition of his crime* 

The advance of General Greene into South Carolina, appears to have been 
the subject of much surprise to Lord Cornwallis. Although he must have 
received unquestionable intelligence of it by the 18th, it whs not uuril rite 2i\h 
of April that he appear* to have come to a resolution upon the counter mea- 
sures thai must be adopted. lu a letter of that dale to General Philips, he 
intimates his intention of directing bis march towards Hillsborough,* in order 
In draw uflf the aucnrion of the American commander to that point ; and, if it 



rroni General Yaniuui, in which he tatls ti, u a pn]iiti:aJ account tor «p for titf occaj&JH, In- ymr 

friend Bead.** 

CltUjii it is, lhal all itwn-bo had wrt^i^ui the apoeifwd t<vm of years, rrcciv^l tlirir dbrfuugjc ; 
uml rite rwkluc w*nr, (>silit t8*f$£? expresses H) tfffl rfothM wtrf tccU intiA tetffcWWHi of 

* See Ttodrton's tump* urn! repl v lu ihir TSiwiativ* |>. $& 



MAJOE GENERAL GREENE. oii 

should fail to produce the* de&ml etTectj ilicu, liy indiums to his right, in. effect tmp. 
a junction with Philips in i lie vicinity of Petersburg. 

Kibble would have bee a Itii bcp££ of success from this measure, could lie at 
thai time have penetrant the secrets of Greene's purr-folio. The AinciiciiJi 
co m mai n ler by this time was well satisfied that his rival could not escape die 
toil* prepared for him, whether lie returned into Carolina, continued where he 
was, or penetrated into Virginia. The approach of u powerful French fleet 
was now an unpaid, a joint expedition m the C\ lesnpeakc 1m (J been resolved 
on, and could die army undo? Philips be defeated, that event would be imme- 
duimly succeeded by the advance of the marquis on Cormvallis ivith an over- 
whtdmln^ force* Or should G or tiwnlljs penetrate bno Virginia, and: effect a 
junction with Philips Wayne was advancing wiili his Pennsylvaiiuins, die 
Virginia militia might be collected, and La Fayette was prepared to amuse 
and detain him by the same game so recently played off by Greene himself, 
Liiiiji the urj'ivitl nf a I 1 Yen eh force winch he could urn escape from. 

To avoid alt limuv interruptions to the current ol'oiir nan ad vfy we will 
follow the IkitJsh commander to the close of his rmefr, and exhibit On- distress- 
m« influence of inam events attending it, upon the wants ami movements of 
the southern army- 
Three wceKs fnul Gtepscd after the arrival of Lord CormvatJfc at Wibning- 
toiij before he fimud himself in a rnndhmn to put his army in motion. The 
pieC% put on his advance at the Dan, am] the wounds inflicted at Guilford, 
hud put oft 1 ins invasion of Virginia lor two mouths, during winch he wouJd 
have mm no enemy in that state (hat could have faced him in the field. Nor 
pouhJ the commander in chief have detached nm 1 , before his re-eiiforccmciits 
from the eastward had arrived, liven after the arrival of the marquis In Virgi- 
nia, a junction, formed between Lord Cm-mvallis' troops and Philips', must 
have given the British curmmmder the undivided command of the suite. 

The state of Vh^hiia was at tins time in a tuisernbly defenceless condition* 
Xlia (in' run ate arrival of iIh* troops of Massachusetts 01 id New Jersey, had 
checked the advance of Philips within gun-shot of her capital ; but had he met 
1 to other forces hi ihe fictd thnii those which Virginia had thru on foot, he might 
have hi surely traversed the whale stnu\ The few militia under Steuben, pre- 
sume -1 no obsMnh 1 Id his march ; mid the few half uiiktt.1 troops in his depot, 
had u "it to- clothes nor arms m take the field wid>. Vet, even w ilns lime, she 
po anted a milhiu of fifty thousand; thirteen thousand of whom it thanked rim 
emmirv adjacent to the seat of war* 




.ft MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

But her historians* assert that her iroojte had been inarched away to rc-eii- 
fince the sou tli em army. This subject has been before to ushered, and no 
re-enforcements had reached the southern army since (he detachment under 
Campbell The Virginia line then under Greene, numbered uboui seven hun- 
dred, and there were about five hundred recruits in Ihr depot at Chesterfield* 
Ha ran Steuben hud urhten 10 General G re erne that he could calculate on no 
more rc-cnforcemcnts from that quarter; ami no more ever joined him, nut 
even the recruits then hi depot, with the exception of about iivn hundred near 
the gktie of the war. 

Whenever this subject shall he candidly investigated T we believe that the 
defenceless stale of Virginia at tills time, will be 1'nuiid. in a great measure, 
attributable to the derangement* incident to pacing from her system of enlist- 
ment to that of conscripdon. It is not m the midrt of war and poverty that 
such radical change are to be effected. A whole eonnmmity is not ca^tfy 
impelled to an hupnrtam change of habits or upjuons* The owe vm\ contcm- 
plated , was peculiarly calculated to e\ciie dis^usij intrigue anil opposition. 
However palpable to the legislative body, the policy ami necessity of resorting 
to the conscriptive system^ it was not easy to reudet palatable to the propter a 
measure, under which they were to exchange voluntary for compulsive, tempo- 
rary for jjcremiial, and miliria for mercenary service. But iliore were radic&l 
defects in the system adopted, that necessarily generated di 111 cully and 
delay. To divide* fifty thousand men T scattered over such a territory, into 
two thousand nvnr hundred and four parts, with pine reference to an equal 
distribution of wealth and numbers, was not die work of a day, If at all 
practicable, it required a detail of appointments, arrangement^ inquiries, and 
estimates, that could not fail to call up a thousand intrigues and discontents* 
originating hi selfishness, sol-jhI habits, or Territorial and family connexion*. 
Vet, this project has been recommended in more modem times, instead of the 
more obvious and si mole means of resorting at once to esjslhig us Hilary dis- 
tributions. If the imagination of man can surest one method more prompt 
than all others, of raisitig a a efficient and virtuous army, it is that of con- 
script! on. It would hear In Us. vitals the carreetive of the dangers apprehended 
from a standing army- Hundreds of thousands could* in a very few months, 
he brought into the held in the United State?* by pursuing this meihotl The 
adjutant general's office could,, at all limes, be made to furnish the means of 
defining the quota of every company in The United Siaics : A fe.v days uoiilrf 



MiH alia LI ;\mi Lb*, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 57 

hr SiLi'iicK-nt to parade and (Trail fhr.m, and Tfu> individual, liU siuVliiiite, or chai- 
tiis ransom, could promptly be placed at the disposal of the government : that, 
ran Kin is mtisi be adulate to tin* ptirchnse of a aubstUutc* And a judicious 
system for inuning our militia, would quality our voufli, ere they attained ike 
age which (minifies them to participate in their country's sovereignty, to stand 
forth who u nulled U|ion, as disciplined soldiers in their country's defence* 
Such are the youth of the only country in Europe, that owes its freedom to 
its own valour. But, such materials are too valuable to supply the mere mer- 
cenary of tile times of peace* Ignorance, Indolence, and vice r rnutiiiually 
furnish a cinss of men, winch a country must ttuws employ, to save than from 
die jn'iiitfiiiinrv 

It i^ confidently h< lieved, that the conscript ivc system of Virginia did nor 
bring a single man into the lieJd \ mi universal Humour against its unequal 
operation, contributed to paralyze nil ill e subsequent mcasiiresof that state in 
the war i Llie escecuiive arm was quite too feeble to carry it into effect. Even 
thr spirit of volunteering seems to have sunk before it; and Virginia* from (ills 
nnie> owed her protection to the troops of other states The same system, on 
a betrer p)an t adopted lit an earlier period, when the enthusiasm of ibe people 
weis unabated, ami steadily persisted in, might have made her indeed » the 
matrix of southern opposition,^ 

Tile iew troops collected a* Chesterfield, were now SO destitute of every 
ihui£ f that Steuben asserts, they could scarcely he turned out on drill. Re- 
cruiting appeared ro be altogether at a standi nod Steuben writes to Ids 
eommandcr in absolute despair. It was in vain that he urg;cd, solicited and 
remonstrated; lie svas no longer listened to; he state was fatigued, dispirited, 
ami exhausted} or implicated in too many em ban ass men is from its new system, 
lo attend to any other subject i and when Lord Corn wall is reached Petersburg, 
he appeared to have Eli tie else to do, bnMO Step over the necks of a prostrate 
people,* 

It was on the 23th of April, rhat Lord Cornwall is commenced his march 
from Wilmington. Pursuing his preconceived design, of making a movement 
that w r mld excite his a dvcrsary's jealousy for his supplier and re-eufoveemciits, 
and withdraw him from hfc designs in South Carolina* be first moved up the 
country cm the route lo Hillsborough. But, die feint was made in viiin ; for 
flm'tieV purposes were fixed, and he knew that Lord Cormvallb was still 



* Lw's .Mf moi i ■ *. 3d vm! . ri - ) ». Mut^il | , .\ yd . p. 4S3 ? -131?- 

vot- n. ft 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

Cl ** r too deeply impressed with tin? recollection of recent misfortunes, to venture 
again precipitately, ho far from Ins magazines sold support. 

Lord Connvuftis prosecuted this route only until its nullity un his adver- 
sary's movements could lip determined ; when, deviating to his right,, and 
dispatching Colonel Turletun to secure the means of transport suiou at Hafilhx 
jit North GiEriilimi, he crossed the Roanoke at that place, mid securely pursued 
his march to Petersburg, 

General i'liilip* was now dead* and Arnold had succeeded him. By \\w 
junction with his command. Lord Corn wall is now acknowledge himself m 
have been placed at ihe hnad of four thousand hie hundred troops, tint tin* 
account, if tested by the facts which soon after tnuispiml at Vork Town— ^ 
or by summing up the troops commanded by Arnold— rriose received lmik-j 
Philips — and those acknowledged by his lordship's official returns of the 1st of 
May, must he far below the reality* Vet f already greatly an overmatch ior 
ihe marqui*, his Kircuglh was, in a few ilnys after* increased by an addition 
of Uiree thousand nnops, arrived under the emu in and of General Leslie. 

The arrival ^i' fins re- en fore em em furnished Lord Ct>rn\va]Iis with die 
design for a brilliant amp fie mum attempted upon the marquis* Descending 
the right hank of James River* as if to mrm a junction whit Leslie, he 
prewired measure* for crowing suddenly below die marquis'' [josjtion, wiih the 
Inteuiion to turn Uis lift, and cot him otTfrom a retreai to die north, nod from 
a junction with Wayne. But, the hoy (a* he is said to have liren tauntingly 
styled by the British commander) was watchful of his adversary's movements, 
and promptly detecting tHcir" object, fell back to the r^munky, and deliberately 
retired a« Lord f ornwallis advanced, srilJ holding his magaKim'S and re-en- 
foi cement in hi- rear* iiinil In- placed Jus army in security beyond ihe head 
wnters of ihe Kapahannock* In a country full cjf huls and passes, his inferior 
force uas not to be despised : ami a juucimn now formed with Wayne, ai ihe 
head of eight hum! red disciplined troops, placed him in a condition that would 
sanction his entering upon a more daring course of on era lion* 

No American ought to pass over the interesting occurrences of this period 
withovit reflecting, that ihe defence of this great state, and with it of all thestatrfi 
of tbc unimu was conducted (and how ably and faithfully comiue ted !) by two 
foreigners, whom the loiee of Providence had called to our aid from conn- 
trie* almost unknown to us, and from nations which, until now, we had re- 
garded only with feelings of hostility* 

The advance of the British army up the country, bad e soiled in La Fayette 
and Steuben, a fortunate apprehension for two objects, whirli they justly con- 
jectured must be held in view by the British commander. At least, two 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 53 






thousand prisoners of war, it lias been seen, were at this time deposited m the chat*, 
interior of Virginia, as in a place of the grt&tcsf security. The march of, 
Li ml CorawaUIs would lead directly to this depot, and lids number iff men 
liberated, and armed from ihr laboratory a* the Point of Fork, or other 
depots of stores or nrms in ihe state, and what tn%ht not have been effected 
by the overwhelming force which would dicn have been placed under the 
British commander ? 

The provident rave of our two foreign commanders was Immediately di- 
rected to d*ose objects, The prisoners m ere marched off to Winchester, by the. 
orders of La Fayette, and the stores, arms, and every thing which their limited 
means of transportation would admit of, were carried up the nn-rtli branch of 
James llivei\ as high as Albemarle Old Co art- House. Nor was the depot 
of reeruils at Che>tcrnt*]d ncsjectcd. They were armed from dm laboratory, 
and equipped with every tiling that the stores would famish, ant J mure lied oil', 
uiii tar die eonnnnnd of Steuben, as far as the Staunton River, on their way 
to join f he southern army. 

All the vigunrice of (he two commanders was barely sufficient lo anticipate 
ihe hour of destmeljou. Lord Cornwulhs was now In h condition to ravage 
the whole country uordi and west of him, -without an enemy in that quarter 
to cheek his career ; and had penetrated so high up the country us to be 
brought within striking distance of the objects, which he stilt supposed within 
his grasp, or which he wished to anticipate die effort to remove. 

Very early in the campaign, General Greene had taken the greatest pains to 
impress upon the constituted authorities, hoth of North Carolina am] Virginia, 
the necessity or removing the horses out of the way, wherever die enemy 
might direct his march ; and in n!J lhr> troublesome, affair of the impressment 
of hoi-st 1 :?, he insists on the utiliiy of die m east ire* even nn ihe ground of its 
preserving theni from the hands of the enemy* He well knew the terrifying 
effect of a body of cavalry in rapid motion through a ivjantry ; its tendency 
to gather as it rolled, mid the facilities it afforded, not only in collecting sop- 
ptie* fur (heojif army* but in destroying those of the other, ffig warnings 
were uttered hi vain, nod Iris predictions sadly verified, 

In the fine count vy that stretches along the banks of the Roanoakc, and the 
middle counties of Virginia, Xmji (.-ornwaliis ljad T in Ins progress, collected 
h nrs« enough to mount a formidable Infantry, And, as if to mock the mur- 
murs that hud been raised against tin; impressments for tin? American army, 
had swept every hone of value before him. Many a noble animal that ought 
ro have borne the defenders of the country, was now destined to give velocity 
a\v\ effect to the progress ofits rava^er*. 



(50 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chai*. Availing himself of bis means of rapid invasion. Lorn! CormveJIip now 
i n _ .mounted tteaf one thousand afthe elite of bis troop*, and dividing inn?: into 
two nearly crpiul detachments, he placed one under the command of Colonel 
Sitncoe and the other midcr that of Colonel Tartecon. With these detachments, 
those officers moved rapidly from the banks of the North Anna, on which the 
lli-ii'tali army bad kilted from the pursuit of La Fayette, and penetrating the 
country to the westward, pa.sscd the upper waters flf James River without 
encountering die least opposition. Every thing was as calm and tranquil on 
their coarse as if soothed by the wand of profound peace* But die inhabitants 
were awaked from die-ir sleep by the devastations of the tornado, Turhuon 
punned [he direct route up die Rivanna to Charlotte villr, where the Virginia 
legislature was then in session ; while Si in roe moving tu the left, aimed directly 
for Ute eon fluency of the IUvanua and Fluvanna, the site of Steuben's labo- 
ratory. 

Colonel Tarleton Wfed in bodi his great object?, to wit, rhe release of the con- 
veniion troops ami mlier prisoners, and the capnirc of the- Virginia legislature; 
lim former we have seen had been pushed off by the provident care of La Fayette, 
btn the design was bold and masterly, Cor the otie detachment toevrricate ihem> 
while the other seized the arms to he pur into their hand*. Wilh regard tu the 
escape of the officers of government, there appears to be some mystery hanging 
over diat event ; their own historians attribute it m accidental intelli- 
gence, whereas we nod these words in La Fayette's communication on the 
subjtxt:— " Colonel Tartcton's legion having pressed for Charlnttevillc, where 
the assembly were slit ing, was rlitttppoiuted in his purpose by proper informa- 
tion being given theui, One hundred and fifty stand of arms, however, and a 
quantity of powder fell into the rnemy J s hands," 

Of die success of the other detach men l, the marquis writes :— " A detach- 
ment under Colonel S'tmcoe, said to be four hundred dragoons ami immured 
infantry, proceeded to the Point of Fork, of which I be hnron received notice. 
Both his men and *|ihts were minS|Jorted over the south branch when the 
baron marched to Sramiton River- Simcoe ihrew over a Jew men who 
destroyed what stores had been hfi. lie hazarded great deal, but our loss 
was inconsiderable.-' The enemas accounts represent the destruriion of 
arms t« have been very in-cat ; and there Is reason lo believe thai the loss in 
crippled arms was much greater than the niunpiis had apprehended. 

But. a much more serious Jo&s had well uigh followed hi us train* At Staun- 
ton River, Steuben was met by an order from Greene not to withdraw his tfnle 
detachment from the support of the marquis; tin nrder is?iiad under all the 
■UatrcAfses which we shall find, followed the battle of Camden, when (he Vir^i- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 61 

ilia militia had been recalled, and not another hope of re-enforcement remained cm ai\ 
to him on earth, Steuben was tWTO retracing his stops to the Poim of Fork,, 
support r:il by a portion of that militia winch had been destined Lor ■ t*rr southern 
army ; when Lord Cornwall id, apprehensive for (he safety of Simcoe, recalled 
Cufouel Tnrleton to re-eti forec his other detachment- The two unit ml, so out- 
numbered Steuben, EL* to place him at this point of time in a most critical situ- 
alinii- But relief came from a quarter from which 1 1 was least expected* 

limnedintiiy uTier tiift detachments had moved off, Lord Cornwall^ himself 
struck across ihr country to James River, witli n view to ilteir support and lo 
the further prosecution of his designs uj>on the stores removed to Albemarle. 
La Fayette, no less intent mi saving them, and wkh a design of running a 
jtmclimi with a body of militia advancing from the upper country, immediately 
re-crossed the Rapid Ann, mid moving parallel with die line of march of the 
hostile army, reached the South Anna about the ^.mo time that the British 
army arrived opposite the confluence of the Rivunna ami Fluvanna. But the 
British light troops hatl been advanced to the pojjm of concurrence of the two 
roads by which the armies had proceeded ; and La Fayette appeared to his 
adversary to be effectually cut off fi-om the route by which alone he could 
reach the objects which he was hazarding every thing to secure. 

Never was disappointment more complete than (bat of the British comman- 
der, when, on the morning of the 15th June, he found hi* youthful adversary in 
hU front, strong Ey re-enforced, and occupying n position from which he could 
not easily be forced, mm\ would unt tie Tempted, 

The following is the modest account given of this movement, by (he author 

of U: 

" In the mean time, the British army was moving to the Point of Fork, with- 
intention to strike our magazines at Albemarle Oil Court-House; our fores 
was nut equal to their delimro ; ami ft delay of our junction would have au- 
swerM the views of the eneuv. But, ou the arrival of the Pennsylvania ns, 
we made forced marches towards James River, aud on our gaining ibe South 
Anita, we found Lord Cnrnwallis encamped some miles below I he Point of 
fork A stolen march through a dimeuh mad, gave us a position upon Mee- 
ehunk Creek, between the enemy ant I our stores, where, aggreeably to ap- 
pointment, we were joined by a body of riflemen.." 

One of those freaks uf fortUflG, by which she is ever mocking the" pomp 
and vanity" of human warfare, now delivered Virginia from this distressing 
inr-n I. All The world wfr? at a h>dk to conjmiire lite motive uf Lord Corn- 
wa 1 i . when he suddenly called in his detach me] us, and with his sliN over- 
whelming super! nrity rerraccd his sic \ is to Norfolk. But, the cause did not 



m MAJOR GENEttAL GREECE. 

etrAr. escape ike sagacious Steuhriu In a letter of ihp UUIi. lie writes— (i We are 
told, that the day before Cornwall^ br^an to retire, lie received despatches 
from New York ; nut! we arc also informed, tliar (hirry-five seu( of vessels are 
arrived. This, in some measure, seems ro confirm ihe idea belt! up In the 
general's letter, of choir beans railed buck to defend New Turk," 

The world are now in pn>seS£inii of the dispatches then received f>v Cont- 
ivnllis ; and the face is aseeriaiued. thai he was recalled to defend New York* 
The cause of his being recalled is also known, and sonic verv curious historical 
incidents of flits campaign are connected with it- 

]i ]s nni anions die |pa*i proofs of the overruling a ^eney of a Providence 
in the affairs of man, that die most brill inn t advantages resuft at times from 
supposed misfortunes ; while plans of the deepest stud y, a ml, aeemiutily, of 
I he most ecrLaiii issue, eventuate in defeat and rum. Two siTUultimeous find 
dependent incidents of this day illustrate die recti ark, 

A plan of co-operation, it will be recollected, had, In die earh pari of ihe 
year, engaged die attention of General Washington and the French minuter j 
in winch il .was proposed, that (heir forces should act In concert against the 
enemy. These ncgociatious were not brought to a conclusion until about this 
nine, and the force in the Chesapeake, before the arrival of Lord Corn wall ]s T 
uiiri detaching of Philips and Leslie, not being so considerable as tn lx j made 
die object of this attack., New York was eon eluded no as die proposed point 
of eo-operatiom Dispatches, containing die out linen of (his expedition, under 
the hand of General Washington, were actually intercepted in the Jerseys? 
and immediately on ihe receipt of them, a dm of transports was dispatched 
to The Chesapeake with an or f lei- to Lord Con mollis, to detach a large pro* 
jioilion of his disposable force for the defence of New York. This order 
reached Lard Corn wait is the very day that he had been checked in his march 
by La Fayette's throwing himself in his front, and possibly saved I he Ame- 
rican army from dispersion ; it certainly delivered Virginia from a distressing 
invasion, and prepared the way for ihe capture of Lord Cornwall* So 
strongly are the rSrhish writers impressed with U< iullumrr on this last event, 
r j i : 1 1 il! = ", :■■.-■■ lavish in ilii'ir e-neoniimii* lui ch' irnnii- of :]u: ernntnainirr who 

conceived and executed diis supposed rtise tit £tffff& Yer T nothing is more 
certain, than thai; General Washington can^iderrn 1 it at the time, a serious 
misfortune ; and that its occurrence wa* one of ifetf chief causes for reJin- 
Ljtilsln nj* the attempt on New York, tor thai which was afterwards ermvued 
with sut'li brilliant success at York Town. Hut, as soon as Washington, by 
his mureh across dte Jerseys, developed his design* against the army in Vir- 
ginia* Sir Henry Clinton, by countermanding his orders with some expressions 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- t& 

of irritation and reproach, so disgusted Lord Com wall is, as to firing to light cir.sr. 
iliiLt cw*rfcspoitdenr.e to which we have ■so frequently luul occasion to resorL 

But, ronsei|ueuceK did ool termioate here- There were, nt thai luiie, three 
Irish regiments on their passage from r> "gland fur Charleston* and permission 
hail been gi veil to Lord Raw dun, to retain the in on Uieir arrival. No sooner 
w.yi the i m toJ 1 ijl* f ■ » ■ (*■*• received by Lord CctmwaHfr of the danger which 
threatened New York, than a dispatch boat was hurried off by him to Charles- 
ton, ordering the regiment.* immediately on their arrival, to proceed to New- 
York, without even landing in Charleston. An American cruiser \md the good 
fortune to capture thjs express -boat, and the capture .proved one of die most 
unhappy incidents? thm ever happened to the souiheni army. [-Jad she arrived 
in stiffly, South Carolina would have been reconquered twelve months 
Soulier; and the bloody affairs of Ninety- Six and iln- Emaws, avoided. For 
ihe.se were the troops which, two months after, co in j idled General Greene to 
raise the sir^c of Ninety -Six — to retreat tafure Lord Uawdon, and finally, 
to relinquish the HtrtJggle for the country below ihc San tee, until compelled 
to risk every tiling nl the liutaws, in an effort lo co-operate wilh Ihc grand 
army in the capture *if Lord (.' on iwal lis. 

After Lord Coruwallis commenced his retreat to die sea-coasl, La Fnyctte, 
still very inferior to actual strength T moved cautiously in pursuit ; and Steuben, 
on the Itfth, at the head of his four hundred and twenty recruits, marched 
securely np in his rear, and formed a junction with him dear Richmond, It 
whs at lirst doubtrd, whether tin* movement oi'thr British commander was not 
a feint, to draw the wary La Fayette into some position favourable to sinking 
it blow at Ins command. Bur. when his retreat became determinate, and 
hc^au to be accelerated, the mnrquis abandoned Ids Fsiluuu movements— 
became adventurous almost to tcruei hy T hanging on die rear of the retreating 
enemy — and seizing every occasion to hm-a^siind detain him. 

The movements of ihe American commanders from north in south, present 
at this time, u fine specimen of military com hi nation. Whilst La Fay cite was 
■ami i ling every nerve to occupy, retard, and harass the army under Corn- 
waNfc, fearful of his escape from the snare which lit: already knvw to be pre- 
paring for lrim T Greene, to the smith, we shall ft ml, was toling to improve 
Ilia absence and cm nfl his retreat lit thai direction ; whilst Washington was 
then actually toatie&mii$j to en^n^e die attention of the British commander 
in chief in New York, and charm away sill apprehension for the troops in the 
Chesapeake, at the. vrv time tiiai we was expecting Dc Grasse ro hem them 
In, white he darted ai them a blow which could neither be resisted or evaded. 



134 MAJOR GENERAL GREKM: 

ct\M>. The councils* of the enemy, on the other baud, appear from their own re- 
presentation f to have been greatly distracted, and to exhibit unusual symptoms 
of fluctuation and balecision. Whh a rpgulur army of mort 1 than seven thou- 
sand men* Iiord ( ."nvnwallis had retreated to die sea-coasthefore one of not 
more than IWO thousand three hundred regulars: had first crowded die 
transports with Jiis troops, then disembarked, and linaJly breaking up from 
Fori suioi i tit wild Norfolk, had concentrated Ins uholc force at York Town. 
In fine, tbry had acted from misconception uf their ewcinVs views, and the 
oscillation of ibeir measures* kept pace whb their changes of ophiion as to hi? 
designs. 

But the movement to York Town, bad in view a definite object, The situation 
of i heir fleet in the preceding winter in York harbour, when so notch cs posed 
by being fro/cn up, had made h a favourite object with the admlsiismmon, die 
admiralty board* and the eon mi under in chief, to have a secure and fortified 
station for their ships of war In die Chesapeake, in which they might lie in 
security,, anil from which they mi slit issue widi certaintv at auy season of the 
year; and for this purpose, the: attention of Lord Cornwaltes was directed tn 

York Town* 

Jim the British general could not leave rhe country without levelling one 
more blow ai the resources which the southern army was supposed to draw 
from Virginia, As soon, therefore, as be had passed James River, Colonel 
r J Virion was again detached, with a strong command of cavalry and mountefl 
infantry, to ascend the right bank of James River, lo destroy the American 
ma£a/,inrc aud stores, supposed to Ijl- in 1 cmi tutored hi the country lying between 
James and Hoonoakc Rivers. Tarleton accordingly penetrated into the country 
as far as Otter Creek, on the Staunton, and in a route of four hundred mile? 
saw not the face of an armed enemy, 

This expedition was crowned with very litile success; the depots bail been 
previously exhausted, or the articles they contained removed nearer tu the 
♦southern army, by the provident rare of ftteiuVu ;ind Carrmgtou. And even 
of horses, Colour] Tarleton acknowledges that he killed more by hard service 
man he was a bK* to rcpluee by plunder. The inhabitant*, warned by what had 
happened clsru here, had previously removed ihera. 

J5at Jt whs far otherwise, wiili regard 10 his excursion on the other side of 
rhe James River- Withering to the hopes of the southern commander, was 
his success in that quarter, Greene's naked troops had shmibcral through (he 
preceding winter* in anticipation of a large supply of clothing winch had been 
expedited from Philadelphia. Such was the misetatote State of the means of 
rranspurtatiou* that after a length of time elapsed in the journey, it had now 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 66 

iust advanced far enough to be in Tarleion's reach. Twelve wogffon loads of ctrAr 
during were captured and rnDKinmd by the British detachment , and it is 
lie i long after, unit we read in General Greene's communications, *+ thai hun- 
dreds of Ins men were as naked as they wore bom. 5 * Posterity will scarcely 
believe, thai the bare loins of many of the brave men who carried death into 
tlit' enemas rauku at the Kut#iw, were galled by their carcouch-bo.xrs, while 
a folded rag or tuft of m^ protected the shoulders from sustaining the same 
injury from the musket* Men of other times trill imtuirc, by what magic was 
this army kept together? by what supernatural power was It made to light? 

Nor, was the law at the Point of Vork by any means insignificant. Although 
none hut crippled arms remained and were destroy ed, there was iiot t until altar 
(he capture of Cornwall]*, the (cast possibility of getting any of hers. And 
even when that cvem promised abundant supplies, many months elapsed 
J>efore there could be obtained waggons to take them on to the southern 
army* 

Nothing can l>e added to the many narratives extant of the occurrences at 
York Town. 

Heaven smiled with singular propitiousness upon the combined operations 
of the allies, Not a wind appeared to blow, thai did not favour their en- 
ie i prizes ; and the striking coincidences were presented, of one fleet brought 
by a di spate h-hoaf from the West Indies, to arrive at the mouth of the Chesa- 
peake t on the day that Washington's army readied its shores at tin; point of 
communication agreed upon— to wit, ihe head of the Elk ; while another, 
containing all the battering artillery, without which nothing could have been 
effected, leaving the port of New Stork under the eye of a superior fleet, 
directing its course to die souih even as far as Hcrmmta, and evading a vigi- 
lant enemy s in the first instance by misleading pursuit, aud in a second, by 
not arriving until the enemy was rcpulscd T or called off for another purpose; 

Admiral Graves, on learning the sidling of the French fleet from Rhode 
JsIeukI, and the march of Washington for Virginia, msfmuly hastened to in- 
tercept the former at the mouth of the Chesapeake ; but, Dv Crasse Ijad 
arrived before Inm ; and vftcv a fruitless attempt upon a fleet much his superior, 
the British admiral retired to New York, a? well to form a junction with re- 
cnfnrccmcnts expected there, as to cover die transportation of all Din eon's 
disposable Jbrre, for die relief of the British anuy under Cornwall^. 

The topmasts of their fleet rose above the sottlhcru horizon at the momem 
that the British flag sank on the ititrendimeuts of York Town r ro ri^e no more 
au the shores of the union. 

vol- «. f ' 



$3 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chaiv The li)ih of October V^a the day distinguished in ihe annals of this country 

XU ' by that memorable event. The hunted lion, mused from bits Jair on ifaa wesi 

^of ihe Catawba, alternately eluded and evaded, or soaded and pursued until 

bfi if^trd liL* panting sides on the shores of the Chesapeake, here finally 

cowered to the American eagle ; but, his expiring effort; were maintained ivith 

a liable, constancy. 

Diving I he prepnnuions, first to meet Philips, then to oppose Curnwallis, 
and finally to aid in the siege of Yurk Town, all itu 1 resources of Virginia had 
been uVvutcd m that ptWj»se : and a* well supplies as re enforcement* col- 
lected in that state tor the southern army, ^ ere necessarily diverted frmn iheir 
original purpose, and applied and consumed in promoting the interesting ope- 
ra (ions going on at Yolk Town. 

Hmmnv, dtn ihiise Important measures were finally brought to ihe most 
happy issue, die a item ion m" every one was directed to die soul hern army. 
Washington purposed immediately to tfcjKUeh two rhousand men to ihr sup- 
port of Greene; and ili^: French admiral at first cousemed 10 transport or 
convoy thcui, bur finally declared himsejf obliged, in compliance with his in- 
structions to decline it Bui the Pennsylvania line was onc(^ more sir in nmiion 
for its southern destination, and a resprctable brittle of Maryland nnd Dela- 
ware recruits, commanded by General Gist, was nlsu dispatched under simi- 
lar orders. La Fayette was once more arrested in his southern progress. 
Negotiations for peace soon furnished a cause for his repairing to Europe 
o^aiu, to lend to the American cause the aid of his industry and Ecal. Ap- 
prcJiensions were entertained, that Fiance was nol ardent hi her wishes ihr 
peace ; and the iullueuce and intelligence of the maixjujtfj iv was thought, 
would contribute to the support of Urn American negotiation. 

Whilst ihe brigades of Wayne ami Gist proceeded to the south, the French 
tamy, which bad co-operated Willi Washington in the capture of Toruwalli^ 
remained in Virginia ; as welt to cover that state from fttttttt i$pf0* t &* to be 
nl head to Sttjjjkirl tltt souilwru commander in case of necessity. General 
ySWbiBgtOJij in Ihe mean Hme t hastened bark to In* portion before Re&Sr 
York ; and the unumy* after the hluudv. desolating, and u nonsequential expe- 
dition of Arnold againSl his imike state, (Connecikm) remained shut up and 
i pact until the termination of the war* 

Whilst all America hung with brraihiess anxiety over the eveniiid war raging 
iu Virginia, a perilous end painful pari was played by the cmnmawWr of the 
snmhrru department. Willi a handful of men, without aitnlrry, and scarce a 
hope of re-enforcements, he had undiriaken to drive from the country, or pen 
up in Charleston, an enemy whose united numbers trebled his own ; an enemy 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. Gl 

equipped with every thing that could give content ami pfic-ct to mi army, whilst cnai* 
his own was naked, hungry and petiovte«* h is a singular but incontroverti- 
ble fact, that for near two years this army never received one dollar of pay, and 
tin.- great departments of it, without a dollar In the military chest, and thriving 
from the noi'Cli, supplies too inconsiderable to be enumerated, were conducted on 
enactions uncertain in then productions, paid calcu Fated to render the army op- 
nresssi\ e and un|njpidiu\ At diis ihue r too T It was impossible for the genera! 
CO conceal from himself, or from the army, that the only somxe from which 
they could hope for supplies was cm off, or die stream turned away. All Uiat 
Virginia could command, and mimhely more, must be consumed at home; and 
should ntty tiling be forwarded from the north, it would be arrested in its pro* 
grws by the grand army, or perhaps by the enemy. Nought now remained 
for hi j a but to turn to the best account the small rt^o tiroes actually on hand, 
ami to draw Irom the states of North Carol! na T South Carolina and Georgia 
the inadequate aid to be afforded by an exhausted, conquered and divided 
eomury* 

Before General Greene commenced his march from Deep River* he had 
adopted every possible measure for this purpose. To secure a retreat in the 
event of misfortune, was a duty win ell lie never neglected, and for rhU purpose 
proper officers were dispatched to collect magazines up the bank* of the 
Catawba T and a icasmes adopted for establishmg a considerable depot at G!i- 
phatn's Mill, on tlm head waters of that river* This important service wa* 
assigned to the talents and Ecal of Colonel Davy. In order also to embody a 
militia force as a support in his rear, it has been noticed that he had at an early 
period made a requisition on the Governor of Virginia for fifteen hundred mili* 
tia. As Ihmvus widiout anillrry, Captain Singleton was despatched to JrYincc 
£dward Couri-l louse in Virginia, to obtain whatever pieces could br procured 
in that quarter. Ami the most pressing letters were expedited in aFI directions, 
to hasten on to his army, whatever supplies and r*!* enforcements the country 
north of him, could afford. The industry of Captain Singleton, mill I he 
personal attention of Colonel Carrington, succeeded hi removing from dm 
reach of the enemy nil diosc munitions which lay In I he neighbourhood of 
the Dan and Ko;inokc, an t} these were ftlrratly fur on their way towards 
Cain den, w hen TarEeiou iiieaded that tract of country* 

The legislature of North Carolina bad been busily occupied this winter in 
discussing die means of contributing their due efforts to the common cause. 
80 exceedingly dilticiilt had the slate (bund it to hrhig troops into the field, 
that a la v v wa& passed, imposing mil itiny service us a punishment for failing 
to perform militia duty, and for othrcr offences against the government. In 



t# MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ciuf; order to collect, organize and discipline the soldiers ilms to be raised, Genera) 
Butler of Nonh Carolina was left on Deep River, wiih oi-ders (o uo-oprmte 
in this measure and march on the new levie> a? soon as a regini'-m could be 
embodied. The troops thus collected and organized, were some of those 
wLn> afterwards behaved so well at ihe battle of Euraw. Good ollirm, rigid 
discipline, and some severe example?, triumphed over the inauspicious cir- 
cumstances under which they were embodied. 

1 1 has been seen, ih&t General Surnptor was the only officer in the southern 
country, to whom General Greene confided his intention of penetrating into 
South Carolina, prior to hl> acutal movement. To him the communication 
was actually indispensable, as by him alone could have been rendered at the 
time t mi important service connected with that enterprise. 

It has been seen, lhat in the country between Nirreiy-Six ami Caind™, 
particularly that lying lie twee nth c B road and Saluda Kivers, there had always 
prevail^ a great tfcal nf disaffection. It) this quarter bad becu established, a 
rendezvous lor the enlistment oi' the young men of the country* and m this 
neighbourhood bad lied for securiiy T many of the disaffected from other parts 

of die state. 

To intercept the re- en forcemeats from this country and from Noirty-Six 
which mUsbt be throw u into Camden, and pcrhap.s to call away Lord Rawdoa 
again ro the defence of Fort Gran by, was the impoiiam service which he 
hoped General Sumpter might be in condition to effect. It has hmi seen, 
that this was not done, and the strength derived from tikis quarter was diat 
which now enabled Lord Rawdon to hold the American commander at bay. 
Had H not been for the re- enforcements thrown into Cauidcu under Major 
Frazier, it must have fallen an easy prey to the American commander, for 
the conjuncture of the advance of the American army was peculiarly fa- 
vourable. One half of Lord Li a w don's force svn.% at that lihiff. detached 
on a distant service tinder Colonel Watson. 

It will ber recollee ted , thai soon after the retail of Colonel Lee in follow 
ihe fortunes of QMS wmihcm army on its march from Tee .Dee to Guilford, 
Marion was compelled by a superior force, to rr-trrut tn hi? old fastnesses in 
tin* swamps ot the Pee Dec, Teeble and precarious as was the force that he 
commanded, he managed with it to keep the loyalists in cheek, and finally 
Obliged those ou the north of the Pee Div + to enter into a emit v rf paetnV 
cation— t he observance of which was tolerably « el) enforced by his knnuo 
energy of character. When the American army was retreating through North 
Carolina behVe the British, Marina did hot neglect so favourable an opportunity 
Tor action, as the absence of British force presented htm, Hia adventurous 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENX 69 

follower; were a^ain eonvenodj and terror and disumv were aerom carried chm>< 

* SI] 

into Hit* settlements of die loyalists on both sides (lie Si'ticee River. His ejs- 
ctn/ums, and those of his enterprising o filer's, were cartetwjisd a* far as die con- 
fluence of the Conga rc.r awl Watereej and down a* taw a* Monk's Comer ; 
thus breaking up Hie lino of commuuieai ion heiwfien Charleston and die grand 
army., and hilcreepiing dftlachnients ami supplier pent from, that place to the 
lim 1 of posts established across the country. Such insuhs and vexations were 
not fy he borne ; and Waisou, an active and intelligent oJlrcor, was r! (^patched 
wkh live hundred men, to hum him up and destroy hi in. 

Marion had no force to withstand this detachment; jet ho dogged it find 
haimsed if, and hy throwing himself in hs from and watching its movements, 
destroying bridges and obstructing roads he was enabled to retard it* march^ 
until his friends could take measures for The safety of themselves and fa mi lies, 
Heth.cn, by devious and rapid movements in the course of which he dissi- 
pated various paying of the loyalists, look post with a small number or follow- 
er!? in the deep and unexplored swamps of Black River. Here he was found 
by thcfiftjecr (Captain Conyers) who was despatched by General Greene from 
Rtimsay's Mill on Deep Bivf r, to apprize him of the intended descent into 
South Carolina, anil of the approach of Colonel Lee's detach men I, to co- ope- 
rate in an attempt ujmii die chain of British posts cxi ending up (he SftXlteti 
and Cotigai'ce Rivers. 

In an instant Marion was in morion ; anil hi ^runners soon brought together 
near four I mud red hardy and dot erm in ed mcn t devoted to their leader, and 
breathing no wish hut the liberation of dietr emmtry. A guide W&& despatched 
to Culonel Lee t and by mean* of EmaLK which Marion always kept secreted, 
his detachment was transported in safety nirmsft ihe Pec Dee T and cfleetrd a 
junction with Marion's party on the Urn of April.* Krom this time until the 
siege of Forr JVloiu*, Colonel Lee aeied under the command of General Ma* 
riou.f The latter, in all liis communications, expresses n strong srnw of his 
talents and services, but the official eorrospondenrc is evclnsively with Mtu !on T 
as co nun under of the party* Colonel Lee uftni writes also to General i rrfrCtte, 
tint if answers were returned, tlu?y must have been considered as private, 
since nt* copies of sued answers are u> be found nmnimfwr fttifofril papers. 

Marion lost no time ufier the arrival of Lee in piwtiwihtg to action. Jo the 
letter in which Colonel Lre anuoiiuees ihe jimeiton, In* say?! * l General Ma- 
rion has determined on his route towards Sniitce. 1 rcui heuct we march to 



* Marie*'* Uu*r, 23t1 April, + Gtfand l.ffV L-stttsr froia Slack Jtivcri 



10 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

fift*jK Benbow : fi Terry, on Black Rivet* theiirc to Wright"* Bluff, near Fori WaUou, 
where we cross the Suurec. Whether ire move douji thai fiver, or tip the 
Cougarce, Juti(rain(dJ]gciic.e will determine.* 1 

Slid* was the rapidity iv^tb which their inmkm* nere characterized, dm* on 
the 15th, litiMlay Bikr llieir juuctiqn T ihey were already beiW? F«W Watson, 
This was a stockade fort erected on one of the largcse of ttost! ImJkm minim K 
which art? frequently found on the low pounds of tbU river* in situation =* con- 
venient either for planting or milling arid which served as places of retreat 
BMMtt the Hoods which sometimes pass over the adjacent fertile country ; w bite 
fhe iJteniatc Strata of a*he:> and of earth, prove them also to Lave been the 
deposits of die remains of the nation? that inhabited it* banks. This was 
dcvntexl above thirty-five feet from the level of die plain, arid far removed from 
any ground thai could command it. Its garrison consisted of about eighty 
regular troops and forty loyalists, comniatjrhJd by a brave man, Lieuieumu 
M'Kay of the I'egi i la r troops, Unprovided as Mm Ion was with artilleir, had 
ill is officer fiossced a single wall piece, it would liave been impregnable to the 
American (on?, As it was, its steep sides and strong palisade* forbade an, 
attempt at storming it, and the first effort to subdue it was made by cutting 
the garrison off from 5cqi ? § Lake, which supplied it with water. This was 
immediately counteracted by sulking a wdl within the stockade, below iIk 
level of the contiguous waters, And the aiieuipl "ii the |ipst„ uUhoui artillery* 
must linaEfy have been foiled, to the utter derangement of all the well digested 
plan for destroying the enemy-.* line of poais, bad not the besctgers resorted to 
a mode of attack truly antique the " tnrrilruwjue constttulfc* of Caesar. 

At & short distance from ihe fort there greu small wood in abundance, and 
by felling a quantity of this, and iransuoning it on the shoulders of the men, 
and piling it cross-wise through the night, in the morning, to the astonish men I 
of the besrtiged T as soon aa the light permitted the discrimination of an olycct, 
the fatal effects of a shower of rifle bullets announced to them, that their 
strong-hold was commanded by a su|iit1oi work- Nothing now remained 
but to surrender, utid a capitulation was immediately concluded. Yet, rl^ht 
inestimable days had been consumed in this effort, a period of extreme anxidy 
both to the beseigcrs and beseiged, for the hnpes of both Here suspended 
during that period, ou the movements of Colonel Watson. 

The expedition of Colonel Lee into South Carolina, was one, more replete 
with danger* than cither he or his commander bad* at the lime* any Idea o£ 
Watson, prosecuting with vigour the service for which he was detached, had 
crossed the Great Pee Dec* and was penetrating the country which lies north 
cast of that river. Had he been apprised of Lee's auproadi, untiling would 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 71 

hiive been easier than to have driven Mm back to rcasccnd the rivcr T and chai'«- 
pass it at some point very high up, and most probably to have prevented his 
(ifittlingu juneiion with Marion, It was fortunate also dial Marion could 
command tarn s(;i:mt means of transporting Lee across the river, EU9 a delay of 
a few days might liave brought SVaBQO upon him with a force which, alone lie 
could not have resisted* 

The j ii nc i'u hi of his force with I hat of Marion, does not appear 10 have been 
originally calculated on as a prerequisite to his entering upon action. By his 
eiders of the ith April) he is to proceed immwliafely to act upon Port Wat- 
sn!i HMii Ms own command* His junction with Marion Wft$ therefore indis- 
pensable to his mvn rarely, as he could scarcely alone have kept the field 
against Watson, much less have ventured on any underrating that would 
require delay. Watson's expedition was unknown to General Greene at die 
time Lee ivas detached ; for the movements of both Greene and Marion s for 
some time previous, had been so active, so diversified, and embarrassed, that 
there bad ber-n no communication of intelligence between them. 

Watson's position, at the time of (lie arrival of Lee, was such, mat hk most 
secure and err nun route to rnjohi Lord Flaw don, lay through Georgetown 
and up the south west bank of tiro Sautce River, Wis taking that route, threw 
the river between him and JVIarkui's command ; and as the relief of Foil Wat- 
son, and ajimcukm with Lord liftwdon musi necessarily be the olyecroflns 
movcmercrs T it became of infinite importance to Mm ion, to press the seigte of 
Fort Watson, that he might occupy some position which would enable him to 
intercept Watson in Ids march to Camden. There were several points at 
which the Santee might be eroded above or below ; and his rcsohuimi was to 
tnret and %ht Watson, as the American force was now su (Tie lent to justify 
thai measure. 

Watson, on i!ie oilier hand, was resolved to evade his adversary; forme 
intelligence of Greene's amvul before Camden* and Lee's junction with 
Marion P had now reached him. and he wa^ determined rathrr to sa enure die 
l>osl attacked, than lose die opportunity of eluding Marion nnd living to the 
SUprtoH of Kawdon* Nor wis the state of the force wid, him, \\Jicn hcvond 
Georgetown, sufficient 10 jusiifv* at] attempt at forcing his way to Camdcjfc 
He very pnhuU', tlv^vlVe, afr :*r crossing tin* Santee o;j the route from 
(jieorz o tmvu T movL'd down by Monk-* Corner, and added to Ins force the 
garrison of dial pi are, and then cautiously advanced towards the Sautcfr— 
Marion, now disembarrassed of Fort Watson, and relieved hy the sunptfes 
that it ^Forded, direr Ted bis attention to the object of niter ecpdng (his res- 
pectable rc-enforccmcnt, jSnt, soon he perceived tliat, in his pmem 



T2 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

uiiAP. position, fa could not hope lu prevent Jiis adversary's evasion ; for u was us 
safe and direct for Watson to proceed up ihc opposite side of the War^ree, as 
by the route which the American detachment then commanded on the west 
side; ami far Marion to divide lib foice would hare been to sacrifice both 
divisions 

ll was therefore necessary to take post at some point, from which all the 
mad ft that I rati to Camden eon Id he securely watched* With tub view, he 
resdved tn occupy a position on the High Hills of Santce, from width it would 
Ir practicable to throw himself before Watson* by uhatever route he should 
ndvrmcc. He therefore put bis command in morion on the 33d, the day 
oT the surrender of The Ion, and advanced to Mr. William Richardson's ; 
from which place he pushed forward his prisoners by Uie Black River road to 
the depot in The rear of the main army — a measure which some movement* of 
General Greene, though then unknown to him, fort una Lely had rendered very 

secure. 

Marion's advance towards Camden brought on the battle of HobkirVs 

Hill. 

This affair has been more misunderstood than any event of General Greene's 
life, and furnishes the only plausible ground on which censure has ever been 
cast, upon his military conduct in the southern war. A simple narrative of 
facts, founded on unquestionable authority, is all that is necessary to furnish 
his vindication. The English writers have boldly laid claim to the credit of a 
surprise in thi* flffipr ; and this charge, more disgraceful to a commander than 
defeat, has been implicitly mlmkled, or feebly, perhaps affectedly repelled, foy 
ihOSC of America, The untimely death of the suhject of these pa^cs, and the 
\-ears of vexation and distress which preceded ii, deprived him of an uu|>or- 
unuiy of vindicating his own fame in this, and srmie other important particu- 
lars. But, fortune relents from her persecutions after the fall of a great man : 
the tooth of time has spared abundant documents to mruc him from (he 
imputation ; unci there Mill live actors in those eventful seenes, whose high 
^imiacters vcpcl even doubt, and whose testimony will be given to corroborate 

official evidence** 

That writers, who had hot an opportunity of acquiring either official nor 
contemporaneous information on the subject, should have been ignorant of 
Important explanatory fads, is not tube wondered at. But, llmt Colonel Lc<% 
who was so near the scene of action, and so soon after joined the army, should 
have ^ven so inaccurate an explanation of the conduct of his friend and 



* This rtork was wjiiim hrforc iht death of Cffiiieral Davy* 



.MAJOR GENERAL GREEN K, 73 

commander, can onlv be accounted for from the failure of memory, for it is GM<kh 
ki -i.i'.vn that lie had not aceess to the official papers of thr department, and 
confidently affirmed ^*OttW who served with him, that he kept no journal of 

pas^mLT event*. 

One of ihU writer's critiques upon the batrk : of Camden is, "that hearing 
of the ad vanne of Wilson, his (General Greened) artillery was sent hi ids 
rear, that he nii^lif be ai liberty to make a rapid tfyft vigorous movement 
against this formidable re-en foi-ce man/ 7 Now it uu^lit to have been recol- 
lected by Colonel Lee, that General Greene had confided the care of Watson 
alio aether in Marion and Sumnter, that he never doubted the sufficiency of 
either in cope with him, and thai the true cause of a separation from his ariillc- 
rv was m -i^ft to n/m Marion wijh artillery ; -a request for which . had been 
pre^indy urged upon him, bnth by Marlon and Colonel Lee himself, while 
ihey lav be lore Fort Watson, and at a time whet i they despaired of carrying 
the fort without it. Nor was the intelligence a$ Watson's advance, at that 
iimi\ such as to create any serious alarm about his success in reaching Cam- 
den. He was >till low down the country, near to Monk's Comer, and did 
not, In fact, vix) t the river Congaree until sftcv twelve days after. Marion, 
General Greene kjicw could hold him in check on the east side of the Wateree, 
and Mattered himself whh the hope, that General Sitmpter would do the same 
to the west ; nor is there a doubt that it might have been done. 

But a movement of General Greene's to the south of Camden, which no 
one could explain, has given rise to conjectures, explanations and imputations, 
all equally groundless. 

Ii has been seen that on the 12Gth of April General Greene took post at Hob- 
kirk's Hill, on the north of Camden, about a mile and a half in advance of 
the British redoubts. Here he lay on his arms that day and the next, rccoil- 
noitering the enemy's position, getting intelligence of Ins strength and hoping 
to tempt him into the field* 

Marion lay at ihls time before Fort Watson, and apprehensive that he would 
not be able to carry it or succeed in his ulterior view* without artillery, had 
written prcssindy to the general to forward him a piece, however small its 
calibre* In this he was warm ly seconded by Lee, and the general resolved at al! 
hazards to comply with the request; as time was all important to the operations 
In that quarter, not only because of the im meditate advantage of cap turlng 
the post : but to enable Marlon to cross the Santee and meet Watson in the 
field* The latter he knew was provided with artillery, and without it the 
speeies of troops whieh Marion commanded, might have been exposed to alarm, 
Or disadvantage in the open field, 

VOL, II. 10 



"4 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

c "-{£- Grmie, it will be recollected, had lost his artillery at the battle of Guilford, 
and he had crossed the country to Camden wiihout any. But order had been 
ia ken for procuring from Oliphant-s Mi]], at the head of the Catawba, two 
pieces that had been forwarded to that place for repair. One of these he 
resolved to forward to Mai ion ; and lie was the rather induced to Eidopt this 
measure, as the ground be occupied left him lit do to fear from the artillery of 
the enemy, and he knew that Colonel Harrison was at this lime on the march 
from Prince Edward Court- House with two pieces forwarded from thai depot. 
13m hoiv to forward the piece to Marion was the difficulty. The direct road 
to Fort Wauon lay through tlie enemy- a redoubts ; and no other practicable 
route remained but by the Black River road. In order to strike into that road, 
it was necessary to ascend the main road nearly as high as Hugely '$ Mi!], and 
as the course of the former was not far to the eastward of Camden, there was 
Ihile doubt that Lord Rawclou would make mi effort to arrest the piece in 
its progress or, perhaps, endeavour to strike a blow at Marion and Lee before 
it could arrive. Nor could General Greene detach a sufficient furee to obviate 
these contingencies, without so weakening his main body a? to e.\ pose both to 
tl Finder* Liider these circumstances he resolved to move the army down to 
the .south east side of Camden, and thus mask or defend both the artillery and 
the operations at Fort AYatson- But as there was no wagon road across 
Fine- Tree Creek, which stream he must necessarily pass in prosecution of 
These views, he found himself obliged to send back the artillery, the at ti rail of 
his army, his baggage, and every thing that could impede his movements. 
These were placed ijtiderthe command of Colonel Carrin^on, with an escort 
of North Carolina militia, and with orders to proceed no I art her than Rugc- 
Jy ] s Mill, whilst Captain Findley, with the artillery, descended the Black 
Kivorroad to join Marion. The cavalry of the American army was so dis- 
posed to the eastward of Pine-Tree Creek, as to watch any attempt I bat 
might have been made by the garrison, to annoy Ctimiiglun on his maid], or 
in the position he was directed to take. 

On the south cast side of Camden, beyond Fine-Tree Creek, at a place 
called the South Quarter, General Greene remained v\ bivouac, until the 24-th, 
■when, hearing of the advance of Major Eaton with two hundred and twenty 
North Carolina levies, he resolved to place Findlev under their protection, and 
march them also to re -en force Marion ; and despairing of tempting Rawdoit 
from his strong holds, he sent orders to Marion to march up as soon as he 
should have gained the fort, and assist him to invest Camdem Then expedi- 
ting orders to Carrington to move down and join lum at fTobkirk^ Hill, he re- 
passed Fine-Trce Creek aud resumed his former position at Iiobkirk r s Hill. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE ?S 

An unfortunate measure that had been adopted by Colonel Carrington, now cif.u 1 . 
involved his commander in very embarrassing circumstances* The orders 
Camnston, had received ought to have detained him aT Rugely's M1H ; and 
Colonel Harrison, who had now joined him with his artillery, ought to have 
been halted at die same point. This being but ten miles distant, General 
Greene was confident of being joined by them on the evening of the 24m. 

But Carrington, conceiving some apprehension for the safety of his detach- 
mem, had moved off right miles further, to a place called Upton's Mills. 
This mi fort tm ate movement, of which the general was unapprised, nearly 
doubled both the time it took the expresses to reach Carrington and the time 
necessary to comply with the orders to join him. 

The consequences of this derangement exhibited themselves In that hurry 
in camp on the morning <>f the battle of the 25th, which has given ri*e to the 
charge of the general's having sutfered a surprise, But the following extract 
from the orderly book, exhibits an army under arnii waiting and hourly ex- 
pecting an attack. 



iL Camf before Camdes, North Quart eh. Tuesday, U&th ApriL 

" The general orders respecting passes are punctually to be observed. None 
are to be grunted but by commandants of corps. The rolls are to be called 
at least three times a day* and all eiI^cihcos reported and punished. Officers 
of every rank are to confine themselves to iheir respective duties. And every 
part of die army must be in readiness to stand at arms at a moment's warning," 

A venerable nat riot,* who was at the time with the army, has examined this 
affair with the critical eye of military science, and ill unlimited it with the re- 
marks of a clear mid discriminating mind ; his judgment upon it we are in 
possession of, in these words : — si There is not one single circumstance attend- 
ing thb affair that marks it as a surprise." 

livery measure that prudence could dictate s had been resorted to in order 
io insure to the army comfort and refreshment, on resuming their position at 
Hohkirk's 1 1 HI, Great was the chagrlnc of their commander, at ftmUiig that 
provisions had not arrived, and fmm their distance could not arrive that eve- 
ning. H till greater the disappointment of the soldier, who was doomed to a 



* Gen^rcil Davy. 



7G MAJOR GIlNEIUL 9MKS& 

chap, n J &h t of fasting after a day of fatigue. B in, scarcely bad the troops finished 
' their mornings arrises on the 25tli f when the wished -for convoy, die artil- 
lery a m1 provisions, were announced, and alter snicking their arms in their 
ranks, the men were dismissed to prepare their breakfasts and resale themselves 
with a ^ill each, of that welcome beverage, which circumstances so seldom 
permitted them fta enjoy. The officers had of course retired to their morning's 
repast; and the general, whose board that morning afforded the hiMtryofa 
dish of coffee, XPm enjoying it in his tent with his aids, when a distant firing 
announced the approaching event- 

Let the follow -ins view of the arrangement of his troops, at that moment* 
exhibit how far the attack could merit the epithet of a surprise : 

The line of British redoubt^ it will be reeoltected, extended north and west 
from Pine-Tree Creek, Hobkirk's Hi I] is on tiic minu road which passed 
through the redoubts, and about a mile and three quarters distant from the 
town, os it then stood; the distance is at presenr nnidt llSfe Jn front of the 
redoubts, for near half a mile in depth, excepr to -whmn a few rod? of the 
creekj the trees had been cut donn, so as to expose the Approach to the guns 
of the redoubts. Through all this space, the felled tree?, m«ermi ogled with the 
under-wood, rendered the approach to the town scarcely practicable to horse 
or foot, except by the roads. 

To the extent of this open belt was pushed the British Hue of cent in els, sup- 
ported by pickets, and the whole covered by the guns of the redoubts. Of 
necessity, the American line of ccutiuels must be esrabli^d at some distance 
from that of the enemy, or else have fought fm- tin; ground iJiey occupied 

That the general looked ibr nil attack precisely when it was made, is con- 
spicuous from this consideration, (hat a strong support to bis ccmincls was 
posted in that quarter. The country lyine to his light was committed to the 
vigilance of his patrol*, whilst two flMg picket*, commanded by Captains 
Morgan and Benson, were in advance on hi? left J zm\ m & convenient distance 
mthfm- rear, was posted Captain Uirkwood of DeLwarc. with t lie remains of 
his celebrated command, ft has been said* truit jrc was advanced to support 
the pickets after the firing had commenced.* lint, tin* is a mistake, for the 
position where he met the enemy, was as$i"i:-.-rf him I21 expectation of the 
attack, and he occupied it when the firing commenced. And the reason is 
obvious; being cut off from the probability oi observing the enemy cloudy in 
that quarter, it was expected, (and every arrangement made for the event) 



* Life of Wash'uigifflij 4th vol. p, 510. 



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MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 77 

that the approach of the enemy would be announced by the fire of t lie videues. chap. 
The postilion of die redoubt^ and the nature of the country, rendered it im- 
possible to be otherwise. 

J>nt. the videttes hi that quarter were near a mile distant from the encamp- 
ment. The pickets behaved wldi the utmost coolness and recollection, ant! ga- 
thering in the videttes, retired deliberately, and formed in good order under Kirk- 
wood. Here the contest was obstinately maintained; and what wiih the obstacles 
presented by the country, which was all in wood, and the cool resistance of 
the advanced parties, so mneh time was afforded to the American army, thai 
after forming in order of battle, they had been per mined to sit down in their 
ranks, in military language, to ease their joiut^ and in that order awaited the 
approach of the enemy. The attack had been anticipated and courted J the 
spirits of the soldiers had hecn raised by repeated military insults offered to 
the enemv, and they appeared to await his approach in tlie II nest temper 
imaginable, The beautiful example too, exhibited by Kirk wood* as he deli- 
berately retired fighting, had contributed to produce upon the army, en effect 
from which ever y tiling was 10 be Imped for. Certain it h, that the ^cneraPa 
hopes had swelled into confidence — too often, in military aflftui's, the precursor 
of disappointment. 

The whole regular infantry of the American army, at the battle of Hob- 
kirk's Hill, «as eight hundred and forty- three present fit for duty. The 
approach to an enemy's garrison had, as usual, increased desertions; the Vir- 
ginia hue was continually fluctuating in numbers from the daily discharge of 
those whose time of service had expired ; and this was partially the case, at 
this time, with the Maryland troops j and Ions; marches, hard Eervicc, and 
great exposure, had sent many to ihc hospital, most of whom had necessarily 
been left in the rear, when the army cross cd from the Cape Fear to Camden. 
The cavalry nominally consisted of two regiments, While ami Washington's, 
but actually, it numbered only eighty -seven, and fifty -si* only of these were 
mounted. The artillery also nominally continued a regiment, and was com- 
manded by Colonel Harrison in person; but actually, there were not men 
enough to fight three pieces ; after detaching Find ley, not above forty* The 
only militia force then wichtlie army, consisted of two hundred and fifry-fbur 
North Carolinians. One hand red and fifty of these under Colonel Reld, had 
joined Greene soon after he recrossed the Dan, and had faithfully adhered to 
him from that time, They were volunteers, men of ihc first respect a liijityv 
and much might have been expected of them in action, The rest had eseoired 
the supplies sent to thi, 1 army frv Colonel L)uvy + Those authors who extend 
the American force beyond this estimate, must be led into some erroi\ since 



r8 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

ciiAiv General Greene repeatedly asserts, that the force of ihc combatants was 
1 .nearly equal That of Lord Rawdon is general!} -estimated &t nine hundred. 
By some accident, the fewsm of this day fa$Y3 escaped from out fdes. We, 
therefore, take the estimate from Gordon, because we know that he had it 
from the ndju rant general Colonel Williams. Ramsay reduces the number on 
the American side to seven hundred, h must he recollected, that in addition 
to the causes already referred to for reducing rhe American force, the infantry 
detached with Culnncl Lee, under Captain Oldham, had been drafted from it, 
and one half of Washington "s cavalry consisted of recruits lateK obtained 
from the Virginia line, Besides which, it may be proprr to remark, a light 
infantry company* had lately been detailed from the Maryland line, and 
placed under command of Captain John Smith, the same who had so gallantly 
distinguished himself at the battle of Guilford. This company may not have 
been included in Gordon's estimate. We think it was. 

Hobkirk-s Hill is a narrow sand -ridge of very little elevation, which sepa- 
rates the head -springs of twos mull branches the one rminii:g itiio die Wntcrcc, 
the other into Pine-Tree Creek. The latter, forms what is called Miry Branch, 
which winds south eastward into the principal stream ? and with it forms a 
continued swamp into the rear of the enemy's post. From the British en- 
campmeutj which was on the south side of the town, and near the swamp, a 
swelling-ground formed a covert communication from the camp, into the woods 
that bordered these streams and stretched round to die foot of I lob kirk's 
Hill. Thus, the movements of the British army were wholly imperceptible 
at any point beyond their advanced redoubt, until they approached nitliin 
gun-shot of the American cemmils* But. to pursue this route, it was wholly 
impracfJ cable foj- Lord R aw don to have taken with him his artillery, tic 
confidently believed, however, atid upon the best grounds, that his adversary 
would, in this respect, have no advantage of him. This belief was founded 
upon intelligence from a deserter, w ho had found his way into C sun den the 
night before; and this intelligence is known to have produced his resolution to 
attack; for, after the coming up of Marion then advancing on his rear t and 
thai of Harrison with his artillery-* he would have been too closely invested to 
have braved the attempt. 



* The pliant conduct of this little band ou this occa*ifm, «*■>]! sanction shl* jusrly merited national 
notice, time tlmy were all Irishmen «id not 4 man above thirty. Tin/ authnr liud fhrf from i\v. 
captain, who was permitted to $*3cct them. It was a command destined to critical scrvicea, in tlte 
absence of uie legion. 



MAJOR GENERAL GKEENE. 7*1 

The American ere n era! did not think it necessary to change the order of his crup. 

5 KIT 

line tram t^a j in w'lieh their arms had been stacked after their morning's ex- 
crete : out, brin&iu£ up the urlillery to his centre, he posted it on the road, 
an- ordering Colonel Washington and Colonel Re id to hold th en i strives in 
reserve in his rear at the foot of tiie hilJj he calmly awaited the appearance of 
the enemy* 

Kiriuvond and the pickets were now warmly engaged with the British right, 
and Captain -Smith with his company, acting as camp guards, hem*: posted 
a JUlIc in advance of the American right, was ready to receive the enemy's 

left. 

The order in ivhidi Lord Rawdon advanced into action, was precisely that 
in which Lord Corn wail is had drawn up his army at the battle uf Guillord. 
His troops in one line, the wings supported hy some of his best companies in 
column, and the cavalry and now recruits in the rear, to act as a corps of 
observation. But, Lord Raw don had taken a hint from Morgan, in the nse 
of American trunksuicii ■ and flunking parties of loyalist riflemen, moving 
abreast of his wing anions: the trees, did but too much towards deciding I he 
fate of the day, The fall of two of the best American officers, in the very 
com me nee mem of me battle, was the acknowledged origin of the disorder 
which followed* Happy j i is for man, since wars enter into the dispensations 
of Providence, that measures exceptionable in the eye of humanity, must 
uhimutelv recoil upon hi tin who uses them. Under the consciousness of this 
truth, the advanced eenuuel paces his ground with little apprehension, though 
he know* his life to be in his adversary^ power j and under tins con scion uess r 
the soldier quenches his thirst with confidence, from the stream that Hows by 
hi* enemy's feet. 

Lord Ktiwdon's J] tie was composed of the 63d regiment on the rijiliT, the 
New York volunteers in the centre, and the kind's American regiment on (he 
left. The right wtts supported by the volunteers of Ireland, and the left by 
a detachment under Captain Robertson* The regiment posted widi the 
cavalvy, was that raised in South Carolina, so that on this bloody day, the 
number of European troops engaged was comparatively small, Must of the 
British troops htul been raised in America. 

As nearly one tutff of Lord Rawdon's troops were posted 3n reserve, the 
from with which he ad juiced was comparatively small. That of tfej Ame- 
ricans presented their whole force. The two Virginia regiments under General 
TLi^er, on lite right of the ro.id, and the two Maryland under Colonel Wil- 
liams, on the left, 'i ' 1 1 fir.sr Virginia umler Lieutenant Colonel Campbell, 
was on the right of the witoiei the second Maryland under Lieutenant Coionel 



8fl MAJOR GENERAL GBEFNX 

chap. Ford* on the left. The 2d Virginia uuder LiaiU'mnit Colonel Hawea, and 
, the 1st Maryland under Colonel Gunby, formed the centre, 

Greene, conjecturing that ttie enemy was unapprised of the arrival of liis 
artillery, had closed the two centre regimens q*s:= ihe road* so that the* artil- 
lery was completely masked, The effect may ven well be unagmed, wto 
these uvo regiments suddenly retired to the right ftitd left, and the ariitlery began 
to vomit showers of" grape upon the eompressrd raata of the enemy, The 
confusion and dismay were so conspicuous, that nothing more appeared 10 be 
necessary but 10 dose upon their flanks wiilt the raiments on the right and 
J eft, and cat oft 1 the flying troop* from regaining their strong holds* The 
orders that followed were delivered in one breath — ■* Let the cavalry make 
for their rear, Colonel Campbell wheel upon their hit, and Colonel Ford orion 
their right, and the whole centre charge whh (railed arms," The aids flew 
with his ore! crs, the rolling drum announced the tenor of riiem, unit Wash- 
ttfgfcoH, moving off hi a gallop, soon disappeared among the tree?. 

The next moment, every towering hope was blumd, Greene had no com- 
mon adversary to (lea] with in Lord Hawdon, Willi that promptness in con- 
ception and in action, which distinguishes genius combined with bravery, the 
British supporting column* were instantly protruded, and the American wines 
were quickly exposed to the very disadvantage which they hoped to impose 
upon their enemy :— they vrere otiMknked— their wings were enfiladed, and 
iheir rear threatened* Disorder necessarily followed ; for die extreme ri^lu 
and left were necessarily checked and deflected. But, no perm an cm t effect 
rould have resulted from this state of things in the wings, hnd nor other 
occurrences produced a state of things in the centre, which admitted of no 
remedy. 

The 1st Maryland regiment, the tenth legion oT the army, that to which 
all eves were turned for example, the sams which had conquered fit the Cow- 
p? ns, and fought half the battle at Guilford, had now shrunk an ay in a panic 
which was not ro be overcome, 

The first symptom of confusion wps exhibited liy the commencement of a 
filing contrary to orders. This was scarcely suppressed, n hen Captain Beatty, 
who led the right company of the Isj Maryland, and who was the delight of 
his command, fell, jiicrccd 10 the heart. His fall caused those nearest him to 
check iheir pi-ogres*, and the halt was rapidly communicated from right to 
iefi through two companies, before the cause* was understood, Some hesi- 
tation being exhibited by the men when urged to regain ihc line, Colonel 
Gunby dispatched Colonel Howard, with orders. to the remaining companies 
of the regiment, rhen still advancing wiih confidence, to hah, fall hack, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. - SI 

and encourage the faltering companies to proceed. This retrograde movement chaiv 
soon produced a genera] panic in i.hc regiment, which exhibited itself in a ten- 
dency 10 continue ihc retreat in some confusion. Nor did the evil end here, 
IV i rii«- 1 Wdliams, G ti uby and Howard wcreexhau sting all their resources hi a com- 
bined e#bn to rally tins rr^imem, Colonel Ford, whilst gallantly executing hi* 
orders on the American lefi, fell from his horse, pierced with a mortal wound, 
1\\& regiment, dispirited by the fall of its leader, and severed from me tine by 
the retirement of the list Maryland, soon faltered, and could only be kept from 
absolute confusion by being permitted to halt ; to be permitted to retire was 
the unavoidable consequence. 

Not King could exceed the surprise and disappointment of the commander 
at this instant. His favourite regiment, in whose courage and conduct he 
reposed with such confidence, now blasting all his fair hopes by a retreat, 
without making the smallest trial for victory ! Conscious of the vita) impor- 
tance of rapidity in the movement of the wings, be had spurred hi* horse up to 
the extreme right, and was leading on Campbelfis regiment in person, when 
he was culled away by the hesitation and confusion manifested in his centre; 
he vainly tried the influence of his voice and presence to bring his panic- stricken 
soldiers once more into action, They heard him and they halted, but by this 
time they hod reached the bottom of die hill, and his attention was now drawn 
away by the loud shouts of the enemy. Again urging his horse to the sum- 
mit of the hill, die whole extent of his misfortune opened upon his view. 

Hawes 7 regiment was the only one remaining entire: by the advance of 
that and .the retreat of the other centre regiment, die artillery was left open 
and exposed on die summit of the hilh The loss of ins artillery, besides the 
ccrtaiu evidence of defeat, could not have been repaired. Jn the midst of the 
flight of bullets which then showered about lum, for he was then almost alone 
upon the most exposed part of die hill, his orders were issued in atone of per^ 
feet composure, to draw off the right and left regiments and form them on 
Gunby's regiment, which was now rallied; while Uawes, with the 3d 
Virginia, should cover their retreat. This order was well executed, and in 
the issue left the American commander the election of a renewal of the battle 
or a composed retreat. But during its execution, me artillery was exposed to 
the most imminent danger. He had issued orders to Captain Smith to repair 
immediately to the spot and secure it at all hazards. In the mean time the 
enemy with loud shouts was ascending the hill, and the British horse com- 
manded by Captain Coftiii, was making its way out of the wood to join in the 
pursuit. The matrosses were now quitting the drag-ropes, when Greene 
galloppcd up alone, (for his aids were dispensing his orders) and dismounting 

VOL. tf. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chap, and seizing the drag-ropes with one hand, whilst he held his horse with the 
othcr, exhibited an cxampfe which the most limed could not resist. — Smith 
soon arrived, and his men bearing their muskets in one hand, joined ht 
the effort of dragging otf the artillery with ihe other, until Cofihrs corps 
approached on the hill, moving to the charge. In ru instant, Smiths little band 
were formed in the rear oft lie artillery, and reserving their fire* poured it into 
Coffin *s ranks with such destructive aim, that they recalled and lied. Again 
and again did Coffin return to the charge, while Smith's men, in the intervals 
of time, assisted at the dra^-rupes : and as often as he repeated his attempts 
was lie foiled and driven buck w'uh los^ At length, ihe infantry joined in the 
pursuit : and scattered marksmen approaching amongst the trees, Snuih*s men 
began to full fait. He was himself badly wounded also, but bis resolution, not 
even Ins cheerfulness, over flagged. His foriy-fivc men were now reduced to 
fourteen: and some accident having caused ihem to deliver an Irregular lire, 
Co fih i succeeded in forcing them, and even 1 man wa.& killed or t Liken. 

The artillery now seemed lust. The batmen had rim the limbers into the 
woods, cm the horses out, and run off with ihem, At this crisis, Colonel 
Wash! urfron charged in U|X>n die road- and put an end to the contest. The 
purs u nrs fled. 

This offirer had ha-nened back on the first discovery of confusion in the 
American 13 tie, and now made his appearance widi a prisoner mounted behind 
each of his men* These consisted chkily of the medical and other staS of the 
British army. 

On perrriving the exposed state of the artillery, Washington threw ofVMs 
pnflnriprs and made that i-harge which finally e:\trieutcd it from (he most press- 
ing danger. Then pursuing the British cavalry up the bill, lie passed the place 
where the limbers had been run into the wood, and discovering thc-m, brought 
them oft" This gave rise to the assertions, that the artillery had bnen run 
down ihe hill, past unpereeived by the enemy in the ardor of pursuit, and 
afterwards discovered and brought offhy Washington, 

There is no part of this day's affair 111 which the British and American 
accounts vary so much as in that vihlch relates to the pan acred by Colonel 
Washington, General Greene, 111 his official communication, uteris, that this 
officer penetrated into the enemy's rear, found them hying in confusion— and 
made two hundred prisoners. And it cannot be doubted tiiat such was the re^ 
port made to him, and made upon a thorough conviction of its Hajity, Yet, 
there is every reason to believe it was founded in error. There is no sufficient 
cause to conclude, that any one of the British corps* was ever broken entirely., 



MAJOR. GENERAL GREENE- &3 

*u rf the eucmv's accounts admit, only of tlie capture of the medical staff, and SffAfc 
a few soldier* tfift behind, lo attend the wounded. ^^.^%- 

Tlic followiiiii; original account of that pari of the affair, is from the p<?ri of 
an o ulcer,* attached to the American army, and whose fidelity and opportuni- 
ties of inforimuloii, preclude all doubE, 

l - hi turning the enemy's left, Washington made a circuit so large , as to bring 
him into the open commons, between Log Town and Camden ; this space was 
filled with doctors, surgeons, quarter masters, commissaries, wa§on musters , 
waiters, and all the loose trumpery of an army, who had pushed out to see the 
battle* The cavalry immediately chared this mixed multitude, and employ- 
ed hi taking, securing, and puroLling a great number of these people, those pre- 
cious moment:* winch would have brought them in aetual contact with the second 
line of the cucmv, either before it moved up to extend the front, or while this 
manoeuvre was performing j and In either eu^, the el large would have been de- 
cisive, and the bartle would not have lasted fifieen minutes. But the charge 
was never made on die line of the enemy, the critical moment was lost, and in 
bmdes- minutes are hours- The British oilier rs acknowledged the unfortunate 
effect of the clemency oi' our cavalry, in waiting to capture and parol prisoners, 
when they should have cut them out of their way without stopping, and charged 
the rear of the British line- They were in fact, so encumbered with prisoners, 
they eould do nothing." 

As soon us General Greene found his artillery, ammunition wagons, and 
other such trophic* of victory, gfcfc fe«W the enemy, he halted only long 
enough to collect his wounded us far as circumstance:* would admit, and 
ordered a retreat. Mis men did not appear to exhibit sufficient confidence 
find composure to renew the baitle. 

The moment the eh asm was made in the American line, Lord Rawdon had 
preyed up to seize the ad vantage, and on the retirement of the remaining 
reifirnents, had occupied the ground on whirh die American army had been 
drawn up. The contest to obtain this position hud not been a bloodless one, 
for Jlawcs reiired firing hi perfect com posiur, and llu. 1 other regiments re- 
putedly rallied and 1 3 red as they receded from the ground. 

The enemy did not venture to pursue £uv f and Greene, after retiring between 
two and three miles, halted to recover his stragglers. Here he remained until 
after noon : and having refreshed his men, com m tied the retreat with his 



* Colonel Dnw, 



U MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cMUft infantry and aitilltiy as far as Saunders' Creek, about lour miles irom the 
field of battle, where he encamped. 

Colonel Washington, with his cavalry, was ordered to reconnoitre the field 
of battle, to collect stragglers, make prisoners, and bring off the wounded, if 
any were to be found remaining. 

Upon the first rccom men cement of the retreat, Lord Rawdon had also 
taken up the line of march for Camden, leaving Captain Corihi with his 
cavalry, and some mounted infantry on the field of battle, I'pou receiving 
this intelligence, Colonel "Washington resolved to endeavour to draw from it an 
advantage, Retiring with his cavalry into a ihuUt On the road -so tic, he 
pu^ied forward a small detachment, with order* to approach under covert 
until within a short distance of (lie enemy's politic in. The stratagem took 
Cilbct j Colonel Collin's whole troop pursued " a britU abalftte." and having 
reached Washington's linking place, the whole party were either cut to piee.es> 
or compelled to save them selves by dispersion and flight. The consequence 
was f tliat the day terminated with the field of battle in possession of an Ame- 
rican party. 

( It was a trifle in comparison with the principal event : but such trifles have- 
often el wonderful eflect m consoling the human mind. It certainly u as not 
without its influence on the American army. The soldier, all-hardened and 
blood-stained as uar presents him, thinks with feeling of Ins comrade left 
wounded on the field of battle. He must know him dead or taken care of, 
before he dismisses the recollection of him. 

The whole of the 2Gth, and until ihr afternoon of me 27th, Greene re- 
mained at his position on .Saunders' Ci'cek; not without a hope that Rawdon, 
eniboldercd by Ins success, would reiterate the attack. But, his adversary bad 
suffered too severely to think of a^ain venturing in so hazardous an anempt ; 
and seeing that there was no hope of tempting him so hi* from his strong hold, 
the American commander retired five miies further, to Ku^ch ? s 31illj the 
depot of his ba^agc and stores, 

is is generally conceded, that the loss of the combatant)? in thl^ action was 
nearly equal, about forty killed on each side, and uhont five times ih,ti number 
wounded and mitdtig* One tfrcum&raiire renders it probable, ihat the British 
loss hi killed and wounded much exceeded that of die Americans. The former 
*av tlmv look about one hundred pri>murs 3 die Am erica ns took about lifiv, 
and most of ihose of adesenpiion not to be noted in a return. The difference 
is easily aeenmited for from the edict of the artillery. Nor fa it easy to con- 
ceive, Jimv u eniirjurrhi^ army should find anv diJlk'uky in .^"par-niujj; it* 
missing from 'm wounded. The Americans asse it. dial a number of those 



. MAJOK GENERAL GREENE- 85 

rendered missing in their &M returns, had made off on the artillery and other, chap. 
horses, for the rendezvous tit iiu^ly'sMill, and alio i"%vurcl& joinotl the army. If, 
this be the case, it goes far to corroborate the ofikial return of the Americans, 
of eighteen killed and out- hunt I in J andeighr wounded. Deduct the number 
of the wounded and prbomrs 1;! :d &t those Mho reappeared from the whole 
deficit, and the remainder may he conceded for the number. It may be less 
by the number* killed who never reappeared though not among the number 
who fell 

Ki£;liteeii killed, one hundred and eight wounded, and one hundred pri- 
soners, would leave bur thirty-eight fur the missing u ho returned to the army. 
We will have occasion n recently to corroborate this statement by some extracts 
of an original uiiiiire-i more pariirularlv re In tin* to another point. 

General Greene always attributed die Toss of this battle exclusively to &a 
mistaken orders issued by Colonel Gun by. The day after the battle, the fol- 
io win DC paragraph appeared in general orders : 

" Though the action yesterday terminated unfavourably to the American 
arms, the general Is happy to assure die t loops that it is by no means decisive. 
The extraordinary exertions of &Q cavalry commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
Washington, the gallant behaviour of the light infantry commanded by 
Captain Kirkwood, the firmness of the pickers under Captains Unison and 
Mui-gnn, and the good conduct of the camp-guards, rendered the advantage 
expensive to the enemy, and highly merit the approbation of the general, and 
the imitation of the rest of the troops. Tlie general present? his thanks to the 
artillery for the propriety of their conduct on the occasion. Our loss Ss so 
inconsiderable that it is uufy to he lamented, that the troops were not unani- 
mous in a disposition to embrace so excellent an opportunity of gaining a 
victory." 

Colonel Gunby was immediately called before a court of inquiry consisting 
of General linger, Colonel Ilarrison and Lieutenant Colonel Washington, 
who were ordered to inquire lino his conduct mi the action of the 23th. On 
the 2d May the mart sat, and the following entry of that day is copied from 
the orderly book : 

« The court, whereof Brigadier General Hu^er Is president, appointed to 
inquire into the conduct of Colonel Gunby hi the action of the 25th ultimo. 
report as follows : 

-■ It appears to the court, that Colonel Gtmhy received orders to advance 
with his regiment, and charge bayonet wit horn firing This order he immedi- 
ately emm mini eat ed to his regiment, which advanced eheerftillvfor some dis- 
tance, when a firing bc^an on the right of the regiment, mid in a short time 



ffi MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

en at. became general through \u Tluu soon ailer two companies on The right of the 
regiment gave way. Thar Colonel (Jim by then ga\c JieuTeii$£*t Colonel How- 
ard orders Lu bring oil" the other thus com panics. which appeared disposed to 
advance except a f< w. That Lieutenant Colonel Hon aid brought oil the four 
companies from the left, and joined Colonel Gunbvai the foot of the hilJ, about 
sixty yards in ths rear. That Lieu tenant Colonel Howard there found Co km el 
Gun by actively evening himself in rallying the two companies thai brokf from 
the rlglitj which he effected , and The regiment was again formed and gave 
a lire or two at the enemy, who appeared oil the hill hi from. It aJ*o ap- 
pears, from other testimony* that Colonel Gun by, at several other times, was 
active in rally in* and forming his troops" 

-it appears from die above report, that Colon el Gunby J s spirit and aetivity T 
W^ unexceptionable- But his ord« for ihe regiment to retire, ivl lit h broke 
the line, was extremely improper and im military ; and in all probability, the 
only cause, why fife did not obtain a complete victory*" 

Thus, it appearing thar Gun by had only commuted an error in judgment. 
Inn conducted himself in other respects, in a military manner; no otiier notice 
was taken of his conduct. He was employed in the rear of the army soon 
itflcr, and did not rejoin k, 

It is not always, however, that we are to look into the public communica- 
tions of men, acting a conspicuous part in life, for a correct display of meir 
feelings or opinions. Policy, necessity, accidental combinations, which no 
prudence or virtue can control, u-ill sometimes force upon the most candid, 
firm mid upright, a r nurse of conduct adopted to particular exigencies 

The following exlract of a lerrcr from General Greene, to his friend Gov. 
Read,* will be read with that confidence, which we fed in opinions that appear 
io be extracted front the writer's heart. It was written at a time, when lediog 
had subsided T and opinion waj confirmed by inquiry and reflection. 

14 If my account of the Camden action was different from that of Guilford, 
it was owing lo the defeat's arising from another cause. The troops were not 
to blame in die Camden nilair : Gun by whs the sole cause of the do feat, and 
1 found him much more blmnabic afterwards than I represented him in my 
public letters. The action uf Cmnden. was much more blood v. according to 
the numbers engaged, than that of Guillbrd, on hath sides. The enemy had 
more than one third of their fl hole force engaged, el titer kilied or wounded ; 
and n e had not less than one quarter. Dejjcnd upon ir, our actions have tan 
bloody and severe, according to the force engaged: and we should have had 



Gth August, 17"^ J 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 37 

Lord Rawdon and his whole command prisoners, in three minutes, if Colonel chap. 
Gunby bad not ordered his regiment to retire ; the greater part of which were 
advancing rapidly at (Iip time iliey were ordered off I was almost frantic 
with vexation at die disappointment. Fortune lias not been much our friend." 
The following letter was written to the same correspondent, a few days after 
the action, and presents tile fullest and most authentic view of the feelings 
and situation of the writer after that event. 

Mwi \ 1781. 

" 1 have been in this department near six months, and have written yon sev- 
eral letter^ without receiving a line of remembrance, Formerly, I used to flat- 
ter myself, that I held a place in your friendship, and my bring sent to ihia un- 
fortunate country, I hope ha.* nor I rescued it ; for I am sure, I never had more 
need of it in my life, eiiher fian consolation or support. 

i( The nature of the war, and the circumstances of the country, appear to be 
little known to (tie northuurd. The strength and resources of these states to 
support the war, have been greatly mngniiicd and overrated ; and those whose 
business and true interest it was- to give a just state of the situation of things, have 
joined in the deeeprion, and from n l»Jfis pmieiple of pride in having the coun- 
try thought powrrful, have led pco]ile to believe it was so. It is true, there were 
many inhabitancy but they were spread over a great extent ©('country* and 
nearly equally divided between the king's interest and ours. The majority is 
greatly in favour ul" the king's interest now, as great numbers of the whigs have 
leh the country. The produce raised in it is difficult to collect, from the extent 
of the country, in the best of times; and utterly Impossible to do it now, as all 
the horses and means of transportation are destroyed. The love o Tease and 
want of zeal among many of those who are our friends, render their exertions 
very languid in support of our cause; and unless the northern states can give more 
eiTec ient support, t lies* estates rnu*t lali ; and what is worse, 1 am afraid their fall 
will afford the means to sap the foundation of the liberties of all the rest, for die 
enemy recruit with great facitiiy m these states j and the service in this quarter, 
is so disagree able to our soldiers from the scanty supplies, that many of them 
deceit and enter iheh service.* Thr- enemy have gained a much firmer footing 
In South Carolina and Georgia, than is generally believed* Camden, Ninety- 
Six, an d Augusta, cover all ihe fertile pans of die stare, and r he enemy have 
laid waste the upper country in such a manner, that an army cannot subsist 



Of thr' Ann luuuEi-nl LLtui slau- iiicsi pecAuiureil by Slmmi nftei' CJ-aios* dprihrt^Jr. Kiirltulgi? ?n_v.* 



ffl MAJOR GENERAL GREftNE. 

m\v. in the neighbourhood of their po?ts, a ad tkU must #?rr^ them. Noihiu" but 
a superior army to the enemy's collective force, can sue relief to this distressed 
country — the miseries of which exceed all belief" Nor do I believe an v 
people ever s uf] ere d greater calamities ; the tffa&g and the lories me butchering 
one another hourly. The war here is upon a very different scale from r lm 
k is to the northward. It is a plain business there. The Geography of the 
country reduces its operations to two or three points. Bur* here it is every 
where; and the country is so fuil of deep rivers and impassable creeks and 
swamps, that you are always liable to misfortunes of a capiial nature. In 
collecting provisions and forage, we are obliged to send the same guard* and 
escorts as if the country was avowedly our enemy's. 

" Some of the states, when ruin approaches, exert themselves ( but, the 
difficulties and dangers no sooner subside, than they sink down to their former 
sloth and inattention, and seem to be content with the merits of what they 
have done, without once considering what there Is to do. This is the case 
wit]i Virginia, who exerted herself greatly on the enemy'* approach the last 
winter, but have kit us to ourselves ever since. North Carolina did nothing 
at all, until she saw that we would not let the enemy possess the state quietly. 
There- are many good whigs in drat starej bur J verily believe the tones are 
much the mosi numerous ; and ihe whigs are so fond of ease, that ihcv have 
but little relish for the rugged business of war. Government h so feeble that 
it is next to nothing ; find the popular plan that influences their councils, 
greatly weakens the natural influence of the we tl-a fleeted. The whi^s will do 
nothing unless the tones an? made to do equal duty : and this cannot be 
Hfected, as the lories are the stronger party: so neither aids the army. How- 
ever, measures are now taking to raise men for a year, and 1 am in hopes 
-ome will take the ileld. 

' ; Maryland has given no assistance to this army. Not a recruit lias joined 
us from that state, and we are disch arming her men daily, their Lime of service 
being expired. 

« You frequently 3] ear of great things from Generals Marion and Sumpter. 
These arc brave, good officers : hut the people who are with them just come 
and £o as thry picas e. These parties rather sent to keep the dispute alive, 
than lay a foundEition for the recovery of the country. Don't be deceived in 
your expectations from this quarter ; if Erreator support cannot be given for the 
recovery of these states, they must and will remain hi the hands of the 
me in v. 

♦ [ Our manoeuvres have been various, and the conflict \ciy unequal. We 
have been twice beaten, the last time by an unfortunate order of Colonel 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE m 

tiunhy^ who ordered I be lat Maryland regiment to retire when ilic enemy CHAft 
were fleeing before them, and in con fusion In aj] quarters. Vietorv was 
ptttiB&Bi afttfl tlii? foil of Camden as certain, m I hud initio measures to cot oft' 
their retreat 

" To induce llww in stdh{ i&$$ the object of tntr poPitUm, after muting thai 
lite works ttere too strung, anil the garrison too numerous to storm uirJi a 
prospect of succeeding* The event wa* the most union mm to that can be 
imagined, nor from the injury thai we received* bill the U^ss of the nnporun.itv 
m take the place. Camden seems to have some evil genius about )u What- 
ever is attempted near (hat place, is uufortunnns War is a en lieu] business, 
and the best conceited plans subject to disappoint inem from the most trivial 
iiiHlIciu^ 

< l Tlie prospect here arc so unpromising, and ike rli 111 en I lies so great, that 
I am almost sick of the service, and wish myself out of the department — 
When f made diis last movement, I expected two thousand Virginia militia to 
operate with us, and one thousand men with Kumptcr ; hue, both have failed 
nnd 1 am in the greatest disu-css. The tardiness of the people purs it out of 
my [>owcr to attempt any tlung great. If our good ally, the French, cannot 
afford assistance to these southern states, in my opinion there will Iw: on oppo^ 
sitiun on this skle Virginia before the fall, ami 1 expect the enemy will posses 
all the lower country of that stale. The want of subsistence' will prevent 
further opcinlh<ns in this roimli-y unless we can mke posi on the Con payees, 
WhonS provisions are to be had in great plenty."' 

It was tin. later, enforced by several others nf u similar dim-Bcier, that 
finally produced the inarch of the Pennsylvania line for tim srmtheni army, 
and afforded ilnd Crisual aid to La Fayette, which enabled him to arrest the 
progress of Lord Corneal lis nnd his deiaelmienis, mid relieve Virginia from 
tliat distressing irruption, and the United States from the impurtam eon- 
sequences thai might have followed from Its further |i rosea l lion i 

In uik state of mind which the letters to Governor Head e\liibif, General 
CJreene also wrote to the Marmtis l)e La Fayette, and the ( dievahcr dc fa Let - 
itemr. with the latr.er of whom also, he was in (he. habit oi! com mimical jj>£ 
frequently by letter. In the inosl pressing maimer, he urges noon i hem the 
necessity for France m turn her eye to what was going on m die southern states 
and pa nicolarly to Vli^iiii^, against which it had now been ascertained, thar 
i he enemy meant to operate wUli vigour, as the best means of reducing the 
states south of it, Deprived of aJJ hope of drawing any aid from the romun 
north of him, whilst the enemy ucre in force hi Virginia- and eominced ihiit 
die command of the southern division of (lie United Slates drew after it the 

VOL* U. 12 



ij u MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cuaf. conquest of ihe vrfiol^ hi: urges the minister to direct the efforts or France fa 

that quarter. 

It is vwill known, iliat just at ihis time ii was. thui die Frenrli first began 
10 exhibit ttny a 1 1 una lion hi iheir movements by I find in the Amerirnn war. 
\tv>*m the er* of the concerted airack upon CoruivnlHs; and the following 
specimen of the courtly style of tuc duke's answer, will exhibit the man of 
the world and Tht dipforiiati?t : adrf>iiiy flatteritig his correspondent, while be 
gives every reason to hope, yet skilfully evades u direct promise i—^J'e&pav 
qiti tfUi irtirc </« rf*ff* Amlvovs san panvnue* attssi qui m<$ Mftcercs cototpU- 
mvnJs siit t utile e f sMewe campasiu dt ctt Htjrcr, ette imus tirqvfcrt tipmutis 
Ft slime et kt confotnee de ros bom ciroicm H Me dc ros allies* Jc me Jhttte 
jpfito U partce depotictir mttftfatre part tiict-smmmMl &* mrange^nts iffiraccs 
qu£ lions (mns prix ra France, pimr k semtien dc fa &B*& mtmmmr,. fotttmk 
tt rlfuffite iamnt de,? nmivelks d 1 Europe. Anssstioi qui? fen return, jf m' 
empreaserai & WiM k$ fair* passer* Satjcz m ttttendmU hif-n pemmt? t/mS. jVA 
tfohn ses trumpet bun employees en co-opt runt tfttk vn gowwl (pit a fait 
JPftSsi grimdesvlttnies tm-c thx moment Qkisi mtdiocrcg"-* 

Nor jHimt U be Supposed, thai the gloomy forbuding expressed in General 
Cmien'i letters, was the result of the chagrin ami mortification of defeat, or of 
any important chnuge of situation produced by the battle of Cawduii. In ft 
cooler mumem, while lying before that place, and in amirtpaiioji of the battle 
whicli might soon' take place, and of the personal exposure whirl* the ground 
necessarily BaMeGted Mm to* (for there was no secure point for Mm to 

"" AIM 

\iew it from) be addressed i lie itilfjmncd oinrial letter to the president of 
congress, 'i & the counterpart of that which was writtrn by Washington, 
under similar mitici pat ions, ihe hour before he commenced bis march for the 
attack of Trenton : 



mtl l hope ilia* tuy lifrtej (if the 2d A|ixH Iihb roa-thed you, with my sTn«fc congratulation* oft 
Ihr rfHcfcm and glutton* cjuupuigfl of this winter. Ii krt^t aCqLmed far yn i uir evenln? ratcem and 
rotifideucr flf yaw rdtow-ritirttt* and ullle** 1 flatter myself ibai I *foU have 3t m my powiT lo 
.-orjiiiliinkrttc W von Hlinrlly [Jse cfTcciuoJ ftrraiB&.ttneDL'i lk*\ we ha« raaile in Franc far the support 
nf llir comnirni ruma, I nm in Jiouriy eacp*ctfHiDij of Itetfl from Europ*. A* soon us 1 shall fofltft 
rtcet^d >t, I shall \mtm to copimmik-aw ii iu |W. Dj lie mean tjr?io.t«t fetptwd tlint kli mnjwit^ 
will thiuk Itifl traojft well employed in rcMjperaiiag w]li a guffltrel who biu «flccied such ^reat thiqg^ 
^th nutti iw/erior mraofr/ 1 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. !M 

11 C A M f IJKKOH E C A MPEN, jfyinV 22, 1 73 L OH a p 



** SrR t 

l! Jn my last I informed your excellency of Lord Cormvallis 3 precipitate 
retreat from Deep River, of i lie situation of our army for want of provisions, 
hue! of the Virginia militia's rime of service? having expired, which reduced 
my numbers greatly bnlow thai of die enemy, Finding that I had not a force 
to pursue them any funhei\ and that our army could not he suhMhtcd cither 
on tile route the enemy had tuk> n, or in the low or country, I thought it most 
ad vi sable to march directly into South Carolina in recover the expiring hope* 
of the people ; to divide with the enemy die supplies of die country, of which 
diev had rhtf entire command ; lo break up their little post of cottimuiucation, 
anil, if possibly oblige Lord Coruwallis to return to die state fur their pro- 
lection. This last whs the threat object of the movement, and had we a forte 
to prosecute the plan, I persuade myself il would take eJlecL \ but, for waul 
of which, the mutter remains doubtful, Upwards of five months 1 have been 
in this department with nothing but the shattered remains of a routed army ; 
exeepi the addition of Colonel Lee'* legion, and u couple of detachment* 
from Virginia, am nun ting to hide more than a regiment, and those widtoul 
discipline, or even officers? to command them. In this situation, with a tem- 
porary aid of the mill da, wo have been strLi££lhi£ with a very unequal force, 
under every possible disadvantage, and surrounded whh every other kind of 
distress- Wc have run eveiy hu/nrd. am J hern exposed ro evrry danger* not 
tm\y of lining beaten, hut of being totally ruined, I Ijuvr been anxiously 
waiting for succour, hut the prospect appears to inr to be rEmoicr, unless it be 
in militia, which Ls too precarious and uncertain a force to commence any 
seriou* offensive nprradons upon. 

** The. more L iiu|ulre Into ihe natural strength ami resources of die staj.es of 
North and South Carolina, either to form or support flu army, the morel am 
persuaded they have been greatly overrated : iimrc of the inhabitants uppear in 
die king's interest titan in ours, and the country b* so extensile and thinly 
inhabited, that il is not easy either to draw any considerable force together 
or subsist ilicim w3ien collected, 'flu: militia in uur interest, can do little more 
ditin keep the tori es tit subjection, imd in many {dares not thai- These states 
were in a much bettor condhiou to inakc exertions die last campaign than this. 

" The we] i - 3 f Fee led, that year, spent their time mid their substance in friendly 
exertions* and finding themselves unequal to die contest r and tlieir faniiJies 
hem* exposed mid in rtis tresis, hundreds and hundreds of the best of whigs 
have left the country. Last year if was full of resumces ; this, it is almost to- 
tally exhausted ; and the little produce that remains, lies so remote, and the 



xu. 



^ MAJOR GENERAL (JRUftNK, 

c\uv, Hj&ans oitnuiBponatinn so difficult to command, liist it is next 10 impossible to 

collect it- 

" The enemy have got a firmer footing in the southejru states than is gener- 
ally expected, Cuuulirn. Mum' Six and Augusta, cover all the fertile parts of 
South Carolina and Georgia, and they are hying uastc the countvy above 
them, which will eflVciually secure ^ose posts, as no nrmy can be subsided in 
the neighbourhood to operate against them. Below,, they Lave a great many 
in term relate post? of cmnmunkarioii, for the pui pose 6ff a whig the eouutry 
and preventing supplies- Nor can I perceive, how we arc to reduce ihcir 
capjnil posts but vutb a superior army in the fie hi . I wish Congress not to 
ftt deceived, res peering (be situation of things in tlie southern department, 
and ihrrcfore I hope (hey will excuse ibe freedom I lake, If more eficeiual 
support cannot be given, than has (wen, or I can see I prospect of, I am very 
upprnhcusive the enemy will hoid thnr ground, not ottlj in the seaports, hat in 
the interim- country- %h& conflict may continue for some time longer: and 
Generate Sumpter and Marion, and many others, deserve sreat credit for their 
exertions aud perseverance, but their endeavour? ralher serve 10 keep the contest 
alive than lay a foundation) for die reco very of these states. 

; * We began our march Irotu Deep River on the 7th, and arrived in die neigh- 
bourhood of Camden on the lOUi. All the country through which we marched 
is disaffected, and the same guards and escorts were necessary to collect provi- 
visions and forage n$ if in an open ami avowed enemy's country. 

" On our arrived at Cm mien we took post at Log Town, about huff & mile in 
front of their works, winch, upon recnnnciterlne;, were found to be much 
stronger than had been represented, and ihe gart&oa much larger, The (own 
i* upon aflat, covered on two sides by die river Wuiereeand Pint-Tree Creek, 
the other two sides by a chain of redoubts, all nearly of the same size, and in- 
dependent of each other. Our fore*: was too small either to invest the town or 
Morai (he works, which obliged us to lake a position at a little distance from jf. 

" 1 have been grimily disappointed in the force J expected ro operate vviih 
men Ffimn hundred back country Vbgiafa militia icert cvfktf for nmntdimdy 
a fur the huUteqf Guiljhrd, having this prt sent /tiovewiit tti contemplation at that 
rittif-:, and die state gave die order torn EiTcater number than was required ; but 
rliebnay*casmioflhe year, and die- great Stance 1 hey have to march, prevent? 
their coming tip to our assistance in time, if not in force. General Smnpter 
alsra engaged to have one thousand men in the field by the 18<h, to operate with 
us, but the difficulty or col lecting the militia, Iran The disagreeable situation nfmn- 
iiy of rheir families 1ms prevented dteir embodying yet. in uivy eonsidei sd>!e force. 
These disappointments lay us under many disadvantages, to say nothing worse. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. $3 

The country is flxtremdy [Irfiteuli to upv.va.Xc in, being nmeh cm m pieces by cmr. 
deep creek* and impassable morasses. And many parts arc covered with such t 
heavy timber and fhirfc underbrush as expose an army, and particularly detach- 
ments, frequently to surprise. 

w The service Ei'i's been 50 sever* that it will lip absolutely necessary £0 g^ve 
the army some relaxation soon; and, thercjbre, I bdifafttfie delay which is 
occasioned m Uiis lime, fur want of sufficient ibree to invent nil the enemy's 
posis of cnmmu iij cation. Our numbers arc so Kfldnced by the different actions 
and skirmishes which have happened, and by the fatigue and hardships of the 
Service, thai we have hut the sluuiow of an army remaining, and this wc arc 
Obliged to divide to push out operations to any efl'eet, though it is attended 
tvitii danger mid may prove our mhu 

" ] am extremely mnrtihed at the disappointment which happen nd in Vir- 
ginia, in the plan of co- operation against Portsmouth* Success there woe 1 Id 
have given us great relief here; and 1 nm persuade that nothing ran recover 
this count f$ out of ike hands qf the mtmy but a similar plan in these svutfwrn 
sttttesi at present the enemy have as fulj possession of Georgia, and almost die 
whole of South Carol tun, as they can wish," 

The following remarks from die ]>rn of General Davy to the author, throw 
a btee ofli^Fn. upon the incidents of the battle (if Camden, 

* As to the Ait hi re of the eimrge on the rear of the enemy** line by Washing- 
ton, the thickness of the underivood, and the felled trees oear the opening about 
Log Town, on tin right ofthe mad, obliged him to take such a circuit sis brought 
him into the commons between Log Town mid Camden ; this threw him u 
considerable distance into the rear of the enemy's line. The capturing of such 
atmdlitudrof pmnners, fsaid to ben boot two hundred,) not connected with the 
acting line of the enemy, was perfectly unexpected; American humanity and 
feeling, re voltes I from the cruelly of cut ring 1.0 piece* men surrendering and bc|> 
^ins for quarter. They were so numerous that he could neither aet inn t inher- 
ed with them, nor retreat with thctt^ lie yvn* obliged to dispose of them some 
way, and be adopted the humane mode of parolling thrm verbally, and when 
compelled to retreat was obliged to abandon llie greatest pari of I hem, 

" Yon have observed that General Greenes pNin was to strike thcimcuiy in 

from, ou both flanks, and In die rear at lIim mw .>m< :n, an. I the corn 01 rule 

Vtm tO have cul these people i«n of his way; lint this was a principle upon 
W orh we had never acted, and Washington, who wu* as uutuanc as lie was 
luuve, was therefor? supposed to have done his dirty, notwithstanding the con- 
stant example of the ene my ^cavalry, who never j;avc quarters nor took a pri- 



94 MAJOR GENERAL GREEN fc 

chap, son er until the action was decided, as in fiuford's defeat, Gates' defeat, £ump 

VII 

ter J s defeat, &C* 

" In the first order of hatde. the two Virginia regiments, under Hawes and 
< 'iirnri^U. e: m !Mi-a iIm- rl.Lili! ^ In-, ih^ luu \l.,r>!:nid h gtttjsttate i.-.rn^-d «iu Mr. 
Tbeuriillery was In iht centre of the line, placed m butrcry, in the mud between 
the two brigades. Ford's regime at formed the extreme left, and Campbell's the 
extreme rig't it offbfi &*&. When General Greene observed the enemy advance 
whim front so ppw tliar ir did not exceed the extent of from u>ade by Huwes 
auiUjtittby 1 ? regiments, he instamU ordered Campbell aad Ford'* regimen «* to 
\\\\w] up respectively upon the dank* of the enemy; ami Hftwes and Gunny's 
regiments to move forward and charge the enemy will) die bayonet without 
firki" : it was at dtis moment also that he ordered Wash in pnn to charge the 
en rin v in the rem-; it was after this order was given, and during its awkwnrri 
mid abortive execution by the two flank regit neuts, lhai Lord Rmvctoa, pi-rcciv- 
hs# his peril, had time to bring up his second line, into line with his first, and 
prevent bis flanks being to rued. M 

w I eoawrsed with Colonel Ford, who was my intimate friend, soon after 
the action, tie told me lie was in the front of his regiment, endeavourm* to 
execute the mnno?uvre ordered by die general, ti hen lie received hi* wound ; 
that at thai moment they were exposed only to a loose, scattering fire, from some 
flank or light companies, which, however, drew a fire from his raiment, and 
winch, together with his wound, prevented [he execution of the order. 

i» You will observe Mint the general 's second order or (dan of battle was to 
make all the attack* on the front, on both Il;uita>and on the rear of the enimy, 
.t1mwHnncoM«ly; instantly seizing ilie advantage offered In the enemy's 6»i for- 
inaiion, and promptly bringing into action the whole of hi* ow u means. The- dc- 
Struction of the enemy was inevitable, bad the Order* of General Greene been 
tixeeutcd with the promptness of disciplined troops, supported even by common 

resolution. 

" General Greene led up Campbell's regiment several times in person; but 

i hey were new troops, and ahhou^h rhey coultl br rallied and formed ngain> 
evrn with precision, tbey could not br mark to stand the enemy*!* fire; the 
soldier* of Ford's regiment were new ahu + mid although commanded by excel- 
leni nnVers, soon fell imo confusion nfrer he was wounded. Had our cavalry 
charged riie second line of the enemy before dicy were moved up, i hi* flunk regi- 
ment would bffVC been tun partially engaged, and be must have found thi* line 
!u great confusion ; invfcr Ctteft advantages the conduct of our flank Wg\W*&p 
would probahhy have been more piompt and spirited, tl" the ehia^r: kid been 
made after this movement it svould have brought our cavalry directly to die 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, <ft 

rear of r he troops cngagwl by (moby's regiment, supposing the charge to have chat-. 
bc;(?j] made up i in- road, which was (he duly proper and practicable direction. 

" General Greene exposal J himself greatly in ihfe action, specially with 
CampbelFs regiment ; so nmirh so, that our of the oilieers observed to me, ilmt 
liis conduct during lht? action resembled more thru of a captain of grenadiers, 
than lhat of a major-general. You will eaiiry perceive, wiihmit any iurrher 
observation, how an ujduriuuaie species of success, pui our cavalry, tu point 
of fact, horx fk combat, and thai the critique of General Lei 1 is perfectly nn~ 
founded. 1 had frequent conversations with General Greets mi the strange 
result of tli is twtuje, and convened with almost every officer hi tin? army res- 
pee tin* their posts in it* Indeed tt was a subject of constant discussion lIII wi* 
arrived before NimHy-Six f when wti found oilier employment. 

"There is not one single cirerunstance in This affair ihut marks if as h sur- 
prise ; lite position was taken for rhti express purpose of forcing Lord Raw don 
to fight. The men had been under arms IVaui day~lighi s and onfy dismissed 
for the cypress purpose of cooking a bunt one hour and a half before the 
attack on the picket. Men mu^i cook and eat, and when they can, will be 
washing and mnudim* their rloihcs — rills is all of course* Every battafion 
was evKu resting in the line ; the artillery hi buttery \ and till the baggage 
inorad off, before the enemy presented thtmselves before our line of battle : a.]} 
was cheerful new, confidence and tranquillity ; no confusion or uoise, and the 
whoJe line resembled a common parade." 

This, reader, was " Greene's surprise'* at Camden. The vietory was sure, 
had the American eommander Hr-en conieni with victory, but a vigorous effort 
was m*de to cut off also the enemy 1 * to his fUsiii esses. The dibit failed, 
but what wool. J have b<?en gained had he only been driven within his lines r 
Genera J Greets had reason to believe Cornwall Ik was approaching on the 
one hand, when he knvw thai Wuison was on the other. Time was precious, 
and lime must have been consumed hi starving Lord {lawdoii into a hut-* 
render. Military men will, jttrhap^ decide that l.hc movements made with ihcse 
views pu' too much to hazard, that it was relinquishing too iinieh of the advan- 
tage- derived from his artillery; to charge from his cemre* and git in* up 100 
much ground on his- Jhtnks to wheel diem upon those of his enemy. Eut an 
officer must count upon diti courage and promptness of his Troops* arid with 
diesc united, In carrying these movements into affect, they could scarcely bnve 
failed. 



:m: MAJOR SEN&R&L G.REENK, 



\i] 



CHAPTER XIII, 



'ftmmtU qf' Cnpiain Smith vj tht! Maryland line. Erccwhw for desmio^ 
Mormemx of ftfarim, Smnpttf tfttd Pickens. Boijk and JVatson get him 
Cmntbitt. Bftm&& moremtntt bajoud ihr fft&r#< ffir trior a$ins[ wnbur- 
mssmiite. Nffriuti qffrtifcd, Ofers to retire from service Efforts to detain 
him. fjont Rtmtlott rtirtatsfrotn Canntwh Gr?me m&pto to the Cougaree* 
Fall vffurf _Wl<\— #"*A# F&j? at Orangeburg* SumptoJiaiigSQit tlue/tcmifs 
p$ta. Fait oj Fort Gmnhtj. Sampler offmdaL Lcc Wm t& August, 
(iraww Siti down hrforc Ninety-Six. Capture of Forts Galphin, GrirrsOti 
nad ConiwaUi^ Murtfc.r of Cohml Grifirmi. 



1 IUT * AN &ffl& ihat ocrurred soon after I he battle of Camden, showed* that the 
destructive chaise made by the Marvlnnders on lira guards, at the battle nl" 
Guilford, had not been forgo lieu. And, although we should admit that the 
Bihbli officers were wholly bhinwlttfc some unknown individuals connected 
wiih lira British army, are chargeable Willi a vindictive and barbarous outrage 
on the person of Captain Smith* This pliant man, who was do altogether 
tfra soldier, that his men were ever prodigal of their lives for him in lira day 
of battle: while his frank, opeu and humane conduct secured to him ihemeem 
of all who knew him, (ii has been seen.) had sunk beneath the sabre* of the 
enemy on Hohkirk's Hill, in the final charge made U|xm him while dfefetidf«g 
die artillery; and having susTaintid a severe contusion was uuido primmer, 
Wounded W he was, he was refused his parole and immured m the provost. 
The charge against him (lo quote tfcfi J&ngtragc in which it was commit- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. B7 

nieated^was — a Itb&vlng been reported to Lord R a wd on by several deserters, ck^p. 
and some pdiojim from (Jilt American army, that Captain Smith had inhu- 
manly pi li to death an. officer ami 1 1 tree private men of the guards* who were 
prisoners and defenceless, after 1 1 ir- action of Guilford." 

Smith, whose feelings were less outraged at the Indignity offered m ] lis 
rank T than at (In? crimes Imputed to hmi T after four days solicitation, obtain^ 1 
per mission lo address a Jctlcr to GencraJ Greene on the treatment he was sub 
jeered to ; and a letter from Lord Rawdou's bridle major, accompanied 
Smidi's communication. 

It was well known in the army, that Stewart had fallen at ihe battle of 
Guilford under the sabre of Smith, ami it was also believed, thai the lattrr 
bad opened his way over the bodies of several soldiers to the person of their 
leader. But, it was also known, that with rii Ilk ally he had escaped with bis 
own life, amt that all passed in rbe very heat and bustle of the charge* For 
this lie appealed to Washington, Howard, and some others who were present, 
and his enlargement soon followed the return of the messenger. General 
Greene was seriously offended, and f.vcry officer felt the indignity as an nidi- 
vidual oflcnee. The following is the language in which (he ^ucraJ expresses 
himself in hi* reply : — £( Nothing can be more foreign from the truth than the 
charge, I have only co observe upon it, that liad such a charge been madr- 
against any of your officers wdiom ibe fortune of war had throws i imo our 
hands, befotfl 1 slinuhl have treated them with any particular murk* of indig- 
nity, I sunuhl lit ?t have made inquiry, and I tad the fact better established. U 
is fifty *visii that the war should be conducted upon the most liberal, rational 
and generoi is principles; but, I will never suffer ^ n indignity or injury to be 
offered to our ulFicers without retaliation/" Hut, the spirit of vlndk-tivencss 
is thought not to have exhausted itself in this effort. Smith was parolled to 
Charleston, and the nrst day, nearly pcnnyle&s and on fool, his food and his 
ha ml kerchief of clothes suspended on lib shoulders, In; had jm&sed but n few 
miles beyond the British out -posts, when he was slnm bv ii parry of men who 
issued from the W£ttd& It was in vain that he exhibited his parol and pass- 
port ; they stripped him, bound him, and inflicted on him a barbarous 
ca.sn^fulon mi ilie bare back. IT diey were enemies, there was ingenuity in 
this revenge, for, if > his feelings, such treatment made life tolerabfe only mi tier 
the hope of vengeance, They called themselves whirrs ; but whv should he 
have received such treatment from » party of friends ? 

It is not without feeling* bordering on disapprobation or even disgust, that 
we read iu the pages of Mr. Gordon — H That General Greene, whilst be lay 
vol. it. I.i 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

on at. in the nckhltourhood nf Camden T handed in one dav- tight soldiers n ho had 
■ deserted from tils army and were afterwards taken prisoners-" 

The number executed Wh& five, and nil the particulars are stated in &&ftfp 
in Tiit* orderly book of the day* Greeny who did hoc warn decision^ was 
known to he particularly tender of human life — he enter taiiied on tlii* subject 
some of The scruples cherished by ihe sect in which tie had been educate*!. 
Oh hi? first taking command of the American army, he found much of that 
military demoralization prevailing, which soon finds its way iuco a routed 
army. Among the militia pa it icy la rly T a loose praci ice pre vailed of leaving 
ramp, spending days at home, and joining the army again when cliey pleased* 
In mere volunteer service, noxious as tins practice was, it could not be pre- 
vented ; hill, among the drafted militia, it became indispensable thai an e\- 
ample should he made. Orders, remonstrances and threat* were all lb mid 
vain ; nor did the militia believe him in earnest mull one ofleudcr was arretted, 
tried and executed. Fit mi this time uniil ihc arrival before Camden, th^i-e 
were frequent convictions for ihe oflence of desertion: l*ni in no ensf: was 
any punishment but w 3 ripping Inflicted, except one, and that for the third 
offence in seven mowhs. But* when he arrived before Camdem I be facilities 
afforded by die near approach to the British garrisons, rendered desertions 
frequent, and it was iuili-jien sable thai, the evil shook! he checked. 

Suon alter the retreat to Hugely *s Mills, the prisoner* taken at Fori Watson 
arrived in cmupj and arncutgthem were live men whu had lw en taken in arms, 
and whose identity, as deserters, w^is immicsiionable. These were brought 
Jwfore a court martial on rue Sftlli April t convicted and condemned to death* 
The approbation of the general to this measure of severity is entered in these 
words: " The general approves the pi^crrdiugs of the court. He wimbl lw? 
extremely happy if the offences of these unfortunate mm deserved a punish- 
ment less severe. But desertion is a crime so dative rmij-i to an army, that 
policy has dictated the mode <*f convriion* The i 1 id "fsj sen sable necessity of 
giving some serioa* example* and the recent misfortunes the troops have 
aufTiTcd hy die pcdlidy ofnumeof their unworthy companions, forbid the exer- 
cise of lenity, and compel the general to admit the force of mania J law, The 
criminate are to he executed, according to Oie sentence pronounced against 
them, at -l of the clock to-morrow afternoon." 

Alier this time we liud capital convictions very numerous, Tor as the British 
garrisons successively fell, numbers of deserters were taken hi litem, nod 
their offences could nut pass unnoticed. 



MAJOK GENERAL GftEENE* 9f> 

Let tis here pause and consider die nature of da? dilemma ti> which tht> gene- cnaf 

\tti 
r,\\ was exposes I. To suffer de-sei-iimi to pass unpunished would have been to^v^. 

disband liis army, Bat on whom must he inflict I lie seventies of u law, necessa- 
rily so sanguinary in its provisions? On men, some of whom hud languished hi 
prisouships amidst disease, death, SLi(XLKutkm T lilth, and hisuil ; ;md y hided 
finally to systematic oppression ©n the one hand, nod snlidtatjuu and Temptation 
op the oilier; others of whom tint] shared widi himself a thousand perils and 
danger, imul t impatience at prntraeled fatigue and privation, irrihitiou from a 
scum: ofinju slier* ami ingratitude, indignation at observing tin- superior condition 
of their enemy, and tlicstruiig tendency of the human mind, <ouseious of positive 
eyif^ rn nope every thing front a diaa^c, all co-operated to impel rbem lo desertion. 

From this rime it is obvious thai the general embraced every pretevt fur 
relieving himself fro in (lie necessity of executing martial Faw in tis severity. II*. ■ 
possessed the power of pardoning, mid there was seldom a piece of good news 
received winch did not save some wretch from the gallows, When that of the 
fall of Comwnllis was announced, the provosi was thrown open, and a perfee.t 
jubilee, with all its oblivious effects, proclaimed through the camp, 'Hie death 
warranto executed are still in existence, eliiiI prove how few were the executions 
m proportion to the convictions; yet there was no room left for imputing to 
him that mistaken den leury, which loosens ih* bond* of society, to gratify solici- 
tation, to acquire popularity W the reputation of extraordinary fee&ra}, or to 
avoid a painful Hforf, lie ad ml altered penal justice with tmr spirit, directing 
Iiis \iews to ihc sole f'tid of preventing crime by the leasl possible severuy, 

Colonel Lee, in the second volume of bis Memoirs, has tins passage,* 

"General Greene, heretofore soured by lite failure of his expected succour 
from Sumpter, now deeply chagrined by the inglorious behaviour of Ms 
favourite rcgimrmi, convening las spiendid prnspecis into a. retJeivnl of toil mid 
difficulty, of doubt ami diserace, berime for a \i hile discontented with bis 
advance to the south, He sent orders to Lieutenant Colonel Lee to join him 
forthwith, and indicated, by other measures, a disposition to depart from his 
adopted system. 

" As soon a* die capitulation for the surrender of Fort Watson was sipird\ 
Let, followed by his into n try, hast cur d t& the tifiwlky sliU in from of fflf&siSn* 
and on dip subsequent morning was joined by Ekig.idirr Marion, who had been 
necessarily delayed until the prisoners mai stores were disposed of," kc. 



ltW j MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

etiAP. In tluse passage as well as all the subseqxjem narrative of the causes which 
led to Watsonfr successful evasion, the official documents are before us to prove 
that Colonel Lee Is altogether incorrect; not only as to the conduct and views 
of Sampler and Greeoc, but even as to his own movements and those of ft) arion 
anil Watson. We would not be thought to maintain the charge of wilful mis- 
representation, but as Colonel Lee kept do journal of these events, had not the 
possession of the official correspond en ce T bur rested upon his own memory and 
fiomi' remains of private correspond enee for those events which could noi be 
Etuhcivd from the publications (hat treat of tbem.^-under such circumstances 
there is some apology for running Info errors, which represent himself as active- 
ly keeping up the conflict, while his commander was meditating flight, 01 ex- 
hibiting an indecision which led 10 the most unfortunate consequences. 

Equally incorrect is Colonel Lee* in the assertion " that General Greene was 
officially infiumed, on ilie 24-th, of the surrender of Fort Wat soil, and in the 
course of the flay I he prisoners reached head quarters.' 1 The orderly book 
shows thai mn:Hiirem'c<»f iltat rvr-m did not reach head i|naricrs, nor did tJic 
prisoners arrive, until a day or two after the battle of Camden, 

The oflirial and detailed account of the surrender of the foil from die pen 
of General Marion, hears date on the 23d* and concludes thus—" 1 I shah\ 
without loss of time, demolish the fori, after whlrh 1 shall proceed to the High 
Hills of Suntee, ami halt at Captain Richardson's plantation until further 
orders, 

The dispatch of ilie i'?lh is dated at Captain William Richardson's, High 
Hills ami is hi these words: 

M I have just come here, and find 1 he express sent by Captain Con vers to 
you Lf returned with the account of your moving frotn tins side Camden, and 
that von have moved entirely from Camden : where, was not known. This 
is mysterious and conjectures various, .so that we cannot tell wlim to conclude* 
I shall be happy to hear from youj and clear up my apprehensions of ill con- 
neqnenrcs. 

il Iticmcnam Colonel Lee's cavalry is here ; his infantry 1 left last night ten 
miles below, and expect them up this rimming* If 1 hear nothing from you 
by to-morrow evening, I shall make a sudden movement to prevent ill con- 
setjuences." 

The facts were as this letter represents The express bearing the dis- 
patdra of the 23d , finding that General Greene had left the position on the 



* Pa^e 57. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 101 

south side of Camden, got alarmed at the danger to which he was exposed, chap. 
an 1 returned with the embarrassing account to which Marion alludes. Being «^- v -^ t , 
again sent forward with orders to find his way to the American army by 
turning the head of Pine -Tree Creek, he was dctered from advancing by the 
firing, which was then raging, and deviated fir to the eastward towards Black 
Ricer, in order to proceed in safety. There, unfortunately, he encountered 
Major Eaton, proceeding with his detatchment to the aid of Marion, and that 
Officer, having learnt the fall of Fort Watson, very improperly made a halt, 
under the supposition, that the end for which he had been detached was already 
attained. 

Thus it happened, that although Lord Rawdon was apprized of the ad- 
vance of Marion, Greene was ignorant of it on the day of the battle. 

Marion had been apprized in a letter from General Greene of the 24th, 
when he lay to the south of Camden, of the advance of the re-enforcement 
under Eaton ; and the letter contains a passage which docs too much credit 
to the characters of both commanders to be here omitted. 

" When ( consider," says General Greene, " how much you have done and 
suffered, and under what disadvantages you have maintained your ground, 1 
am at a loss which to admire most, your courage and fortitude, or your ad- 
dress and management. Certain it is, no man has a better claim to the public 
thanks, or is more generally admired than you. History affords no instance 
wherein, an officer has kept possession of a country under so many disad- 
vantages as you have. Surrounded on every side with a superior force, hunted 
from every quarter with veteran troops, you have found means to elude all 
their attempts, and to keep alive the expiring hopes of an oppressed militia, 
when ail succour seemed to be cut off. To fight an enemy with a prospect of 
victory is nothing : but, to fight with intrepidity under the constant impression 
of a defeat, and inspire irregular troops to do it, is a talent peculiar to your- 
self. Nothing will give me greater pleasure, than to do justice to your merits, 
and I shall miss no opportunity of declaring to congress, to the commander in 
chief of the American army, and to the world, the great sense I have of your 
merit and services. 

" I thank you for the measures you have taken to furnish us with provisions 
and for the intelligence you communicate. A field -piece is coming to your 
assistance, which I hope will enable you and Colonel Lee to get possession of 
the fort. With the artillery you will receive one hundred pound of powder 
and four hundred pound of lead. I wish my present stock would enable me 
to forward you a larger supply ; but it will not, having sent you near half of 
what we have." 



XIH. 



S 



102 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. Being now apprized of the advance of Eaton's detachment and the retire- 
ment of Greene, Marion at once saw that both he and that detachment would 
be exposed to danger from an enter prizing enemy. The sudden movement 
which in his letter of the 25th he proposes to make, was towards Black River, 
for the double purpose of covering and uniting with that detachment, and 
removing his own command beyond striking distance of Camden, He halted, 
however, on the ground at Captain Richardson's, until the 27th, when re- 
ceiving no communication from Greene, (for the intervening country was then 
altogether the enemy's) he moved over to Black River, and there received 
the unwelcome tidings both of the battle of the 2oth, and of the retrograde 
movement of Major Eaton. 

We know not to what movements Colonel Lee alludes, as indicating a dis- 
position in Greene " to depart from his adopted system." Had Colonel Lee 
pointed to the particular movement indicative of such a disposition, others 
mi<yht have judged how far his premises would have sustained his conclusion. 
That Greene had, in fact, no such design, is expressly declared by him in all 
the letters of the day ; in which he uniformly writes, that the check he had 
received should make no change in his movements. Of these we will copy 
one. because more immediately connected with the movements which preceded 
Watson's escape and Marion's movements, and which must have been com- 
municated to Colonel Lee. 



Letter from ■ General Greene to General Marion* 

" Camp at Rugely's, April 27, 1781. 

'•'• Dear Sir, 

" Captain Con vers has just arrived in camp, and says, that reports are 
below that we were routed, and totally dispersed. You will take measures to 
have this account contradicted, and the public properly informed. By mistake 
we got a slight repulse. The injury is not great. The enemy suffered much 
more than we did. What has happened will make no alteration in our plan of 
operations, and therefore I wish you to pursue the same plan that you had in 
contemplation before. 

" In my last I desired you to move up within seven miles of Camden, but 
Captain Conyers thinks, that by posting fifty men below, at the distance of 
fifteen or twenty miles, all the supplies can be as effectually cut off as if you 
were at a less distance ; and that if you cross the Sautee, you can take ali the 
posts upon the Conge ree, and those posts that lie between Camden and the 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 103 

latter river. I have, therefore, sent Captain Conyers to conduct the artillery to chap. 
you, which I was informed, this morning by express, was on its return, Major ^.^^^ 
Eaton having heard of the reduction of the fort. 

" Yoa will cross the river Santee, or detach — and Colonel Lee, and 
direct your force, as information or circumstances may direct, either towards 
Georgetown or elsewhere, as shali appear to be necessary, keeping me always 
ad*; ; tCi1 of your situation, and leaving a guard of about sixty men at or about 
the High Hills of Santee, to prevent supplies from going to Camden." 

This letter needs no comment. It proves Colonel Lee's mistake as to Gene- 
ral Greene's views, his error as to his own movements, and his subordination 
to Marion. 

The immediate cause assigned, by Colonel Lee, for the evasion of Watson, 
was the execution of the order sent to him, " requiring him to join the army 
forthwith."* His account is, " that at the time of the surrender of the fort, his 
cavalry was in front of Colonel Watson ;" " that, having brought up his infan- 
try, Watson, by a stolen march, crossed to the south side of the Santee," but 
would " have been pursued, with the expectation of falling upon him, before he 
could make good the passage of the river, had not the general's orders, direct- 
ing the junction of the corps under Lee, arrived; which necessarily arrested the 
proposed attempt upon Watson." 

This account is wholly irreconcilable with time and place. For, when Wat- 
son crossed the Santee, at the lower ferry, Fort Watson had not yet surrender- 
ed ; this was on the 21st; and it is on the 23d that the capitulation bears 
date. Nor would distance have admitted of the rapid movement necessary to 
throw the cavalry in front of Watson. Since the ferry at which the British 
Colonel crossed it is not less than sixty miles from the place where the Ame- 
rican detachment lay. 

It is unnecessary, however, to refer to circumstances to detect the error of 
Colonel Lee, since we have positive evidence that on the day after the surren- 
der of the fort, Colonel Lee's cavalry was with Marion at the High Hills, and his 
infantry ten miles in their rear.f At this period Watson was on his march from 
Georgetown to Monk's Corner, (a post on the same road with that to Charles- 
ton,) and forty miles below Fort Watson, If any further evidence of the colo- 
nel's inaccuracy on this point be necessary, it is to be found in two letters from 
him, dated the day of the surrender, the one before, the other after that event : in 
one of which he says, " Watson is in Georgetown, and dare not venture towards 



* Page 67, .68. t Marion's letter of the 24tb April; ante. 



104 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. Camden," and in the other, " to-morrow we march for die High HiJIs of Santee.'' 
..*-v^ Nor is it easy to conceive on what day the order issued to Colonel Lee could 
have borne date : die presumption is, that it must have been of a date prior to 
that ordering Marion to cross the Santee himself, or detach Colonel Lee on that 
service, which was on the 27th. Now a letter oh the files, from Colonel Lee. 
of the date of the 27th. proves that he had not, on that day, heard of the battle : 
and another of the day following, acknowledges that he had. But the latter 
letter contains a positive acknowledgment that he had then received no such 
order. The following is an extract from it. 

'" I am with General Marion, who has moved to this place, thirty miles from 
yon, in consequence of your orders. I am ignorant whether you mean to com- 
prehend me in your order or not. I have my hopes that you will order me and 
Major Eaton to pass the Santee, and to pursue the conquest of every post and 
detachment in that county. I think such a Jinc of conduct necessary, or the 
storming of Camden unavoidable. If you prefer the latter I wish to be with 
you," &c. 

That Colonel Lee marched with General Marion for the I J ills, and that he 
there continued with him, until he received advice and orders from Greene, is, 
therefore, incontestable : and that he accompanied Marion to Black River, and 
remained there until the arrival of Eaton, is proved by his own letters, dated at 
Benbow's Ferry, where also, Marion's bear date. But letters of Colonel Lee's, 
of the 2d and 4th May, explain this mystery. 

In a letter from General Greene of the 1st May, to General- Marion, he is 
ordered, in case of Colonel Tarleton's crossing the country for Camden, im- 
mediately to detach Colonel Lee to the main army ; and a letter from Colonel 
Lee. of the date of the 2d, acknowledges one communicating to him this order. 
On the 4th May. intelligence was received by General Greene, that Lord Corn- 
wallis was actually advancing into South Carolina ; and a letter of that date 
contains an order for Colonel Lee immediately to join the main arm v. Colo- 
nel Lee's answer, however, shows that he received it when lying before Fort 
Motte ; that Watson had then actually passed the Wateree, and that he never 
complied with it. 

The real cause which produced AVatson's successful evasion, was the retro- 
grade movement of Major Eaton; who. after reaching Black River, returned 
within five miles of Rugeiys mills. Had he pursued his orders, he must have 
joined Marion before the receipt of the letter of the 27th, ordering him across 
the Santee ; and by immediately moving in compliance with that order, Ma- 
rion musthave intercepted Watson. Circumstances had now occurred, so much 
to reduce the force under Marion, that, without the reinforcement under Eaton, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. .105 

he could not venture to throw himself in the way of Watson, whose force w T as c ™f- 
estimated at six hundred men and four field pieces.* The time of the year, v^y^- 
(being the height of planting,) the unfortunate affair of the 25th, the rising of 
thetories on the Peedee, and the detaching of eighty men, under Colonel Irvine, 
to Rafting Creek to cut off supplies from Camden, all had combined to cause a 
great reduction of Marion's force. As soon, however, as Major Eaton had 
joined him, which was on the evening of the 2d , May, he lost no time in moving 
across the Santee. In a letter of the 3d he says, " Major Eaton's not coming 
up sooner has made me lose a great deal of precious time. I shall cross Santee 
at Wright's Bluff to-morrow." 

Marion accordingly lost no time in pressing across the Santee after his 
junction with Major Eaton ; but he came too late. The day before he reached 
the road which crosses the river above the confluence of the Wateree and Con- / 
garee, Colonel Watson had succeeded in passing him. In the meantime, Greene 
had thrown himself across the river also above Camden Ferry) to cut him off ; 
but Watson, skilfully eluded the main army by recrossing the Wateree some 
distance below Camden, and succeeded in throwing himself into that place on 
the Sell of the month. 

Nor is Colonel Lee less incorrect in his charges alleged against Sumpter, 
than in those preferred against Greene. 

In a previous page he asserts — " Brigadier Sumpter held off, much to 
the surprise, regret and dissatisfaction of the American general, and very much 
to the detriment of his plans and measures," Tins, taken in connexion with 
the passage before cited, makes out against General Sumpter, the charge of 
having neglected or refused to contribute towards the support of Greene, the 
re-enforcements which he had promised ; and, at first view, the charge would 
seem to be countenanced by some expressions in General Greene's letter to 
Mr. Read and to the president of congress, before quoted. But, if these 
letters be considered, they will not be found to have any such bearing ; they 
allege a disappointment, but contain no imputation or censure on Genera! 
Sumpter, because of it. And the fact is, that officer had never received an 
order to join the southern commander, but expressly otherwise ; for in every 
communication from that of the 29th April, in which the descent was first 
announced, he is uniformly instructed to direct his operations against the 
country lying west of Camden, to cut off" re-enforcements from that quarter, 
and endeavour to break up the communication between Ninety-Six and Cam- 



- * Hainan. 30th April 

VOL. II. 14 



i OS MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cha". den. The re -enforcements he was not able to cut off, but the other service 
^^^ he performed so effectually, that every effort of Lord Ravvdon to commu- 
nicate with the posts of Granby and Ninety-Six proved abortive ; and at the 
period we have now arrived to, Pickens was in force, under Sumpter's orders, 
in the vicinity of Ninety- Six. The fort at Granby was closely invested by 
Colonel Thomas Taylor ; and Sumpter, in person, was aiming a blow at the 
post at Orangeburgh. No cause operated more strongly in forcing Rawdon to 
abandon the upper country and release the American commander from his 
accumulating embarrassments, than the progress made by Sumpter in the 
middle country. Nor could Marion and Lee have securely carried on the 
eotemporaneoLis and protracted siege of Fort Motte, had not the posts and the 
country above them been kept in check by the parties brought into the field 
by Sumpter. 

It is true diat he was not able to take the field as early or with as many men 
as he flattered himself ; and the disappointment was sensibly feh in the 
accession of strength to the garrison of Camden before Greene's arrival, 
But, the causes of this disappointment may have been beyond his control, 
and there did not exist the least ground for imputing to him a want of zcai 
or of candour. 

The following detailed account of the progress of Sumpter, will exhibit the 
posture of affairs in the middle and western parts of the state, at the battle 
of Camden, and furnish a full vindication of that officer's conduct, from this 
charge of Colonel Lee. It is extracted altogether from the original docu- 
ments existing among the files of the southern department. 

The letter of the 20th March, which announced to General Sumpter the 
approach of General Greene, found the former still on the Catawba, not per- 
fectly recovered of his wounds. But, the first moment be had been able to 
make sufficient exertions, they had been applied to an effort to enlist a bodv of 
men in the service of the state for ten months. The bounty of a prime negro 
per man, was the temptation held out to them to engage in that service. 
This project had been submitted to Governor Rutledge, and received his sanc- 
tion ; and to General Greene, every thing was welcome that could promise 
an accession of permanent troops. Sumpter's best officers were now actively 
and successfully engaged in procuring enlistments in both states, in the coun- 
try contiguous to the Catawba. 

The moment the order to take measures to co-operate with the commander- 
:of the southern department was received, Sumpter entered with zeal upon the 
execution of it. Trusty messengers were dispatched to Marion and Pickens, 
apprizing them of the communication, and desiring them to take the mo$3 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 10 

active measures to raise the whies in their commands, and embody them for chap. 
co-operation. Marion, as Greene had ordered, was instructed to collect his ^-v-*, 
followers, take post on Black River, collect provisions, cut off the enemy's 
foraging parties, and be in readiness to form a junction with the advancing 
army. How his orders were executed, has already appeared. Pickens was 
not less prompt or energetic in acting the part assigned him. M'Call, Purvis, 
Bratton, Brannon, and a number of the zealous vvhigs, were soon in motion ; 
and although exposed to every inconvenience from the scattered residence of 
his men, and the great predominance of the royal cause in that country, 
Pickens very soon succeeded m breaking up the tory settlements so effectually, 
that they were obliged to take refuge under the guns of Ninety-Six, and em- 
body themselves for mutual protection under die command of General Cun- 
ningham. Even here they were not permitted to rest, but were pursued and 
attacked by night ; and but for the unfortunate mistake of a guide, would 
have been destroyed in the midst of fancied security. M'Cai!* who possessed 
greatly the confidence of the Georgians, was joined by many of the whigs 
from that state, and falling upon a party commanded by a Major Don lap, a 
tory officer, who had rendered himself infamous by Ins barbarity, succeeded 
in capturing the whole party. Clark, Twigs, Jackson, and a number of dis- 
tinguished Georgians, now returned into action, and such a change was pro- 
duced in the face of things, as to extort from Major Cruger the commander at 
Ninety- Six, in a letter to Colonel Balfour which was intercepted, the follow- 
ing exclamation : — " The exertions of the rebels have been very great — they 
have stolen most of our new-made subjects in Long- Cane, and many to the 
southward of us, whose treachery exceeds every idea I ever had of the most 
faithless of men. 

" It will soon be a matter of very little consequence wlio has this part of the 
country, as nothing is like to be planted this season, every man being cither 
in arms or hid in the swamps, and a very great consumption of last year's 
crops." 

On the day that General Greene commenced his march from Deep River, he 
dispatched Major Hyrne across the country, to hold a personal conference 
with General Sumpter. On Hyrne's report, and a letter of Sumpter's, dated 
the 7th April, it was, that General Greene founded his expectation that Sump- 
ter would be able to bring one thousand men into the field, to co-operate with 
hirn. On comparing the two documents, they are found to agree as to mini-, 
ber, but in Sumpter's lettev. four or five hundred of the one thousand are 
expressly made fo consist of the men brought out under Marion, and six hun- 
dred of his own brigade. Hyrne's report says, » General Sumpter expects, by 

■ ■''■'■*. 



f0 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. Monday, (the 1 8th,) to have upwards of two hundred ten months' men from, 
■^^ South Carolina, and three hundred from North Carolina; these are immediate- 
ly to join the militia, who will amount to about five hundred^ and proceed 
down the eountry ;" but makes no mention of the four or five hundred expected 
under Marion. It does not appear very clearly, therefore, whether Sampler had 
held out the hope of bringing into the field one thousand men, exclusive of 
those under Marion ; but, whatever was the number, he was at that time so 
environed with difficulties, that, after promising the most zealous co-operation, 
he does not express a hope that he will be able to take the field before the 20th, 
Major Hyrne had reported the 18th, Opposition, it seems, was made to his 
enlisting men in North Carolina; professedly, on the ground of its interfering 
with the draft then going on in that state, but really (as he asserts) because it. 
raised the price of substitutes. And of his militia command he says, " three 
regiments are left without a field officer, and a number of other officers and 
men have been killed, taken, or parolled, by their imprudently going upon 
. private and disgraceful business." This " private and disgraceful business" 
was the practice of private plunder ; for men then took the law in their own 
hands, and sought indemnity by force of arms, as the courts of justice were now 
shut throughout this unhappy country. The practice disgraced the American 
cause, and furnished ground of reflection on their commander, who really 
wanted not inclination to suppress it, but who felt too sensibly his depend ance 
on those who pursued it. Until he had a disciplined force to sustain and exe- 
cute his orders, it was -impossible to restrain the licentious habits of many who 
professed themselves whigs. 

Greene was, no doubt, much distressed from not receiving earlier support 
from Sumpter ; but we can find no suggestion of a suspicion, that it was not 
as sensibly felt by Sumpter as by himself. 

The case was the same with regard to provisions. Sumpter had been par- 
ticularly solicited to make an effort to procure supplies of food, and horses for 
its transportation. This he made every endeavour to do through those officers 
who commanded where provision could be procured ; but he constantly de- 
dares, as was unquestionably the fact, that all the provisions on those rivers 
\yere within the enemy's posts. 

Although disappointed greatly in the number of men, and the provisions and 
stores he expected to collect, Sumpter actually commenced operations by the 
time he promised. His first blow was aimed at a party collected in force on 
* the Tiger River ; but they fled before him, and, dividing his force into several 
detachments, he simultaneously struck at several of the disaffected settlements, 
whilst a party pushed down to the main army with the pittance of provisions 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. IQ& 

he was enabled to collect, about ten wagon loads. The country between the chap. 
Broad and Saluda rivers, and the Broad and Wateree rivers, was soon swept 
over ; and on the 2d May he sat down before Fort Motte and Fort Granby, on 
the south side of the Congaree. 

It is not true that Sumpter ever was ordered to form a junction with Greene, 
prior to the affair of Camden. Every letter, on the contrary, directs him to 
devote his attention to the country in which he actually operated, only enjoin- 
ing him to hold himself in readiness for a junction in case Lord Comwallis 
should direct his march towards Camden. But after the American army had 
been forced to retreat, such an order was given, and the incidents attending it, 
probably, gave rise to the charge of disobedience to the commander of the 
southern department. But with what justice, let the following extract of a 
letter from the commander himself decide. "Major Hyrne returned this morn- 
ing, and soon after Mr. Taylor arrived with your letter of the 29th. By the 
major's report, and your letter, I find you think it will be prejudicial to the 
public service for you to cross the Wateree and join us. Our situation required 
it, but as you press so many objections, and 1 am so desirous to rouse the peo- 
ple in that quarter, 1 have thought it most advisable to revoke the order, and 
leave you at liberty to prosecute your original plan. General Marion and 
Colonel Lee had orders to cross the Santee, and one or both undoubtedly will. 
If both shpuld cross, I am afraid Watson, who is now in Georgetown, will throw 
himself into Camden. If they separate, I fear one parry will he too weak to 
oppose him. You will keep yourseif informed oi both his and Major M'Ar- 
thur's movements ; the latter of whom, with the Hessian horse, I fear got into 
Camden last evening. However, this is not certain. General Marion has a 
field-piece, but by what I can learn the fort at Congaree is too strong to be beat. 
to pieces by field artillcrv. 

" Push vour operations with great vigour, as no opportunity can be more 
favourable ; and you may rely upon it, the enemy will not be idle, and see 
themselves insulted on all sides. Much depends upon the present movement. 
Let me hear from you daily, and send me all the provisions you can, I mean of 
bread kind, beef we have in plenty." 

Thus, it appears that Sumpter was not only released from the order to form 
a junction with his commander, at this time, but particularly charged with the 
execution of most important services. The punctuality with which they were 
executed, is attested by the numerous communications of this period, not only 
daily as required, but repeated as often as the occurrences of the day rendered 
it proper. Provisions were sent, the communications of the enemy assiduously 



■:■■ 



110 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, watched, swamps explored to cut off the enemy's supplies, and particular atten- 
XnL tion paid to the approach to Camden by the west side of the Wateree. 

Yet, Watson managed to elude all this preparation to cut him off. Major 
M ( Arthur appears, on this occasion, to have exhibited the character of an 
active and intelligent soldier. He commanded a corps of indifferent cavalry, 
formed on a draft from the Hessian troops, at this time in" Charleston. Scour- 
ing the country in the front of Watson, he appears to have completely masked 
his advance ; and after throwing a detachment of twenty-five of his com- 
mand under Colonel Doyle, into Camden, to have returned down to Fort 
Motte, and succeeded in throwing into that place a wall-piece, with the stores 
belon«in°-toit.* But, Marion sat down before the fort tvith his six-pounder t 
before M'Pherson, who commanded the post, could adapt his gun to service, 
or the cavalry who had escorted it, could make good their retreat; hence they 
all shared the fate of that garrison. 

No intelligence had reached Sumpter of the approach of Watson until the 
latter was discovered crossing the Wateree. Immediately as he was apprized 
of the fact, he dispatched two hundred and fifty of his mounted men, with 
orders to harass and detain him until he could advance with the infantry on 
his left, whilst Marion came up in his rear. But Watson, by a rapid and 
unremitted march, succeeded on crossing the ferry opposite to Statesburgh, 
and thus throwing the Wateree between himself and his enemy, proceeded 
in safety to the place of his destination. A more untoward incident, or one 
in which vigilance, forecast, and prudence were more cnmpletely baflled by 
the crosses of fortune, docs not occur in the history of warfare. Bat for 
Lord Rawdon's judicious and successful attack, it could not have happened. 
Nor would it have happened, but for the time lost by Eaton's unfortunate re- 
trograde movement, or if Marion, instead of pressing across the Santee, had 
resumed his station at the High Hills ; for Greene was, at this time,, encamped 
on the west of the Wateree, hi a position which commanded the communi- 
cation by Camden Ferry; and Marion could have moved up on the east side, 
so as with the aid of his detachment at Rafting Creek, to have commanded 
every other crossing place. But, the position would have exposed Marion to 
a blow from Camden, to which his commander was not willing to expose him. 
Lord Rawdon would not have seen Watson cut off under his eye without 
an effort to save him ; for these reasons, he preferred ordering Marion across 



* M'Pherson'g intercepted Letter, 5th Majr. 



XIII. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. Ill 

the Santee, not then having a suspicion that Eaton had advanced so far in his chap, 
retrograde movement, and the state of intelligence being, that as Sate as the, 
30th, Watson was still in Georgetown. As if no incident should be wanting 
to baffle the hopes and the measures of the American commander, Captain 
Conyers,.who, from his intelligence and activity, had been particularly dele- 
gated to stop Eaton and hasten hi in back to Marion, actually lost his way in 
his anxiety to shorten it, and the loss of another day's march was the con- 
sequence.* 

On the day that Watson succeeded in throwing himself into Camden, 
Greene lay encamped at Twenty -five Mile Creek, on the west side of the 
Water ee River. Tins movement had not been made solely, as has been asser- 
ted, with a view to co-operate against Watson, but expressly to guard against 
the consequences that might follow from his junction with Rawdou. On the of 
,Sd May, he had received intelligence of the delays which had attended Marion's 
movement to cut him off on the south of the Santee; and he foresaw that not a 
moment would be lost by Lord Rawdon in aiming a blow at the main army, 
should Watson by any casualty (and there are many such in war) succeed in 
reaching Camden. Information had also been received of the advance of the 
Virginia militia, and he resolved, until re-enforced, to remain in covert whilst 
his detachments were overrunning the state. 

A position on the west side of the Wateree afforded every facility for sup- 
porting those detachments if necessary, while a succession of strong military 
positions in his rear, upon the road on which he was posted, presented the 
means of resisting a superior enemy, and both covered the country above him, 
anil kept open a communication with his magazines at the head of the river. 
It also presented greater facility for supplies, since the whole country to his 
right, even down to the mouth of Cougar ee, was commanded by Sumpter's 
parties. The advantages to be expected from the provision that had been 
husbanded by the enemy in that fertile country, were not to be neglected. 
From these, in fact, he immediately began to draw supplies of meal, the 
great defect in the American camp. 

An order of the 6th, that the roll be called every hour, was the consequence 
of the receipt of the mortifying intelligence of Watson's success. And another, 
of the 7fh, " that the army shall march by the left in one hqur,"f followed upon 
the news General Greene anticipated, that Lord Rawdon was preparing to 
advance upon him the moment Watson had arrived. 



Major Eatou's Letters. 1 This is the military order for, retreat. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, Nine miles in the American rear, the road was crowed by Colonel's £rcek, 
* tlie north bank of winch was commanding, and had been marked as the place 
where the enemy were to be met. But prudence dictatated that his position 
should be changed late that afternoon ; breaking up, therefore, upon an hour's 
notice, General Greene proceeded to a safe position, beyond an intermediate 
stream railed Sarney's Creek, and encamped for the night. The next day, at 
an early hour, the retreat was resumed, and crossing Colonel's Creek, he drew 
up his army hi order of battle. 

Lord Rawdon soon after made his appearance,— drove in the pickets,— re- 
connoitred closely, deliberated for an hour* and drew off with all the military 
pretentions which indicate respect for an enemy* 

Hitherto tbe cares of Greene has exhibited almost one incessant struggle 
against every untoward incident that fortune could throw in his way. But 
though checked, baftlcd, and defeated, he lias made considerable progress 
towards the attainment of his great end, the repossession of die country. The 
event was ever productive of more serious mortification to him than the suc- 
cessful evasion of Watson's detachment Every precaution that human pru- 
dencn could suggest, and his means admitted of, had been resorted to, and at 
the moment when he thought him in bis toils, he had eluded the snares 
spread for him, and now had swelled the forces of his enemy to a magnitude 
winch forbade his being met, except under decided advantages. One of the 
most mortifying circumstances attending it, was, that even in cavalry Rawdon 
had now the ascendancy. 

In effective men Doyle rather outnumbered Washington, and his standing 
was high as a cavalry officer* It was a subject of the most serious chagrin, at 
(his lime, to the American commander that more than one third of Washing- 
ton's corps was dismounted; and horses were not to be procured. 

As all the drafts made upon the states now, were for specific supplies, Vir- 
ginia, at that time the great mart for good horses, had been pressingly called 
upon to furnish a number for the cavalry. But amongst the consequences which 
followed upon the impressments made in February, was fc resolution of that 
state, fixing the maximum price at what horses might be purchased for the 
eavalrv service, and fixing it so ion- as to preclude all possibility of purchasing 
horses fit for any thing but the plough. The hard services to which the cavalry 
had been exposed, in a country so infested with loyalists, and in which it was 
neccssuiy to forage such a distance, there had been a great destruction among 
die cavalry horses. At the batde of Hobkirk's Hill, it will be recollected, that 
ihirtv-one out of eighty-seven dragoons could not k brought into service for 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 113 

want oi' horses. The number was still increasing, and every effort made to chap. 

XIII 

repair the loss, terminated in disappointment, or more unhappy consequences, v^-v-v 

The following spirited remonstrance, addressed to the governor of Virginia, 
bears date three days alter the affair of Hobkirk's Hill ; it presents a striking 
view of the feelings and situation of the southern commander, at that date. 

" Since I wrote your excellency, in answer to the resolutions of your assem- 
bly, relative to the conduct of the cavalry officers, and the measures pointed our. 
to supply this army in future with horses, I have been considering more fully 
the tendency and consequences of it. 

*' It is to be lamented that officers will not exercise more discretion and pru- 
dence when entrusted with the execution of an order which seems to invade the 
rights of a eitizeu, and not perfectly conformable to the laws and constitutions 
of the land. And it is equally to be lamented, that a legislature should, from 
resentment for the misconduct of a few individuals, bring upon an army, em- 
ployed in their service, inevitable ruin, and upon the community disgrace and 
distress. 

" I was very particular in giving my orders, to guard against the evils com- 
plained of, (a copy of which is enclosed ;) and I have no wish to screen a single 
officer, who has wantonly invaded the property of the people, or offered an in- 
sult to the inhabitants; but I wish the improper conduct of a few officers may 
not be made to operate as a punishment upon the whole army. 

" "When we retired over the Dan, our force was too small to stop the progress 
of the enemy, or prescribe the limits of their approach. We appealed to the 
-only means left to save your country, and prevent the destruction of a virtuous 
little army. Men were called for, thy turned out with a spirit that did honour 
to themselves and their country. Horses were wanted to mount the dragoons, 
they could not be procured without impress- warrants. You were convinced of 
this fact, and therefore furnished me with the warrants for the purpose. I took 
the most advisable, and, as I thought, effectual means to have the business con- 
ducted with propriety ; and I cannot but think the gentlemen, generally, who . 
were entrusted with the execution of my orders, were governed entirely by a 
principle of public good. Some mistakes, and several abuses, appear to have 
happened in impressing stud horses instead of geldings. But those mistakes 
arose from the necessity of mounting our dragoons in such a manner as to give 
us an immediate superiority over the enemy, as well in the quality of the horses 
as their numbers. The people complained, I was willing to redress their 
grievances ; some of the most valuable covering horses were returned, and I 
shall direct some others to be returned, notwithstanding the great inconvenience 
that must inevitably attend this army from it. 
vol. u, 15 



114 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. " The assembly of the state appear to have taken up the matter from a pnri- 
(jrsrv ciple, though acknowledged to be virtuous, jet, from its tendency, obviously 
impolitic. The rights of individuals are as dear to me as to any man ; but the 
safety of a community I have ever considered as an object more valuable. In 
politics, as well as every thing else, a received and established axiom, is, that 
greater evils should, in even" thing, give way to lesser misfortunes. In war it 
is often impossible to conform to all the ceremonies of law and equal justice; 
and to attempt it would be productive of greater misfortunes to the public from 
the delay, than all the inconveniences which individuals must suffer. 

" Your excellency must be sensible of the inconveniences I have to labour 
-under at this time, and the difficulties that still surround us. Nothing but 
light-horse can enable us, with the little army we have, to appear in the field ; 
and nothing but a superiority in cavalry can prevent the enemy from cutting to 
pieces, every dctechment coming to join the army, or employed in collecting 
supplies. From the open state of this country, their services are particularly 
necessary; and unless we can keep up the corps of cavalry, and constantly 
support a superiority, it will be out of my power to act, or to prevent the 
enemy from overrunning the country and commanding all its resources. 

" The assembly, I fear, by their resolves, have destroyed all my hopes and 
expectations on that head. Under the law, as it at present stands, it is cer- 
tain nothing can be done. By limiting dragoon horses to the narrow price of 
five hundred pounds, it amounts only to a prohibition, and cuts off the prospect 
of any future supplies. At this moment, the enemy are greatly superior to usy 
and unless Virginia will spring immediately to the most generous exertions, 
they will indubitably continue so. It is in vain to expect protection from an 
army which is not supported, or make feeb e efforts upon narrow principles of 
prudence and economy. They only serve to protract the war, and tire out 
the patience of the people. Already have we experienced, in many instances, 
the ill-consequeuccs, of neglecting the army when surrounded with difficulties 
and threatened with ruin. Great expense of blood and treasure have at- 
tended this policy ; and to redress the grievances of a kw individuals, when it 
will entail calamity upon the community, will be neither politic nor just. 

"If horses are dearer to the inhabitants than the lives of subjects, or the 
liberties of the people, there will be no doubt of the assembly's persevering in 
their late resolution ; otherwise I hope they will reconsider the matter and not 
oblige me to take a measure which cannot fail to bring ruin upon the army, and 
fresh misfortunes upon the country." 

Without waiting, however, to try the influence of a letter extorted by the 
isost painful anticipations, Greene had been pressingly, but vainly calling 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 115 

upon Sumpter, Marion, and' every officer from whom assistance could possibly chap. 
be derived, to procure him a supply of horses ; while the most active officers ^^y^., 
were scouring every quarter of the country in search of this indispensable 
article of equipment. At length, an unfortunate communication of Colonel 
Lee's, inspired him with a belief, that he had been ill-used ; and had nearly 
terminated in the loss of Marion's invaluable services. It was contained in a 
letter of the 23d May. 

" General Marion, (says the Colonel) " can supply you if he will, with one 
hundred and fifty good dragoon horses, most of them impressed horses. He 
might, in my opinion, spare sixty, which would be a happy supply." 

That Marion, knowing his necessities, and possessing the power to relieve 
them, though urgently pressed, should yet have withheld this supply, excited in 
Greene, sensations which there was no effort made to conceal or suppress, in 
his next communication. 

But, Marion was too pure a man to fear reproach, and too firm a man to 
experience even the semblance of it, and dissemble his feelings. lie repels 
the charge of ever having had it in his power to relieve the wants of Greene, 
and requests leave to resign ; firmly but respectfully intimating his resolution 
to retire from service as soon as he shall have seen Fort Motte reduced, before 
which he was then lying. Greene perceived the mischief he had done, and 
by earnest and flattering solicitations, with difficulty succeeded in overcoming 
Marion's resolution. But,immediately as the fort surrendered he separated hi my- 
self from Colonel Lee, and successfully renewed his operations in the eastern 
quarter of the state. From the letter which Greene addressed to Marion on that 
occasion, we transcribe the following passages — " 1 am sorry the militia are 
deserting because there is not greater support. If they were influenced by 
proper principles, and were impressed with a love of liberty and fear of sla- 
very, they would not shrink at difficulties. If we had a force sufficient to 
recover the country, their aid would not be wanted ; and they cannot be well 
acquainted with their true interests, to desert because they conceive our force 
unequal to the reduction of the country -without their assistance. I shall 
always be happy to see you at head-quarters, but cannot think you seriously 
mean to solicit leave to go to Philadelphia. It is true your task has been dis- 
agreeable, but not more so than others. It is now going on seven years since 
the commencement of this war. I have never had leave of absence one hour, 
nor paid the least attention to my own private affairs. Your state Is invaded, 
your all is at stake. What has been done will signify nothing, unless we 
persevere to the end. I left a family in distress, and evtry thing dear and 
valuable, to come and afford you all the assistance in my power, to promote 



4$-- MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, the service. It must throw a damp upon the spirits of the army, to 'find that, 
XUL the first men in the state are retiring from the busy scene, to indulge them- 
selves in more agreeable amusements. 

" However, your reason for wishing to decline the command of the militia, 
and go to Philadelpia, may be more pressing than I imagine- I will, there- 
fore, add nothing more on this subject till 1 sec you. 

" My reasons for writing so pressingly respecting the dragoon horses, was 
from the distress we were in. It is not my wish to take the horses from the 
militia, if it will injure the public service ; the effects and consequences you 
can better judge of than I can. 

" Yon have rendered important services to the public with the militia under 
your command, and done great honours to yourself ; and I would not wish to 
render your situation less agreeable with them, unless k is to answer some 
very great purpose; and this, I persuade myself, you would agree to from a 
desire to promote the common good, &c." 

Marion was pacified; turned the affair off upon grounds that proved his 
feelings tranquillized: and the answer to the above letter was accompanied 
with a fine horse for the general's own use. But, from that time he gave up 
the siege to the regular troops, co-operating more to cover their operations' 
than to direct them, and bis militia, taking the alarm at the idea of being dis- 
mounted, soon began to scatter, until his command was reduced to one hundred 
and fifty. Ivith these, as soon as the fort surrendered, he struck down to- 
wards Monk's Corner, and hung upon the enemy during the whole of luV 
retreat to that place. 

Greene's cavalry still remained dismounted, and the inferiority of his num- 
bers, rumours of the advance of Tarleton, and even of Cornwallis' whole- 
army, filled him with most gloomy apprehensions, and compelled him to turn 
his mind to the repetition of the part he had recently acted, by retiring upon 
his re-enforcements, which were now announced as advancing. ^ 

The Pennsylvania line were on their march, the Virginia militia assembling 
at Salisbury, and the North Carolina draft slowly but steadily advancing. 
But, in the meantime, relief was remote, and Lord Rawdon possessed the 
acknowledged mastery of the field. 

The following anecdote from the pen of General Davy, will best fill up 
the interval until the evacuation of Camden ; 

" This evening, (the 9th) the general sent for me earlier than usual ; I found 
the map on the table, and he introduced the business of the night with the 
following striking observations :— " You see that we must again resume the 
partisan war. Rawdon has now a decided superiority of force— he has pushed 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. ir 

us to a sufficient distance to leave him free to act on anv object within his chap. 

1 Xllf 

reach. He will strike at Lee and .Marion, re-enforce himself by all the troops, 
that can be spared from the several garrisons, and push me back to the 
mountains. You acted in this quarter in the last campaign — I wish you to 
point out the military positions on both sides the river ascending it to the moun- 
tains, and give me the necessary information as to the prospect of subsistence. 
Tou observe our dangerous and critical situation. The regular troops arc 
now reduced to a handful, and lam without militia to perform the convoy or 
detachment service, or any immediate prospect of receiving any re-enforce- 
ment ******** 

* * North- Carolina, dispirited by the loss of her regular troops in 

Charleston, stunned into a kind of stupor by the defeat of General Gates, 
and held in check by Major Craig and the loyalists, makes no effort of any 
kind. Congress seems to have lost sight of the southern states, and have 
abandoned them to their fate, so much so, that I am even as much distressed 
for ammunition as for men. 

" We must always calculate on the maxim, " that your enemy will do what 

he ought to do," We will dispute every inch of ground in the best manner 

we can, but Raw don will push me back to the mountains. Lord Cornwallis 

will establish a chain of posts along James River, and the southern states thus 

. cut oil", will die like the tail of a snake. 

" These are his very words — they made a deep and melancholy impression, 
and I shall never forget them, 

" After expressing an anxious desire to* remain as near as possible to cover 
the retreat of Lee from Fort Motte, we recurred again to the map, where I had 
it in my power to assure him, from personal knowledge, that the country 
-abounded in strong military positions ; and as to subsistence, there would be no- 
difficulty, as we should be falling back on our depots or magazines in North 
Carolina ; that if he was obliged to retreat further, he must permit me to resume 
my original plan, as I was morally certain a respectable force could be raised in 
the western districts of that state. 

" The interview concluded by his informing me, that he would dispatch an 
express to Philadelphia the next morning, requesting me to write to members, 
of congress with whom I was acquainted, painting in the strongest colours our 
situation and gloomy prospects. 

" General Greene possessed, in an eminent degree, those high energies requi- 
site to conquer appalling difficulties, united with that cool and moral courage, 
which resists the anguish of disappointment and the pressure of misfortune. I 
never observed bjs mind rield but at this gloomy moment, when he conceived 



m A1AJ0R GENERAL GHEENK. 

cfja** hlm^rtf not only abandoned by all the const iiutncl am ho rides of tlie confederacy, 



\v\. 



. but even by tlii.t portion uf tlie [.invitation of tin* southern suites who had every 
tiling to hope lYom his stircrs?. ant] every thin sr to fear from bis fa He it, I em- 
ployed the whole night In writing, imtjJ an order Ev serjeant summoned mo 10 
head quartern, about daylight. On e uteri ug die general's rent, I soon perceived 
some important r!iaiu?e had taken place* I iinvc sent for you, said he, with a. 
countenance expressing die most J ively pleasure, to inform you that Lord Raw- 
don i^ live paring to evaluate Camden — that pEacc was the key of the cuemy ? 3 
Inn: of posts* they will now all fall or be evacuated— al! wit! now go well, 
Bnm your loners, I shall march immediately to the Coiisaree. Arrange your 
emiyoys to follow us, tind let #ve know what ex j cresses and detachments you 
want*' 5 

Volumes of flames and smoke announced the medtlated retreat of the British 
commander, Immense quandiies of stores and M^$0 were committed to t.he 
Hit, and the giml, con rt- house, and even many privu-c bui Mirths shared the 
*amc fate, Camden was left a Eacnp of ruins. If the i Mention nf t&ti& Ruwdou 
was to prevent his enemy from establishing himself in the place, ihU was doing 
little towards it wbltst die for ducat loos remained entire. He must, too, greatly 
have- misunderstood the poiicv of ])U ad versa rv : for the moment It was a ban- 
dnned. the most active means were adapted to raze the works to me ^mund. 
The open country, was the stage in which the American commander was culled 
upon to operate* 

The scene of devastation whicli Lord Rawdon left behind him, was a miteli 
more ju<r ground of an 3 mad virion than the i-vrreat itsdf. The measure. 
ulilioLi^h ii has been hy some severely censured, and from Efc consequence? ap- 
jit.-iavd lo be disi^trous, was one of absolute necessity. Greene had uhvays 
lureseen.tliEU nothing but the advance of Coniwallis to his relief could prevent 
his being compelled to retreat; ami that, without the junction of Watson, he 
Would want strength to effect it, It was not without sensations EuiivA'd with 
regret, that 1m now received the intelligence of the oreurreueL's winch indicated 
his resolution to attempt it, For it was ascertained that Coi'iiwrillis hud taken 
the contrary direction; aud had the Virginia mil ilia been up at this time, he 
could Stave lit nested the- town, and si a rv eel ftaweon in;o a surrender, whilst, by 
fC-enforeiii£ [us detachments. all intermediate pn<t-< must have stmcndctxid. .Simi- 
lar and nearly cqttaF ft Fis the danger winch threatmed Lord Rawdon in the L3i>p-> 
-,hc quarter r forshuuhl Marion. Lc-e h Sum peer, and Ptsjkens succeed in earrviu^ 
me posts against which they were operating; their union before Camden mu^i 
have b£cu ftft&j to Raft- don. A fortnight might have effected t,M tJiis : and Co- 
hxir] Lee, In ®m of his letter*, expresses a cordial wish that h^ mi^ii remain 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 119 

but for that time. The garrison was at this time much straitened for provi- chap, 
sions ; its supplies had been for a fortnight nearly cut off, and the accession of ^^^-^ 
force under Watson, though it increased his means for action, diminished his 
relative competence for a siege. Greene, in all the correspondence of this day, 
positively maintains, that had the Virginia militia come up prior to the evacua- 
tion, the garrison, with all its envied stores and resources, must have fallen into 
his hands. 

Yet its evacuation actually relieved him from the aiost vexatious suspense. 
For, until the arrival of the Virginia .militia, his adversary's superiority might 
have obliged him, in case of misfortune, to retreat up the river and leave all his 
detachments, now in such vigorous operation throughout the state, exposed not 
only to be driven back, but destroyed. 

Great and sudden were the changes in the aspect of affairs between the 
6th and 10th of May. While the prospect remained that Watson would be 
intercepted, every hope was suspended on that event; as soon as it was ascer- 
tained that he had escaped and entered Camden, the deepest gloom for a 
moment, overspread the public mind. But, sudden and great was the tran- 
sition from fear to exultation, when Rawdon's retreat was announced. A scene 
the most busy and bustling immagmable immediately ensued. 

Many things conspired to animate the revolutionary spirit at this period, 
{n addition to the retreat of Lord Rawdon, the advance of the re-enforce- 
ments, and the retirement of Lord Cornwallis, parties of armed wings, well 
mounted and commanded by popular leaders, were to be seen in every part of 
the state. In addition to those which were animated and directed by the 
immediate presence of Sumpter, Marion and Pickens, Major Harden had 
penetrated to the very gates of Charleston, producing alarm and discomfiture 
to the one party, while he presented a rallying point for the other, and revived 
their languishing and almost abandoned hopes. 

Immediately as Marion received intelligence of the advance of Greene, 
he had detached this intelligent and en te [prizing officer with seventy select 
men, well mounted, to penetrate through the country, and crossing the 
enemy's lines of communication, to awaken the spirit, of opposition in the 
country south-west of Charleston. Rapid in his movements, and altogether 
unexpected, Harden took tiie enemy at a surprise every where, and soon ren- 
dered himself the terror of die loyalists in that region of country. His force 
gathered as it rolled ; many of the inhabkanis sighed in secret under the 
British government, and in a little time he could muster two hundred active 
men. To pursue him was vain — to entrap him was impossible ; and he soon 
-extended his chastisements to the disaffected of both states, along the banks 



j20 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, of the Savannah, and communicated with Pickens then operating "against 

XIII -v ^ 

^^^-^ Augusta and Ninety- Six. 

Nothing now was wanting but the fall of the enemy's chain of posts, to 
complete the recovery of the whole country to within thirty miles of the sea 
coast. 

The advantages of the American arms now followed in rapid succession. 
The 10th, 11th, 12th, and 15th of May, were distinguished by the fall of the 
posts of Camden, Oraflgeburgh, Fort Mottc and Granby, in order of date. 
The evacuation of the first was announced at the American camp at 10 at 
night, and early the next day every tiling was in motion to take advantage of 
the incident. Concluding that efforts would be made, to draw the garrison 
from the enemy's posts on the Congaree, and form a junction with them below 
the Santee, an express had been dispatched the evening before, with a caution 
to Marion and Sumptcr to guard against those events ; and the general him- 
self, ordering the army to proceed by the Camden road for the Congaree, took 
an escort of cavalry and moved down in person to Fort Motte, to reconnoitre 
the country, concert ulterior operations with Marion, and attend the issue of 
passing events. Halting at M'Cord's Ferry, he was at that place when the 
surrender of the fort was" announced to him, and immediately ordering Colonel 
Eee as die van of the army, to march to Fort Granby, he proceeded himself 
to listen on the army to that point. The quick reduction of that place was 
now a most interesting object, as from it he expected to draw supplies for 
more important, operations ; and Pickens had written pressingly for support, 
to cnahle him to prevent the garrison of Ninety- Six from relieving that of 
Augusta, (now closely besieged) and to prevent both from effecting their es- 
cape down the Savannah River. An event which could not but be productive 
of the most serious disappointment, not only from the escape of the garrison, 
but the destruction of the valuable supply of arms and ammunition antici- 
pated from the capture of those posts. The inhabitants were represented to 
be unanimous in the vicinity of the river, in favour of the American cause : 
but they had been stripped of arms and ammunition by the policy of the 
enemy. Pickens wanted not men, but equipments for war, to resist such an 
attempt; hut, the commander of the southern army was almost as destitute 
as the militia ; and could only, for the present, advise Pickens to take the arms 
from the aged, and place them in the hands of the young and active, until 
troops could be marched to his aid. 

The orders given to Colonel Eee, on this occasion, are obviously calculated 
to operate on the fears of Maxwell, the commander at Fort Granby, who was 
represented as a notorious plunderer, and very naturally considered a poltroon, 






MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 121 

They conclude with requesting him to announce to Maxwell, " that the CH V AP - 
. army will be at or near the fort by 12 o'clock on the 15th, and if he shall ^-y-^ 
obstinately persist in holding the post, he must abide the consequences, as he 
will never receive but one summons for its surrender." 

Maxwell really took the alarm, and dreading the approaching storm, for the 
army had actually arrived on the opposite side of the river, surrendered on 
capitulation upon the first summons. But some circumstances attending this 
conquest, were productive of much embarrassment to the commander of the 
southern army. 

Whilst the army lay encamped at Twenty-five Mile Creek, General Sumpter 
had solicited and obtained from General Green a six-pounder, to assist in the 
reduction of the places he had previously invested. When the piece arrived at 
Granby, Marion had already opened bis trenches against Fort Motte, and 
Sumpter deeming the game secure at Granby, left Colonel Taylor in command 
of a strong party, to keep up the close investment of the post at that place, 
while he made a dash at that of Orangeburgh ; not doubting but the sound of 
his cannon would produce the evacuation of the latter place. The effort was 
crowned with success ; on the 1 1th the garrison surrendered, and some supplies, 
with a large stock of provisions, and near one hundred prisoners were the 
fruits of the victory. 

On the 11th, Sumpter was in readiness to return to Orangeburgh, but, inter- 
cepting one of Rawdon's expresses, he received intelligence of his retreat from 
Camden, almost as early as the army that lay near it. Perceiving, immediately, 
that there was service to be performed in the communication between Camden 
and Charleston, which he could very soon reach from the situation he was in, 
he struck across the country towards Fort Motte, for the purpose of uniting 
with Marion and Lee, and throwing himself in front of Lord Rawdon, not 
doubting but with two field-pieces, and their united force, to embarrass him 
severely in the passage of the river at Nelson's Ferry, the south bank of which 
was defended by a small fort, which they might succeed in carrying before 
Rawdon couki approach the river. 

On arriving at Fort Motte, he found; the place had fallen ; that Marlon had 
already proceeded upon the line of Rawdon's retreat, and Lee was ad- 
vancing upon Fort Granby, There was still abundant time for Sumpter to 
have returned and harvested the laurels. that he had anticipated from the fall 
that place. But, understanding that the commanding officer of the British 
post at Nelson's Ferry, had issued orders for the inhabitants to drive down 
their cattle, and bring up to the line of retreat to Charleston, all the means of 
transportation thatthey could command, and that the country was qJl in motion 
vol. n. 16 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, for these purposes, he resolved to anticipate the views of die British commanded, 
by deterring the inhabitants from moving the supplies of out of the country; 
and seize upon the means of u*an spoliation, at the same time that he supplied 
the preying wants of (he army by procuring a reinforcement of horses, 
Willi these views lie proceeded to scour all the country from WWmasnw to 
Dorchester, ant] in two days returned to Orangchurgb* There lie understood 
that Colonel Lee would anticipate him m the conquest of Fort Granbv: p.nd 
his hitter to die commander plainly indicates, his chagrin on the occasion. He 
pvoeeeded to the Con^arce, and when he obtained a knowledge of the great 
haste wirh which Colonel Lee had conducted the enterprise, and the very liberal 
levins gran led to expedite it, lie addressed a remonstrance to General Greene* 
in which lie enclosed Lis commission. 

jSurwas hi.*: discontent, the only embarrassing occur ren re to General Greene 
arising from tins event. Colo tie I Lee represents the milida us loudly complain- 
ing against the eonduiems of the capitulation, aur! charging him with having 
granted them unnecessarily. This fort, h seem?, had been the dep^tofall the 
plunder that Maxwell ant] his party had been rioting in for =ome mouths past, 
and the plane of refuge of the most obnoxious loyalists. It had been now for 
some time invested by the very men who bad suffered under their rapine ; and 
they had been solacing themselves uirh the hope of restitution, indcuinhy, and 
revenge* in all these they were disappointed, and compelled to look on and 
see horses, plunder, and enemies move off under a safe-guard* Sum] iter thought 
that them was no necessity for this- precipitation — that, he might have moved on 
towards Augusta, and left the reduction to himself, or to the main army, and 
probably suspected the general of something of a disposition to foster the 
military reputation of a supposed favourite. For, in his letter of die Mth t he 
says — " 1 hope it may nor he disagreeable to recall Colonel Lee, as his services 
cannot be wanted at that place ; and as to bis taking command, ffs at the port fit 
Mottvs t I cannot believe it would be your wist l And uoi withstanding i have 
ibe greatest respect for Colonel Lee, yet I could wish he hud not gone to that 
place, as it is a clrcuiustanee [ never thought of: his cava In can be of no ser- 
vice the re j and may be of the greatest here, 1 have been at great pains to reduce 
I hat post, 1 have it in my power to do h, and 1 think it for the good of the 
public to do It without regulars," 

Wicn facts came to be known, there was, unquestionably, no pressing 
necessity for hurrying through the negotiation, from the approach of Rawdom 
But an officer must act upon the state of his advice; and by intelligence fur- 
nished by General Sampler himself, it appear* that Lord Raw don, after passing 
the SaRtee, actually made a movement towards his post ai Gran by ; as jf 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. i& 

intending to relieve it. And this is urged by Colonel Lee as a ground for chap, 
hastening the capitulation. It has been communicated to us from the most Ufcv^. 
respectable quarter, that Greene, on this occasion, compelled Lee to apologize 
to Sumpter. But this is impossible, for Lee was certainly acting in the letter 
and spirit of his orders, and must have been supported by his commanding 
officer. An explanation, no doubt, he was requested to give; and his martial 
appearance, courteous manners, and insinuating address, could not have failed 
to produce the desired effect. 

Certain it is that General Sumpter was pacified, and his understanding was 
too correct, to interpose any diffiulties, after receiving an explanation of the 
views and necessities which led to the event. 

Time was all-important to the American commander, and the loss of it not 
to be risked upon considerations of etiquette, or upon the possible duration of 
the enterprise which had called Sumpter away. And such was the exhausted 
state of the American supplies, that it was scarcely possible to prosecute ulterior 
views, without getting possession of those which this post was "supposed to 
contain, and actually did contain. These., must have diminished every day 
that the siege was protracted. Some concessions to the militia, a flattering 
• notice of their merits and conduct, and the general good humour which good 
fortune diffuses, served also to pacify them ; and the tempest happily blew over. 
To those who are acquainted with the personal character of their immediate 
commander, Colonel Thomas Taylor, tins will not appear surprising. His 
country's good never had a rival in his bosom, * 



* It is due to the just Claims of the many respectable citizens who composed this body of militia 
to state, that they deny the correctness of Colonel Lee, in assigning the cause of their discontent. 
They assert j (hat they never murmured at the terms of the capitulation, although they well knew? 
that the covered wagons of the enemy, then moving off before their eyes, drawn by their own horses, 
were crammed with plunder from their farms, and even conveyed away some of their slaves. But, 
when on the next morning, they saw Colonel Lee's men paraded, equipped in new clothing, while 
the rest of the army were left to prosecute the war in rags, that then they blamed his motives for 
precipitating the surrender. There cannot be a doubt, that the surrender of the fort was unneces- 
sarily hurried through. For the approach of Lord Rawdon, the justification assigned by Colonel 
Lee, was rather to be wished for than deprecated ; since the main army was on the banks of* the 
Congaree on one hand, and General Sumpter on the other, and the militia had proved themselves 
sufficient to hold the fort in a state of investment ; so that, even Lee's command would have been at 
liberty to co-operate against the enemy. Colonel Lee has incurred the charge of hastening the 
capitulation in order to anticipate Sumpter, and the grand army. One of his motives is discovered 
in the use he made of his conquest. No officer was ever more devoted to the interests of his own 
corps, or his own fame. 



■ ■ 






m. i MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. The next day, General Sampler's commission was returned to him in a 

highly complimentary letter, which ingeniously waves every discussion that 
could give pain. 

" I take the liberty," says the writer, " to return you your commission which 
you forwarded me yesterday for my acceptance, and to inform you that 1 can- 
not think of accepting it, and to beg you to continue your command. 

" I am sorry for your ill- state of health, and shall do every thing in my 

power to render your command as convenient as the nature of the service will 

admit- 

" It is unnecessary* for me to tell you how important your services are to the 

interest and happiness of this country, and the confidence I have in your 

abilities and zeal for the good of the service : your continuing in command, 

will lay the public under an obligation in general, and me in particular ; and 

though it may be attended with many personal inconveniences, yet I hope 

you will have cause to rejoice in the conclusion, at having contributed so largely 

to the recovery of your country's liberties," &c. 

Lord Rawdon, after crossing the Santee River, did advance some miles up 
the south bank of that river, but returned the following day and pursued his 
route to Charleston. On the way he was watched by Marion's panics, but nft * 
material advantage was gained by the American detachments. It is pre- 
sumable that he never seriously contemplated the relief of the Granny post, 
but intended only to excite a jealousy for that place, that Greene might, call in 
his datachrnents, and leave the baggage of the British army to proceed unmo- 
lested to Charleston. 

General Sumpter, ever delighting in vigorous enterprise, strenuously con- 
tended that, united with Lee and Marion, he could have destroyed the enemy's 
baggage, and perhaps his army. But, Greene never ventured on a hazar- 
dous game when he could play a safe one. The loss of baggage to an army 
within three days march of a fortress and a depot, and marching towards it, 
is of no vital importance. The possession of it would, indeed, have been a 
great acquisition to the American army; but, whenever its loss became inevi- 
table its destruction would have followed. The posts in the interior country 
presented to General Greene the most desirable object. There appeared to be 
no*doubt of their falling, and with them might be acquired, supplies, prisoners 
and the country that they commanded. That country would have furnished 
the means of confining the enemy to those places, which he could not be pre- 
vented from retaining while possessed of the ascendancy on the water. 

It is but justice to General Sumpter here to observe, that his conduct 
towards the inhabitants in the expedition into the low country in advance of* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. y% 

Lord Rawdoii, in removing the means of transportation, was in strict confer- chap. 
mity with the orders under which he acted. " Although," says General ^j^ 
Greene in a letter of the 15th of April, "I am a great enemy to all kind of '^ 
plundering, yet I think the horses belonging to tiie inhabitants within the 
enemy's lines should be taken from them, especially such as are either fit for 
tie baggage or dragoon service. If we arc superior in cavalry, and can pre- 
vent the enemy from equipping a number of teams, it will be almost impossible 
for them to continue to hold their posts, and utterly impossible to pursue us if 
we should find a retreat necessary. But, any horses, or indeed any other 
property, whether from whig or tory, certificates ought to be given for, that 
justice may be done the inhabitants hereafter ; arid if any discrimination is ne- 
cessary, government may make it when the certificates are to be paid." 

It is also but justice to observe, that the terms upon which General Sump- 
ter had raised his mounted brigade, were sanctioned both by Governor Rut- 
ledge and General Greene. And when Fort Granby was taken, and a number 
of negroes captured in it, we find the following passages in the general orders 
of the 17th May — " Such of the negroes as were taken in this garrison, as 
are not claimed by good whigs, and their property proved, belonging to the 
tories or disaffected, you will apply to the fulfilling of your contracts with 
the ten-months troops." 

These extracts serve to show how far the authority of the commander of the 
southern army, sanctioned the violation of personal property. He was scru- 
pulous to fastidiousness on this subject, when not forced upon him, by neces- 
sities which could not be evaded without sacrificing the cause he was 
contending for ; but, if officers acting under his authority have, in some 
instances, done acts of violence, or incurred the imputation of having done 
them, he has left behind him on his files, the evidence to show how far their 
conduct was sanctioned by his authoritj\* 

Colonel Lee did not rest a day from his labours ; he was immediately 
pushed on from Granby to Augusta. The astonishing celerity of this offi- 



* It was a few days after tins event that a party was sent down by General Sumpter to seize and 
icarry away a large gang of negroes belonging to a loyalist who had rendered himself particularly 
obnoxious. It is probable, that the distribution made of the negroes captured at Fort Granby, by 
exciting discontents in those whose claims were postponed, rendered this measure indispensable. But,, 
the unfortunate consequences which flowed from it, rendered it afterwards a subject of much com- 
plaint ; for in retaliation, many of the negroes of distinguished wings were taken from their planta- 
tions, and a great proportion of them returned ao more, This measure we find no sanction for o«- 
Ifce files of the southern department. 



■ 



nO MAJOU GElVKUAL greens 

C Kiir P CCr ' 5 movcment *^B ^ c MS appreciate^ when it is considered, that on the 
v^^-^lSth he had received the surrender of one fort, on the I aih commanded at 
1 1 int of another, and on thy J 8th had reached a third. The distance from 
Tort Motte to Augusta exceeds one hundred miles* On the 16th, he received 
liis orders to proceed to Augusta, and on the morning of the 19th, cavalry, 
infantiy and ariillcrv were a] J before the town. 

Captain Oldham had been withdrawn from Ids command, and it now con- 
sisted of the legs oil, the North Carolina infantry under Major Eaton, and 
Fin lev's six -pout id or, with matrons enough to serve it. It is presumed also, 
limt they took with them rhe two-inch pieces taken at Graubv, as Pickens 
appears j soon after their arrival j to be furnished with the means of mounting 
a battery. 

The day after Colonel Lee was dispatched for Augusta, Greene rook up 
the line of march for Nnicty-Sjix* moving up the north side of the Saluda; and 
$$ down before it on the 2 2d. J3y the fall of four forts he had now acquired 
tL very respectable supply of am in minion, provisions and arms, and between 
six and seven hundred prisoners. The long protracted negotiation for a 
general excha Htg e was therefore soon agreed upon, and one of General Greene's 
lirst cares was } to dispatch 3fajor Hyrne to Charleston, to carry it into effect. 
The consequence was. the happv reunion of man) 1 families, who had long 
been separated by captivity. Nor was this all ; success on the American part 
had turned the tide of desertion, and great numbers made good thru- escape 
from the British army in its retreat to Charleston. The country favoured it 
exceed high - - and full sixty -five are smd to have len. the enemy the dav he 
eo in: nc need his retreat from Camden. 

The rcduedon of Ninety-Six was now become to Greene an object of the 
greatest interest. Of Augusta, lie had no doubt tfaal it would soon fall. And 
these posts, reduced, he had resolved to take some strong position that would 
confine the enemy to the line of Dorchester and Monk's Comcr^to leave 
Genera 1 linger in command to push on the war hit his quarter — to hasten on 
the North Carolina levies to lingers support — and proceed immediately to 
lake command of the troops in Vienna j and throw idmself in the front of 
Lord Cornwall is. 

fn ike meantime General Sampler was left in command of all mc country 
now recovered from the enemy : particularly injoiued to arrange and organize 
ttffl mil it in, and hold diem in readiness to be called into l ho field, should ne- 
cessity require ; to demolish the works at the poets that had been tukeu> and 
guardedly to walch what was going on in Charleston. Shoold *he c]i? ni ny ■ 
move out in force, he was- Immediately to communicate the intelligence ; and 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 127 

should thcv move towards the rch>f of Ninety -Sis, he was to take measures citap, 
to remove tlie stores from Granby by Whmsborou^h, into the upper country, 
and move on with all the force he could collect, in join the main army. 

To llarion was committed the care trf reducing and holding in subjection, 
the port of Georgetown and the di^nfferted settlements lo the north of it. 

The village of Cat id uid^r!, or a? Ii ^called in the dispatches of l Ins day, the pout 
of Ninety -^Lv , was ar this time the pivot of very extensive and critical oj aerations. 
■ V I iree g i' rat o b j fee 1 s f I i v id ed t he at i nu I o » n P t lie son [hern ro m ti i and en To a rr est 
Cnt-nw^liiH, who was then advancing through North Carolina — to hold Lord 
R::wdon in cheek in Charleston — and to reduce Tin 1 two posts which Jic was 
then Imsiraiins;. Alf were practit -siiilo hud he possessed the means: lit these he 
was Totally d' ficirtiT. and, in anguish of heart, in a letter of Ehf 1 c 26il) to Steu- 
ben, lie fftclarcs, — " We who ftWfe ill t!u- s-nntheru department, are liirle less 
than devoted, so unequal are the means io the. duty espected from wrf To the 
marcju!^ under the same date, lie writes, — E| The aeuiuJ situation of these 
states, ihe tardiacss of the legislature* and the drowsiness of tin- people, are truly 
distressing and alarming. However, cuued \ou hold your ground hi Virginia 
for a few weeks, J should begin to hope for a ehan^e for the bettor* iJt:t I 
have reason to fear several wa^on load*, of stores tell intcjihe eneuiy : s hands at 
Petersburg!), after shey l'cil uown the ravel 1 ; and that all our stores at Carter's 
Ferry, if not those at Pjinrc E'dward, have been des! roved. Shun Id tjtls be 
true, it will distress us exceedingly, God avert so fata] a iiiisforLLmr. Cannot 
the French fleet he broupdu to operate with us to the southward ? Try to bring 
it aboutt you have great hrilucnce at court, and are not less interested than 
mv*elf. 

Li _\l v former letter will inform you what h my desire respecting t!ie forces In 
Virginia, and those coming from the northward, and you will ^ivc the neces- 
sary orders accordingly j (he people have much to hope from your act Kit}- and 
leal, but I have every dung to tear from the inferiority of your force, which, 
I i kc ours here, is bm the shadow of an army." 

All the views of the southern commander towards Arresting the progress of 
Lord Cornwallis when marching to ibrm a junction with Philips were Ettriucd 
by the Mow movement nf the Pennsylvania line, the tardiness whh which the 
Nordi Carolina and Virginia levies were brought into the field, and the total 
dentation of the means of equipping them. IVjih these troops Greene intended 
that La Fayette should advance and meet the British eonunandcr at rhe pas- 
$$$$ of the Roanoke, mad hold him in check, mitil having completed the reduc- 
tion of the posts of Ninety-Si* and Augusta, he should himself be able to join 



m MAJOR GENE1UL OftKKNK. 

chaf. him with a detachment, if not with his whole regular Ibrce, and put a iinal ai.op 
to ins hardship's views on Vugjuiu. 

The task of holding Lord Haw don in check hi Charleston, it has been seen, 
was confided to ttiimpter and Marion. In the execution of their duty, they 
closed hi upon the British commander until he esiahihhcd a hue of fortified 
posts, extending &*m Georgetown, hy Monk's Corner, Dorchester, fce. to 
Coosnwhat elite* The enemy was frequently harassed by panics who made 
incursions within this lint-: but to attack, it nt any principal point near enough 
to Charleston to receive support, was beyond their force. Georgetown, how- 
ever, being separated by watercourses and swamps of great magnitude from 
the rest of the Line, was left with a garrison so weak as to suggest to Marion 
die measure of an attack upon it. The parishes that lie along on both sides 
the San tee, towards its mouth, had turned out with so much zeal on Marion's 
returning hi force into the country, that he found himself at the hcud of a com- 
mand, which enabled him to leave a Strang party under Calond Mayham to 
cover that country, and to proceed wku the main body of his command against 
Georgetown. 

The enemy made but a show of resistance* At the first serious indication 
that the attempt was intended to he pressed, the place was hastily evacuated ; 
the enemy falling down with their galhcs to a posiEion in the bay, at which the 
American party could do nothing to annoy them, and final iy abandoning tin? 
harbour altogether, Clarion deliberately removed all the military stores and 
public property up the Fee Dee, demolished the works, and returned to join his 
detachment in St. Stevens. 

During this period. Colonel Peter Henry, having been detached against the 
loyalists up the Pecdce, had succeeded once more hi pacifying or subduing 
them- The repeated straggles between the contending parties in that country, 
had now reduced it near to desolation* Disgusting were the scenes of mas- 
sacre and revenge which the raging conflict had exhibited in that rjtiai tcr. 

To a similar situation, was the country on the south side of the Santee, soon 
destined to be reduced, The zeal with which the in ha Lit a ins of St. Johns and 
St- Stevens, had lately shown in the American came, had raised the arm of 
revenge against them, and the tormenting excursions of the parties connected 
with A in r ion and Sump or, suggested the measure of depriving them of subsist- 
ence by laying waste that country. This honourable office was delegated to a 
Colonel Bah, under whom the loyalists of Charleston and its vlcinty had been 
embodied into a regiment. But there were in his command too many to 
whom the service was disagreeable, to admit of its being concealed from Marion, 
Hints were sent off to neighbours to be on die look out ; and it became the 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- . VM 

painful task of the American commute to anticipate iris eiiaiDy, by driving t m.kv. 
off and removing across the Saute c ail the stock and provisions that could be, 
* .collected. Jt was paving it both fur their own subsistence and that of the pro- 
prietor* 

But Marion felt his incapacity to resist the force that would be sent to drive 
liira out of the country, and well knew the lute that awaited the families of lIh; 
mefi who bad joined I rim. If dttf loyalists should he let loose upon them. 33c- 
uvecn the loyalists and the regular troops, it wt^ ftj the choice presented to tlic 
king of Israel in the day rhat his ht 'art was lifted up. With him m whig* 
might have exclaimed— " Let me fa! J now into the hands of the Lord," 
(for he is merciful and great J " and let inc not fall into the bunds of man/' 

Filled with apprehension for the fate of many wc-alihy and rc*pcc table <$$? 
zens, and dreading &£ snbrhun^ ctflcts of an example of military execution, fee 
wrote pressingly to General Greene to detach him some aid. or lie could not 
cover the country. 

Infantry it was impossible for the general to spare; but he instantly dispatch- 
ed Colonel Was hi niton's cavalry, the terror of whoso m:n he was not w idiom a 
hope, would prove a sufficient safe -guard against an operation, which, if con- 
ducted by infantry, in sufficient force to awe him. would be conducted too slowly 
to be very efficient. 

During thess transactions iu other qnartcrsj the sieves of Augusta and Ninety- 
Six were advancing but with u tardiness that put to trial the utmost patience 
of the American commander. 

Colonel Lee, who had recently been embroiled with two out of three of the 
South Carolina generals, was now entering upon a service which brought him 
into contact, iridium hrhigmg him under command of a third. Among the 
many trials of skill and paticjEiuu u> wiiitfi the service subjucujd General Greene, 
it iws not the teaSt that he had to reconcile the jarring materials of which his 
forces were composed. .Regulars and militia never do co-oprratc cordially, when 
broazht immediately together. lingular* dc-mise ml! hi a fey their want of discip- 
line and their inell'Eciency in the open field, and miliua repay it on them with 
intercut, because of their mercenary and obligated condition, and, generally, low 
character. The militia-man* also, considers himself as the master or employer 
of the regular, and cvpects the latter to perform the drudgery and Incur the 
danger of sen' ice. While the commander cannot conceal from hlmsdf. or act 
uninfluenced by the consideration, that his main dependauce mm be upon his 
permanent troops ; and is pained by the necessity ol' exposing the father 
of a family, or the citizen who has many li3g.li duties to perform; in order to 
vol. ii* 17 



^0 MAJOR GENERAL GREENX 



» 



ciup. economise the lives of those who, after a W& is over, avc little more than a 
burthen to ihr> body politic • 

Nor was it easy to i h c?conci3e the officers of the regular troops to the idea of 
being commanded by a militia oiFieciv Feeling* of military pride must bc 
clieri&hsct in an army, whatever bo the inconveniences occasionally flu whig, 
from it* A m] j although l he good sense and superior self- control of the c om- 
nia nder of a detachment might reconcile it 10 him to submit, It W$& not so 
easy to manage the spirited* vivacious, and ospli-ijig young men who filled 
subordinate grades, hi serving together hi convoy and other duties, a con- 
viction of feeling nnrl com m inn I ffitisH often otitic. 

To avoid as much as possible the inconveniences that were felt from this £ aura, 
General Greene* from the Time of the surrender of Fort Motto, where the evil 
lirst made its appearance, held up the command of Co I out: I Lee as the van of 
jib own army, avid therefore exclusively under his command ; but, most 
anxiously exerted his Influence and authority, 10 inspire both parties with rhat. 
spirit of urbanity and deference, which would produce cordial and disiu- 
\ crested co-o pratfall. * 

A Villi such a man as Pit ken?, there was no difficulty in succeeding in ibis 
oflbn : and, accordingly a few davs after the arrival of Colonel Lee before 
Augusta* we find him acknowledging hi m self [( very happy nidi General 
Sickens/' and highly gratified at having committed to him exclusively, the 
iterations against a fort about twelve miles below Augusta, called Fort (Jyl- 
pli'm or Dreadnought, 

The post at Augusta was stilt under the command of the celebrated Colonel 
Browne, a man of unquestionable courage and abilities, but whose conduct 
had proved lu=3 vindictive nr?s. insatiable Under hhn commanded a Colonel 
Cirierson, also a loyalist; tun I equally distinguished for bis persecuting e pi sit. 
These mm. already exeeiaitd tor their cruellies, had recently done ffui$£ acts 
which had exasperated the wdugs ahnor-E to mm:! n ess. The spirit of retiilEa- 
lion bad been exacerbated to such a degree, that no man capable of bear- 
ing; arms could remain at home The plantations had all been deserted by all 
bin the wnmenand children, and the aged men whose only remaining cares in 
i his life were, to prepare for the next. 

The families of the whig* had very generally been turned homeless into the 
woods, their farms laid waste, and now the grey-headed ancestors of some? of 
die leading officers were ly In g imprisoned in the forts, collected as hosiagr.s for 
the submission of their sons or grandsons* Browne bad probably the ctwv of 
Cori o hi i ills In n \\ nd , but h a d i d not | u ccccd . I 1 \i there a ml St i ns 1 1 u u ua I ly e n co u - 
raged each other to persevere. It Is asserted, that in the conflict which en- 



' , MAJOR GENERAL GttEENK. m 

sited,* these old men were exposed on the ramparts to receive or arrest the chaf. 
bullets of their sons. "VVe hope it U not true. But, posterity will not credit «e^-w» 
the shockingly unnatural ferocity which was some J hues displayed in this 
afflicting contest. Let one fact ; to whtdi there fc$t) five many witnesses, serve 
as a specimen. Individuals, as in all civil coined, were frequently changing 
sides, and treachery was often pracdrcd tinder the pretext of ik^eniun. The 
fid elk v of such persons was known to be insured by ejj ligirg them to kill one 
of the party from wliich they had deserted* To return to their quondam 
friends afterwards, was known to be impossible. This, however, was oniy 
done by small parties, imd under commanders of no note. Oiliccrs of res- 
pectable standing; endeavoured in vain to suppress such practices. 

Among the fe.remo.st of those who hastened into action upon the advance 
of the American army, was Colonel Clarke of Georgia. His followers im- 
mediately gathered round him, and he found himself at the head of & party 
sufficient to invest Augusta, as soon as Pickens was able, to' hold in rheck the 
garrison at Xiuety-Sis. His approach -wa^ sudden atid unexpected, Boats 
containing the annual presents to the Indians, us well as supplies of many 
articles particularly salt, for the garrison and those who still traded with the 
place, were then ascending the river. Clnrke heard of it, and before they 
cotdd make good their re treat, had way-laid the river. The stream, though 
deep, is narrow, and riflemen among the treea which crown its banks, would 
soon sweep the decks of any boat not provided against such an attack, Un- 
able to ascend or descend, the boars took shelter under Fort C^al(>hi]i ; and 
Clarke was carefully guarding this invaluable prize when joined by Pickens. 
and 7 some days afterwards, by Lee. 

Immediately on Colonel Lee s arrival he Mas complimented with a request 
to undertake the reduction of that post: and detaching 3 Inj or Rudolph on the en- 
terprise, it was soon effected without fes* eight or ten only being woundcd.f A 
strong detachment of the Georgia and South Carolina militia marched to cover 
and co-operate with the troops under Rudolph. But Kudoplrs report, and all 
the correspondence, shows that he conducted ihe enterprise. Jn the narrative 
of this affair. Colonel Lee's memory, or his correspondence, must have totally 
failed him* He was not present at the affair, as appears from Ins own comimi- 
uj&Ltioiis;? and the fort, instead of being taknn by a coup 04 main, surrcn tiered 
on capi tul ati on. Th e o ri gi i ml ar i i cl es are n o w be fore u 5* 



* M f Call's History of G eo raia , t RlhIoI p ti "i rfj) wrt to G}&mi L w. % L cttor to G recur, z Id & a v : 



132 MAJOR GENERAL GBEENE. 

cFur, By the fall of this fort iliere were one hand red and t wcntV'$ix prisoners made, 
, of all descriptions, including seventy commissioned officers and privates, in the 



regular service. 






• 



But by far tin most valuable acquisition was a quantity of clothing, blankets, 
$mall arms nun. salt, and other articles, which the army had Jong heemvery 
limned hi die enjoyment of; and some ammunition, and articles of military 

CmiipmCttL 

But, was it all to be appropriated to the use of time array? The militia of 
the Iwo State* had also their claims: and their naked, bare- fooied, destitute 
condition, countenanced Those claims. The itiddem famished an opportunity 
of exhibiting the character of both Greene and Pickens, in a view equally 
honourable to both. * 

\ Yilh an air of modesty, characteristic of die most ju<?t and unassuming of 
men, Pickens states ili-e destitute condition of the men under hia cuirtmandj 
and begs that they may be permitted to share in some part of the goods whirl) 
constituted a rwrt of the booty- Greene, in his reply, authorizes- him ro divide 
the whole according to Ins sense of justice and |he good of the service* Pickens 
sets aside ihe military stores for the public service* loads thirteen wagons with 
rum, salt, su*ar, medicines, kc- for the main army, and dividing the clothing 
into three espial parts, assigns one part to Georgia, another to South Carolina, 
and rhethifd to tl>e continental troops: and the u-ansaction terra inn tori with a 
request front Greene, that lie would distribute t hu fowling pieces, of which tJio 
number was cousidcvublej among (he militia ; onlj urging the policy, of making 
all the distributions to the militia rite means of retaining them for a specified 
lime in service. 

Tilts affair being thus happily arranged, the reduction of the post of Augivsia 
was pressed with spirit. Colonel Lee, in a leuer of the ^v>tii, i^vya, ** in a con- 
ference with General Pickens, U was agreed that I should conduct the opera- 
tions Against (he post at GalnliluV Plantation , while the general mtide the neces- 
sary arrangements ami pre pa rations for the complete invest! Lure of August;!," 
Under the auspices of this karmoiuuug temper, on ilie return of Rudolph from 
Fort Gal phi n, Pickens was prepared for ulterior operations. 

The post at Augusta w as defended by two forts, caHrd Fort Cornwall!* and 
Fort Grlerson, constructed near to the river bank, about half a mile distent \\ om 
tmh other. Foil Gvicrson was erected near rim ravine mat faHs iuiu tlic ba- 
rn* trtah, about lialf a mile above the torni, and Fori Corny." al lis lower itpwa 
the virsr, where tin? episcopal church now stands* The river biVTk, having a 
natural stage lira r \hc waters edge, served us a covert- way hen tft£i tits jjusisj 
tliey were supplied with water from the river; but being bc/tli erected on u plain 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 133 

fliot much elevated above the river-bed, water could l>e obtained fiy digging* chap. 
At a point fiqutilly calculated to act upon both furls, Pickens constructed a small 
work for the purj>o&e of using his artillery with security end efl'ccc* 

Tlie first objeet of the allies was, iq occupy nn advantageous piece of ground 
which would hare cut off tin- commuuieation bet wee u the tivo forts : and in 
the spirit of mutual concession, the honour «f conducting [he enterprise was 
delegated to Pirkcns^as Lav had been permitted to appropriate to himself the 
harvest of laurels gathered at Forr Galpbin. Oenofcj (he report of rhis affair 
is made by Pickens alone* bat the honours bf the next anti more important 
cute, are shared wkh an impartial hand. This we gather from Colonel Lee's 

letter* to Greene, General Pickens on tins subject simply states a Last 

Saturday, Liemeiiani Colonel LeG arrived nt my Camp,* eind (he infantry of 
the legion, and one troop of horse being dc uched on the march for Fort 
Dreadnought at Silver BlmT, Cokmef Hammond with hb regiment, except one 
company, and what of Colonel Hardens regiment was with me, inarched 
that afiernoou Jor the same place, and on Monday evening Capmm UoatU 
surrendered the fori and garrison to oar arms, &.c*" 

tun Griersun was defended by two pieces of artillery and about eighty 
men. Fort ComwaElts had near four limes that number to defend! it; and if 
the i wo hundred negroes surrendered with it were armed, the force was much 
greater. In either alternative* h was a gre&i relief lo the garrison 10 have ihciv 
fadgUC duties diridiar^ed liy till* specif of fur cc* 

Early on tliu morning of the 24th s i^kkeivs battery opened ujion thr aopcr 
fori*, and at Lbc saint 1 time, CoJond Lee with his Jugion udvancud npon Fort 
Cornwall, to hold that garrison in f heck, while Colonel Clarke at the head 
of the miliita, nttd Major Kalou at tiic head of t!;e North Cflvxiiina troops, 
matched direct h {\\ja\ thr- battery towards ihc ;?;>st me<i:it 10 be oceuoiud and 
fortified. \o Ii.unctliate attempt wr* hueu'led upon Fori fuievvon: la it 
Colonrl Grkr^on, gulled by the fire from the battery, and pdrfiefasng thai he 
was likely in be cm off from communication whh Ton Cwnirtfjii*. iuddenly 
issued from the rear of his fur;, tun J attempted a rtireai to lor? Cornwall, 
node i - eovcr of die river hwvk. 

The North Cure Emu iruops went i mo action under command of Captain 
Smltfa, and Ui£t ftSker and Colonel Chirk*:, imujedlajely as thoy *x j reared me 
nimive of G?Ie^on, preyed fclrWRc2 to the river hunk 10 hncri *ept him* A 
very smart action ensued, in which the dirttLh pui<v, with die exception of a 



*Lcu«25tliAfciy 



13 J, " MAJOH GENERAL OSEENR 

ciTAr very fcw t were kiHeik wounded or taken. Colonel Lee asserts, that Colonel 
, Grterson was made prisoner and killed hi cold blood. General Pickens posi- 
lively declares, that he with a vm fcw others, marie good his escape into Fort 
CoruwaUb. And it U certain dial that unhappy affair occurred subsequent to 
the fall of the principal fori. 

It is very clear, however* that coo much blood was shed ; for a major and 
thirty men were killed, and a lieutenant colonel and forty-odd otdy made 
prisoners* The prisoner* had probably the eood fortune 10 encounter the 
tP&Offt liom North C'arolma, In Georgia, die conflict between whig and torj' 
was, at rttifi rime, lu;tluoi titles nectoats. 

Major Eaton, it w also *aiu\ fell in this action in the first fire. We are at 
a loss how to reconcile ibis account with the official report of the olh June, hi 
which it is suggested, dint In: had been made prisoner mid pttl to deaih hi 
cold blood, and dial a li^ul inquiry into die fa el \vi\a that going an. His loss 
WAS i m i versa II) and justly la men led. 

By the rapture pf Fori Gnersun, the American party obtained the acces- 
sion of two neld-piuces and some c tee 3 lent arms. 

All were now turned against Fort CornwaJlis- but Browne made a most 
peninaciousdehncc, and only surrendered at lnsi f mirier the falling lire of rifle- 
men and field-piece* mounted on Mayhem towers. 

The capitulation bears date the 5lh June, mid Colonel Lee immediately 
moved forward with a valuable acee^tou of artillery, to aid in the reduction 
nf dbe post at Ninny- Six* Mr- StGfsdinan asserts, that he escorted die pri- 
soncrs along with him ; ami when arrived al thai post, marched them in 
triumph — colours flying, drum* beu ting, and the Hviush standard reversed, in 
review before die army and die garrison, The assertion could hardly have 
been made without .some auihomv : but t we must express our extreme sur- 
prise, that men so unostentatious delicate and humane, as Greene and Pickens, 
could have incurred the charge of having (okirntcd an idle display, calculated 
imly to furnish m the besieged, another mauve for ohstinate resistance. — 
Colonel Let asserrs T mat the Insult, if any, was accidental, if so, the circum- 
stance of i he reversed standard, must have been added or imagined* We 
trust the American officers arc unju&llv charged with the unmanly insult. The 
following excrncis will show, thai the object in marching the prisoners to 
Ninety-Six, was expressly to protect diem from injury and insult. U it con- 
sistent with such views to impute to the officers the outrage charged upon 
them ? 



MAJOB GENERAL GREENE. 133 

General Pickens to General Greene, chap. 



XII 



Atol'sta, June 7* 1781. 

f - A very disagreeable and melancholy affair, which happened 3 esterday hi the 
aficrnuoii t occasions my writhigto you at thmiiue* 1 had ridden dou mo iJownc's 
Fort j where I had been but a Ce|V m Unites when in formation was brought me, 
thai a man had rid Jen up to the door oj' a loom here, where Cnloud (jricrson 
tvaa confined, and* without dismounting shot him so that lie expired soon after, 
am! instantly rode off"; and though he was mstauily pursued by some men on 
horse-back, he effected \\h escape Major Williams, who was in the mmcroom, 
immediately ran into a ecJJav among ihc urticr ptmmur^ bur standing in view, 
was soon after shot at, and wounded hi the shniiklcr. J have srfvoij orders for 
burying Colonel Griersou dm aheriiooo with inilitarv honour*, hia as Colonel 
Browne was also insulted yesterday, dioush. the man Vm for some time con- 
fined lor it, and the people are so much exasperated hgmjist ?ome individuals, I 
have found it necessary to give order* to cross the river with the prisoners, 
under the core of Colonel Hammonds regiment, and Captain Smith's detach- 
ment of Fvotth Carolinians, and march them to Ninety-Sis, or till 1 meet your 
orders respecting thein, being fully persuaded, iltat were they lo march for 
Savannah they would Ijr beset on the- road, but ihink ihey may go to Charles- 
(on, by way of Ninety -Six, if yon should so order. T? 

This letter need? no comment to prove! that noilim* was further from the 
intentions of the American commanders, than mortifying the feelings of the 
prisoners, or hidmirtaiin- the gai Tison of \~huriy-Sh. It also comphiely e*- 
eulpntes Colonel Lee iVom the charges -made agamsl him, silica lie had, at 
this lime, nothing to do wjih the <ILs[susil of ihene prisoner*; and, in fuel, bid 
preerded them several days, and wa> at h^ad quarters on the day they were 
marched from Augusta. 

This unfortunate affair, of the murder of G Hereon ami die attack upon 
Williams, w$s a subject of the most fusible regret to all die American officers. 
Annular outnigi- had, but ushori time before, been committed upon the person 
of Colonel Dimlap, and aJmough Piekcns bad made evny effort to disco\er \he 
murderer, he had failed ofsucces>s. A large reward was immediately oflcied 
by proclamation, for the discovery of the inurdrrcr of GrlerSon: hut principle in 
Same, fear and fellow-felling mother*, effectually precluded information. It has 
since appeared, I hat the atinr.k oriemalcd in jndivirfmil r^engc. from the sons 
of some of the old mvii confined and exposed in Eon CormvafJis. Their eJril- 



l$Q MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 

cwrt. (Iron had now had access to them, nod received from Ihc palled lips of their 
. parents j snfch talcs of insult and oppression, as instigated men, otherwise correct 
ami respected, to flic commission of ihese disgraceful acts. Human passions 
arc eW carryiue; on the work of deception, and the violation of the sanctity of 
a^eur female- delicacy will, in precedence to all other?, be deemed justifiable 
rauses of the inns? Moody revenge. Perhaps the suspicions at that lime enter- 
ta med with regard to the fate of Eaton, may not have been without its influ- 
ence in snppittsAlg information. A recent excursion of a parry of Cunning- 
ham's, in which, as General Greene expresses himself, "savage cruelty never 
cijuidted the conduct pfthis party/' was certain I v. a nbar time, in full operation 
on lite feeling:- of f he. militia. [Many an eye in the army was streaming for the 
in ardors that hud hern cummin ed by rhai party. 

It must be acknowledged alsoj flint the conduct of tSrowue, in one instance, 
during the sit^n, 1i,id favoured the eucuEatioc of the report, thai the prisoners 
had ln'Cii purposely exposed to arrest the fire of the besiegers. 

On the day belore the surrender, when the batteries over readied the fort, and 
every Thing within it lay exposed to dieir fire, a flag was dispatched to the Bri- 
tish robiiol* proposing that the prisoner? should be sent out li and remain pri- 
6O0&S, or ot hen vise, as the iinal issue of the contest should decide;" " confident, 
saw the di*pntt'h. diat yon camim oppose this dictate of humanity and custom 
of war, we have only 10 say, diat any reuuest of a similar tenure fi'uni yon will 
meet widi our ready assent." 

The amplication was rejected, Find tlfcC answer too plainly indicates the 
purposes lot which I he prisoners were detfiifte^ nnr tan the professions of 
humanity ami feeling which it contain*, be exempted from the charge of affec- 
tation anil hypocrisy. 

u Though motives of humnniiy, >nid a feeling for the distresses of individuals 
incline me to accede to what you have proposed concerning the prisoners with 
us, yet many reasons to which you cannot be strangers, forbirl my complying 
with this requisition. Saeli attention as I can, ronsisitin with gomt potmj and 
my duty, shall he shown them*" 

No lan^ua^j eau depict ilir excitement of (he besiegers, when this reply 
was made known in camp. Personal danger was altogether forgotten— every 
Crevice was explored by the m inhuman to level hi? aioi at an enemy*— men, 
creeping on their kllies, or their hands and knees, approached and watched 
their opportunity ; and, exposed as were the towers to the artillery *>t the garri- 
son, die riflemen would crowd and struggle to ohtaiu possession of these nosis. 
But one care pervaded every mind — to let no shot err from its mark* The 
nest dav a surrender became unavoidable. 



MAJOR GENEttAL CJREliNL, » \S1 

The men also who composed the loyalist's force under Browne, were known chap 

V II I 

to be the most obnoxious of their party* They were precisely the men who 
had fought against Clarke in his former attack upon this post, and every thing 
in view served to bring to recollection the horrors that had been acted on that 
occasion* 

Maddened by all these concurrent causes, the militia could, with difficulty, 
be restrained from arts of blond and violence AJJ the firmness of the officers 
was necessary to control or to quell them ; and, at last it has been seen, that it 
became necessary to march the prisoners off', under a strong ^uard of South 
Carolina militia bind North Carolina regulars, to insure their safety. 

Let not inan t when in the sunshine of prosperity, or the pride of power, 

indulge himself in the gratification of haughtiness, caprice, or cruelty. 

Many and frequent are the vicissitudes of human fortunes. He who is lowly, 
bound, and powerless to-day, may, by the casualties of war, become terrible 
to-morrow. Sadly had ihese truths been realized by the parties to this tra* 
gedy ; but, suffering had not yet rendered them wise. 



»oi,i u- It5 



138 • MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



CHAPTER XIV 



Siege of Nttiflij'Siz* Lord Rawdon re- enforced— Marches for 1 \inetu-$i& 
Assault- of and retreat from that po$L Count nj laid waste. Jjord Rairdon 
divides hia force. Moves down for Granby in person- General Greene nth 
tftitfflta to mr.r.1 him. Attempt on StcnartU Detachment. Junction of the 
eniiiiiifft force at Ora/izebitrgh. Grzene offers them hatth'. Descent under 
Sttitqrter* Battle of Quinty^ 



'*gjf If IE siege of Xiuely-SIx was onn of the nrasf animated and critical occur- 
rences of the revolutionary war, it lasted very near a month, aucl gg#£ lime 
for a change of circumstances winch produced a iota 1 reversion of the current 
of success* Tlie pmper name of the placrr, as has been observed, is Cam- 
bridge, but bring thn metropolis or county -town of the distort of Ninety-Six, 
H is frequently distinguished by the name of the district, a nnmi; whirli the 
ancient inh a bitnnts maintain, it derived from a fancifti] allusion to the uniform 
excellence of Its soil. The two n um hers which couifjo.se its name, viewed on 
any side, will cvpress the same (juantitv. 

This place derives some celebrity in the. annals of this country, fro in hav- 
ing been the scene of the first conflict in the southern, and perhaps in the 
revolutionary war* In this place, commenced in the- 3 ear 1776, that dreadful 
conllict between whig and tory, ivhich afterwards desolated this beautiful 
Country. A peculiar circumstance invited the hostile parlies to (his spot. It 
had been surrounded with a stork ad e as a defence against the incursions of ?he 
Indians, whose settlements were not, at that time, far removed from it 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 131? 

This stockade was still remaining and very soon after the enemy got noa- chap, 
session of Charleston, tlicy hud garrisoned the place, and made it a principal 
point in the chain of their military pasts. 

The situation rendered it peculiarly important ; it maintained a communi- 
cation with the Indians— kept in check the whig settlements to the west of ii n 
and covered those of the loyalists to the north, south, and cast. It was the 
most advanced post occupied by the enemy ; and by its approach to the upper 
parts of North Carolina and Georgia, supported Camden and Augusta hi their 
influence upon the population of those two states It was a! so a depot of re- 
cm its, and the panics established for same leagues around it were hut two 
successful in drawing the youth of the disaffected families into the roya! 
service. 

At this time it was under the command of Colonel Cruger, with a garrison 
of five hundred and fifty men* all of whom, oittcers and privates, had been 
recruited in America. Such Is the progress of conquest, llic Haitians con- 
quered Italy, and wirh Italy conquered Europe — with Europe they overran 
Asia and Africa, and with troops drawn from Etet eon quests, her ambitious 
consuls co uqnem I the liberties of their mumry. 

Of the soldiers under Cmger. his native state of New York, and the state 
of New Jersey fun fished tEie principal part These had been enlisted early hi 
the war, and were equal to the best soldiers in the royal army- Reeruirs from 
the neighbourhood under Colonel klnt^ made up ihc residue. These latter were 
al! desperate tii^n. and marksmen of the first order. The English writers give 
them jmieh credit for declining the permission tendered thern on the approach 
of the American army, to return tn Charleston ; but, they knew better than 
to trust themselves from under the shield of civilized ivnrfare, or perhaps from 
under the protection of the intrench men ts thai surrounded them. They were 
men whose conduct had rendered them pceullarly obnoxious, and who had 
seen eii-nigli in the occlusion of intercoms uith Cuniden and Charleston not 
to know that the whijj;-rmlkia were abroad. 

It was not anions the lea^t vexatious freaks of fnrrnne, ibat Greene owed all 
the mortifications he eniv.umered bi-f^re thi* plaee, to tlie succc.^fid aciivity of 
this very imJUia. Lord Itdwdoii W,u\ issued orders Irom Camden to evaea-ue 
this post, a* soon as he. perceived that he woaki probably be obliged to draw 
to^eiher his garrisons, in order to give ids main body strength sufficient to re- 
Su'nc aggressive operation, or even to maintain his as* en dan ey on the coast 
And, although he had had the precauibn to have his dispatches fowarded by 
Charleston and Savannah, as well as directly across the country, none of tli^m 
readied die ptacc they were addressed to. All were intercepted, Otherwise. 



m MAJOR GEXICBAL GREENE. 

Cf?\F. Greene would have been saved the necessity of this expedition to the west, and 
would have found himself, without a snuggle, in command of the whole upper 
country* JVot' Is ii probable that Cruder, anVr uniting with Browne, (for such 
were the orders issued,) could have made good his retreat to Savannah. I-fc 
iv us (IcslliiKr of cavalry, and the means of transportation by land; clouds of 
mourned inilutlry would have attended his retreat : and* praUiblv, in flu* gauds 
which he would have had to traverse, lie midu have cucnunii_red the p Earns of 
Purthia and the fate of Cras^us. 

It has boon before hinted- and will pre?E-m!y tao >]mwii more particularly, that 
precisely the Ijftfl casualty obliged CJiccr tic to fcaisg the *irgi\ 

Cruder appears to have been a man of talents, and, judging from his corres- 
pondence, a correct and gentlemanly man in his depntlmcut. Hearing of rho 
advance of Greene, and feeling lis effects upon the militia around, he lost no 
time in proceeding to place himself in an altitude fordeil'ik H e, ( ailing; iu the 
aid 6f tho neigh I louring slaves, he soon completed a ditch aroe.ud lii< stockade, 
thro whig up the earth upon it, parapet height, and secured k within by n%» 
verses mid coverts, to facilitate a safe communication between all his pofnts of 
defence. His ditch he further secured by abbatis ; and, at convenient distances 
w i Lhi n the stockade, erected &ig$£ block houses of notched log*. 

When the enemy had first established themselves in this post, Ihcy had con- 
structed a very respectable work* called the star -battery* to [Etc south-ca#r of 
the village. It was of a star shape, with sixteen salient and returning angle?, 
ami communicating with the stockade. In this were fought three pieees a f artil- 
lery, mounted on wheel carriages, so as to admit of their transportation from 
cue point of defence to another. On the north of the village extends a valley, 
through which flows a rivulet, on which the garrison depended for water. The 
comity prison, lying contiguous to this valley* on its south side, was fortified, snd 
commanded the valley on the side next the village. On the opposite side of the 
valley, and within the reach of the guns from the gaol, was consrrLicrcd a strong 
stockade fort, with uvo block- houses which covered the communication with 
die rivulet in that quarter. A covert-way led from the town to this rivulet. 

In relating the events which occurred before this place, Colonel Lee copies 
?hc narrative of Mr. Steed man, with the addition of a few inch! ems, probably 
hit trod uc ed from his own rccol lection. 

Mr. Steed in an has worked up the Brit is ft account of the affair into a verv 
brilliant story ; we shall confine ourselves to such facts, as we find authentic hi-* 
telEisjence tn establish. 

On the firsc reeoiinoitcrmg of this post General Greene predicted his failure ; 
for he saw the strength of it, and had considered the judicious arrangements for 



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MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 14* 

its defence, and well knew all tire d is advantages under which he should labour chap. 
in pressing a siege, In a letter to the marquis, the day after silting down before 
the place, he save. *« the fortifications are so strong, and the garrison so large, 
ft] id so well furnished, that our sac cross is very doubtful. If we art! successful 
here. J shall move northwardly immediately, wh'i apsrt of our force if not all. 11 

No pains that zeal mid intimity eon hi dictate* had been neglected by Cru- 
ger, in preparing tor defence. Besides the Bpr#£ iti arms hi the post, he had a 
iHimbcr of slaves sufficient to perform many sew ices ^ so eis to fi pare and relieve 
tin. 1 garrison. JJc had laid in an abundant attp.fjly of provision, and had taken 
the most effectual measures to tjfe^4J> thr resources from vJrich the besiegers 
mMit draw subsistence : so ciTecuml tiftf kilt] imr I h-n command of the river 
bee a secured; the American army con Id not !ia vr .suh.d*ied f(ir a fortnight in 
that position. Cjicusjral Cunnimihanrs loyalists, well-mounted, after gathering 
into the fort all the provisions in the neighbourhoods and destroying those of 
the whig; settlements more remote, had now dispersed t lie m selves in small par- 
ties over the country, and lying eoneealed in the thickets, were ever on the alert 
to waylay convoys and couriers. This they could do in great safely in the 
disaffected settlements in that neighbourhood, especially as all the cavalry and 
mourned infantry of the American arm) found mil employment elsewhere. 

For the besiegers to have operated against any other part of the works but 
the Star, it was immediately perceived, would be nugatory j that entirely com- 
manded the whole, and an enemy could have been swept from vuihin tiii 
stockade hi an hour. How to operate against the Star w as the question j and, 
totally destitute as the besiegers were of battering cannon, there was no alter- 
native but to get under it or get over it. Greene resolved to ad optm ea- 
sy res for attempting both. 

Colonel Lee, huwever, who cannot resist the temptation of hinting that 
nothing went right until AdilJk-^ reappeared before the walls of Troy, very 
confidently asserts, that towards the close of the ?icge, the besiegers "began to 
deplore the early inattention of ihe chief engineer to the enemy : s left- persuaded 
that had he beet) deprived of the use of the rivulet in the beginning of the siege,* 
he must have been forced to surrender," &c* 

This chief engineer was no other than the celebrated Kosciusko, between 
whom and Colonel Lee the world will decide, whether the following note of 
the former is conspicuous fur modesty or correctness :f — ■" Kosciusko was ex- 
tremely amiable, and 1 bchcye a truly good man \ nor was he deficient in his 



* L«Vk :j$ftttji$t$ vol, % j). \tZ. t IHrt, p. 119. 



142 MAJOR GENERAL GREEN r. 

C xiv' P l '°fc-^ 0l1ia ' knowledge — fott, fa wis mf moderate in ident — not a spark of tfte 
ethaial in his composition. His blunders lose us Niuety-SiA, and Genera] 
Greeuc ? much as he was beloved and respected, did not escape criticism, for 
permitting his engineer to direct the manner of approach* Sec/* 

We are confidently assured, by a n&mber of the general's family at the 
time, that it MQtt perfectly Uijto&tood in camp, that the? genera] himself direc- 
ted the operations of Ehe engineer. The project of cutting off the waier had 
been well weighed and consid ore tL and rejected on mature defiberatiori. 
There m& not a doubt entertained of the practicability of obtaining water by 
dicing In almost any pan of the enemy's work*, The country was so level, 
and the crown of the hill so liEcEe elevated above the bed of the rivulcr, that 
there was no room to doubt $a$\ and it was historically known, that when 
Co! one J WilE i am son was besieged herein the year 177"?, and the besieged were 
almost destitute uf the necessary implements, they had yet succeeded in < r ettin ff 
water by dig^iti*. 

Thus circumstanced, as the Star commanded the other work?, and ihe ap- 
proaches against the water would be useless against the Star, it would have 
been a waste of labour, and worse linrn a waste of labour, to operate against 
the works that commanded the water; for, by the effort to defend die rivulet, 
the enemy weakened himself at the principal point. 

It cannot be dnubtcd, thai if Greece could have commanded a sufficient, 
iqree, the tivo operations would have been carried on concurrently, and the 
moment the detachment returned from Augusta, we find thev actually were so 

■j_j _■ m 

Carried on. But. until that time, after drE.ue.hiny: die no teste** convovs, and 
posting the. panics necessary to fflX'&X the tow.i, there Wf%£ scarcely men 
enough left to guard the parties labnurina in the ditches. J lis whole lores, at 
that lime, scarcely (tun bled that of the besiegers. With an aching heart was 
he obliged to behold the incessant fati^ae to which his men were subjected, 
not a moment scarcely ijl" respite, their whole time divided between iabuurin^ 
and fighting. To have attempted, under such cJreu instances,, to carry cm his 
advances both on the ri^ht and left of the enemy, sinmhaneously, would have 
been exposing both detachments thus employed, to interruption and to ruin : 
and to have conmied his attention to the rear afcm \ where the defences were 
situated, would probably have even totted in modification and disuppoiuf- 
ment, 

It appears, however, notsv'uhstanfin? the reasons to think otherwise, that 
Cutting 0:j" the water effectually^ might have produced smiic serious inrcuve- 
mene.es to the. besiegers. This Inference Is drawn from fi pani&iUUim of Mr* 
Steed man's, in which he asserts, that 3 well had been sunk with great labour In 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 143 

the Star, but no water obtained. Hflw this comports with the positive fact of chap. 
its having been found in the neighbouring stockade five years before; we arc at , 
a big to etc term inc. The very spat could not have been unknown to the 
inhabitants, nor the traces of the well itself obliterated* Perhaps we are to 
understand the assertion as confined to the site of the fort, which lay a little 
without che limits of die stockade. 13 ut, whatever be the fact, it could not be 
known to the besiege rd* 

The night of the &3o\ the day on which Greene sat down before Ninety-JSIx, 
was dark and rainy, and iiighTy favourable to the purposes of reconnoitcringi 
WW* this view, accompanied by Kosciusko, and Captain Pendleton hia aid, 
the general made die entire circuit of the enemy's works, closely observing the 
face of the ground) end approaching the works even within hail of ihc ccnti- 
neU, They were actually hailed and fired upon. The investigations of this 
niglir, completed the information necessary to direct his measures* Ae un der- 
ation In the ground, ax a point which the enemy's artillery was not posted 
to defend, presented a favourable situation to commence a mine. This was 
what led to the throwing up of the works, which the enemy take much credit 
for having driven the Americans from very early in the siege* The general 
soon perceived s that they were too much within the control of the enemy's 
fire, (for they were hut seventy yards distant) and withdrew his parties to a 
morcsccuvc distance at a place beyond a r a vine* Here they bi-oke ground on 
the 23d, and proceeding by regular approaches, by the 3d J Line had completed 
their $&-v\v& parallel. On completing the first, a mine was commenced under 
the cover of a battery erected on the enemy's right. The mine was directed 
against the Star. 

fifty and night the work was pursued by the besiegers, with incessant per- 
severance^ alternately labouring in trie ditches, or gauarding those who labour- 
ed, and ever sleeping on their arms to repel the sat lies of the besieged. These 
were frequent, daring, and productive sometimes of very spirited contests. The 
British assert these sallies were often attended with success, but thev arc eon- 
tradictcd by the steady advance of the American works, and the assertion of the 
American commander, that they were always successfully replied. But not a 
night passed without the l&g$ of lives on both sides. 

As soon as the second parallel was completed, the garrison was summoned to 
iLuivuder. Mr, Stccdman has asserted, (and Colonel Lee has followed himj 
that in consequence of tills summons having been delivered in a note from the 
adjutant general t Colonel Cruger would return nothing but a verba] answer. 
But the note of the British commander, this moment under our eye, exculpates 
him from this act ^of indecorum^ whilst it convicts the writer of such a want of 



Hi MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

C !KT correct Information ns might j ustify a doubt on some other points of this narra- 
■tive. 

C ruber's answer was that of an officer and a gentleman , — w I am honored 
with your letter of this day, intimating Major General Greene's immediate 
demand of the surrender of his majesty's garrison at Ninety-Six \ a compli- 
ance with which my duty to my sovereign renders htadmi&sablc at present, 11 
ke. From the order in which tins and some other events are related in the 
memoirs of the war in the southern department, one might he led to suppose 
that it had occurred after flic junction of Colonel Lee's detachment- but, his 
error is more excusable in this mistake than his own narrative would suggest, 
inasmuch as lie was then prosecuting the siege of Augusta, and did not reach 
Ninety-Six until the third and last parallel was far advanced. This was com- 
menced immediately, as it was ascertained that the enemy was resolved to 
hold out, and prosecuted with more vigour than could have been expected 
from the feeble and exhausted state of the army. 

In I he mean time the attention of the general was forcibly called away to 
other important and pressing objects. 

With time to complete Ins approaches, the fall of the garrison was certain, 
But the time consumed in that work would depend upon the number of hands 
he could employ ; and his eyes were anxiously cast towards the militia ordered 
from Virginia. Those of South Carolina and Georgia, who had not emigrated 
or been destroyed, were barely sufficient to watch Lord B aw don's movement?, 
and keep in check the numerous loyalists dispersed through a country so long 
under the undivided control of die enemy. The Virginia militia had now long 
been expected ; early in March the requisition for them had been issued. Fifteen 
hundred were called for, and the governor bad ordered two thousand. They 
ought to have arrived in time to cut off the enemy's retreat from Camden, and 
the blow would Have completed the recovery of die southern states. Disap- 
pointed in that hope, Greene was still consoled by the promise of their being 
Immediately expedited. He calculated t with certainty, on their joining bim 
before Mi n cry -Six, and enabling him to press that siege with a vigour that 
would have brought it to as peedy close: Or if the enemy advanced to relieve 
the place j then to have l^t't them to invest it, whilst he marched to meet and 
repel the advancing relief* Day after day elapsed under this last hope, when 
the appalling news arrived thai their march had been countermanded by 
their governor. The sudden subversion of every hope would have been enough, 
but it was attended with an attack upon the authority delegated to him as com- 
mander of the southern department, winch established a precede mt for the total 
inversion of that authority, A respectful, but animated and dignified remon* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 145 

itraiicfl waft the consmpienee, concluding with a declaration, " that tf the power en vr. 
to com mat id the mi Hi in when detat *\m\ ta ^ f Yvo under htm was thus to be eser- s 
cised bv the governors raC $M? stfttfiS, he lu^ver could and never won Id calculate 
again upon a miluhi force ii] his future operations.* 3 A circumstance particu- 
larly grating to life flirtings in this case wi\s t that lie had recently stripped him- 
self of his whole permanent disposable force, for the protection of Virginia, It 
waft >ftf fe instance iJiut Ln Fayette Iitnl been ordered back, after recreating ;br 
Chesapeake on hia return to the northern army; upon* the BV^t news of the 
march of Lord Conmauis for Virgin] a, he had ordered the rern^y Ivania lroop> 
to JhiIl on their inarch to the south, and act under Ln Fayette and Steuben: and 
the North Carolina levies had all received from him the same orders, when 
actually on their march ro join hi;n; this too after the Itfttllc of Camden and when 
he was lying in the face of a superior force, end almost destitute of every thing. 
And at the moment when the march of the mi Una had been countermanded, 
his principal motive for wishing their aid was t to hasten through the work in ttov 
south, that he might march with Jus more efficient, troops to re -en force La 
Fay en e. 

Hut the evil was now past remedy, and it remained only to adopt such mea- 
sures hs might relieve him horn its evil con sequences, lie immediate!}' issued 
orders for the North Carolina levies to join him instead of marching to the north g 
and employed himself in fin effort t tu draw some troops oJ" a per man cut kind 
from the states of South Carolina and Georgia* 

JJut both states were destitute of civil government. There existed, indeed, 
titular governors, but law and order hung suspended on the sword; and the 
die ad fid consequences were daily and hourly exhibited in rapine and murder* 

In South Cam Una there existed three men high in public confidence, and of 
aomu-b decision of character that there was no iliLlicuU} in drawing them into 
the adoption of any measures calculated for the public good; these were the 
three generate Sumptcr, Marion, and Pickens, and governor Km ledge was 
ready [0 sanction, wdth dictatorial authority, whatever measures should be re- 
commended, for co Sice ting a military force* 

In Georgia, Colonel Clarke appeared to have the whole destinies of the slate 
in his own 1 rands. The conii deuce of the people in hi in was unbounded, and 
supported by Jackson and Twigs, he appeared the most proper and competent 
person to address on the subject, Jt happened also, that Mr. Joseph Clay 
arrived about this time in camp, and to him and Colonel Clarke, Greene 
addressed himself for the purpose of procuring an effort to he made, for establish- 
ing some form of civil government, to revive the appearance of law and order ; 
and ivhieh, whilst it restrained tbe excesses of civil warfare and individual 
vol, ik If) 



1445 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

chap, outran might suggest some mode of adding a proportion of I lie Georgia ecm- 
tmgeivt to his effective force. I lis recommendation was, to caM oil the people 
to elect li council of djscicei mcu h and \csi (bent ivilli the exercise of such gene- 
ra] powers as I he e.wencics of the times called for. This measure led to die 
revival of civil guvcm incut in Georgia, and was soon followed by the raising of 
that body of uif^i. v\ ho afterwards served so honourably under ( 'olouel ,larksou- 
In Jstmth Carolina also* i!i ft legionary corps, comma tided by iMnyheiii. Horry, 
and Conyers, had ihrfr origin in Greene's present ncce^situs. To those olTi- 
fcr^ He i^snrd commi^ion? of colonel*, and niuhnnry in fofitfl and equip com- 
mands o fray a In and infantry in equcil proportions. But alas I where Welti die 
fuiutal They were to be supplied upon the personal responsibility of the ofli- 
Bfttii dispensed tvilh by the public spirit of the soldiers, or obtained by iniprcss- 
men t. 

General ( "Irecne had now been for some time in possession of intelligence, 
that u re- enforcement of three regiments of British troops had sailed from Cork, 
and were probably i.lt sfmed for the port of Charleston. These were the Troops 
respecting ulinni Lord Cornwallii? had expedited a disparch-hoat for Charleston, 
tn require of Lord f*awdon not to permii diem even to cross the bar, bnt io for- 
ward them dirccdv for New-York. The reecipr ofdiis order would htuedone 
all fpr Greene, that I hose on whom hr had claims had neglected lu do. Rut the 
uu form nare vigilance of the American private ei\ who had made prize of the 
hoar, disappointed this chance of relief; and though the boat was retaken and 
sent forward on her dorluation, she came too &I& The re -enforcement had 
biwled, and Lord Raw chm was already far on his way to relieve his besieged 

garrison - 

The fleel arrived on ihe 2d June, ami some idea will be formed of the 
efficiency lif General Greened arrangements for procuring intelligence, \\ hen 
it is told, that tm die tith he received at Cambridge, Charlcstuwn papers of 
the 2d, containing the news — the distance is near rwo hundred niih & Marion, 
whose vigilance and capacity at procuring intelligence were proverbial, re- 
ceived it the same, dav that it was printed, and forwarded It throuc.li Sunipter. 
General HmimtiT, by some fatality, did not receive the intelligence though it 
passed through his hands, undl the enemy had commenced his marrh 

This was on the I lth June, and before the news of it reached head quar- 
ters, every possible arrant in cm had been made to met t the event. General 
Greene immediately adopted the resolution to press the sie^e wiih redouble 
ardour, and take particular pains !o esc hide intelligence* Culonel WasTlfeg- 
ton, who had recently rejoined the army with his cavalry, and die cavalry of 
the legion under Ala jo r KitdoJph, were ordered to re-enforce Similiter, and 
Sumpter and Marion were instructed to form a junction, and the whole lo 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 147 

hang Upon llie enemy, and embarrass and retard his more m cuts by all pos- ch.w, 
Siljle means; in hopes still of gaiiiing the necessary lime to reduce the post, 
before the British ve-enforcements eon Id he brought up to act against him. 
Intending Immediately as that object was efectcftj to take with him die Geor- 
gia and South Carolina militia, and forming ei junction with Sumptcr and 
Marion, to meet and fight die enemy, on his advance. 

But, the reduction of the post was the very pivot of lliis plan of operation. 
Having no force to hold it in a state of investment in his absence, he could not 
move off and leave it, and to encounter the enemy in rhe presence of the gar- 
rison, would have been madness. I-Jliviii^, therefore* issued the most pressing 
orders to his several officers, he applied his whole mind to the reduction of the 
post. 

The completion of the third parallel was greatly facilitated by the aid 
of the Mayhem tower* — in vented on this spot< Constructed with strong 
]ogs T the artillery could not easily destroy them, and hi a short time the 
marksmen who maimed them, succeeded in driving the artillerists of the? gar- 
rison, completely from their guns: I Jot shot were tried to destroy these towers, 
but the ^reen:iess of the wuod rendered that attempt abortive. At length, the 
artillery no logger annoyed the assai hints while there was light enough to 
distinguish objects ; and at night, it could not he directed with sufficient cer- 
tainty to be ii inch dreaded* 

After the reduction of the post at Augusta, the detachment under Colonel 
Lee was ordered to lake post in the rear of the village, ant] operate against 
the euemy'* Ir.ft ; this, however, was not until the 12th, six days before the 
assault was attempted. Colonel Lee began with regular approaches in that 
quarter, and mitwhhstandmg repeated Interruptions from the sallies of the 
enemy, had madi^ such respectable advance*, dial between his n'te and that of 
the third parallel, the enemy could no tourer venture to the rivulet, by da v. 
Stccdman says, that the naked negroes bronchi in water to the garrison by 
ni^ht. Those who are acquainted with the habits and character of these 
people, will judge to what extent this operation could have been carried on. 

Two Irdd and ini*uc cental attempts, distinguished the operations of the 
besiegers in ihis quarter ■ the lirst was on the day that they had taken their 
position. 

Fort alutte had been reduced by coin muni eating fin 1 to the buildings within 
k, and a similar attempt was now made wish arrows bearing ignited sub- 
itntiees. Cruger instantly unroofed his houses, and pur an end to diis annoy- 
ance . A few brave men had reached and removed the abba lis at Fort Watson, 
and Co I one J Lee thought it practicable to destroy by lire, those which sur- 
rounded the stockade forr. In open day, a sergeant and nine brave men 



xn 



T4J5 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chat attempted this hazardous service ; sk actually reached The ditch, but were im- 
mediately shol down by the gari isoti, The English writer, remarking on [his 
attempt, observes — " That Uoloucl Leo suili -red hi* impatience to get the 
better of 1 3 is discretion." The fire could nckhcr have cMcmkd itself, nor the 
garrison have been prevented from extinguishing, it. 

The works of' tiftg besiegers were, at this time, so near completion, that thr 
American couiMiUU'fcT confidently asserts, the place could not have Liu Id out 
lb u r d ; t ) ■ s I 01 i gn: B c .si d es t he } J ay h r m to w its be I ore £ j ■ oken of. one of vv 1 j ich 
was within thirty yard? of the enemy's ditch, the besiegers had erected several 
batteries lor cannon, one of which ol" twenty frit in height, nit bin one hun- 
dred and forty yards , so entirely commanded die btar, thai it became neces- 
sary to give its parapet, already twelve fee? J ugh, three feet more of elevation. 
This was done by means of sand-bags, tluough which apertures were Jcft for 
using the small arms ; and without any previous indications hy tlai r t at what 
point the artillery would appear, the removal of the sand-bags, Left cnibiazures 
for using the pieces by night. 

Thus, the two parties, besiegers and besieged^ lay continually watching each 
other for near ten days, during which time Hot a man could show his head on 
either side without receiving a shut. Much blood was consequently shed on 

both sides. 

Still, however, the garrison resisted, with a constancy that often calls forth 
a Warm eulogium from the American commander ; until on the 17th, the 
posture of affairs rendered it indJspensal>Ie that the place should be carried by 
tts^mlt or abandoned. Lord Rawdon was close at hand* ant I the garrison had 
got intelligence uf his approach. 

This itnpurtant communication is said to have been made to tliem on the 
12th — it was probably two days later. The ingenuity and immunities of wo- 
men we find , had often been resorted to by the American commander, in 
clrcum ven ting ihc enemy. On this occasion they were successfully employ fid 
against himself. A lady, the daughter and sister of Fried to higs, had ibnned a 
matrimonial connexion with a British officer, iJer residence at a plate 
not far distant, countenanced her visiting the camp with a flag, on some pre- 
tence of no moment* She was received with civility, and dined tit the 
general's table. It was afterwards ascertained, thai she had remained at a 
farm-huuse in ihc vicinity a day or two. Id that time, a young loyalist, well 
mounted, dashed past the pickets of the American army, and the guns of the 
oeutinels discharged at him in vain, were his passport of admission into the 
garrison- A verbal message from Lord ftawdon was ah he brought, but it 
was conveyed under circumstances which insured it credence. Huzzas and 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 143 



XJV. 



fitt dejiptjtti with a rami mated fire from the besiegers* announced the cxhilara- cijap 
tioJi produced on the oeeasion. 

A coininuLiieaiiou in general orders on th* 1 1 llli, that the aicmy hat! taken 
the field* and was advancing shows the general's consciousness, that the 
garrison was in possession* of the mtdligenee. It would be sume palliation 
to l Ms act of treat: hery, had it been at tri but able solely to love, or Joyahv - but 
we have seen a positive and circumstantial assunmee, that the sacrifice was 
made 10 a deity of less purity Than Hymen or Cupid. The fate uf the trea- 
cherous Tarpeia has perhaps a waited the traitoress in life. 

The resolution having been taken* and nil the necessary orders given the 
day before, on ihe morning of die lijili, the different detachments of the army, 
were ready by mvke, to auempt an assault, {hi the American If ft, against 
the Star-Baiiery, Lieutenant Duval with a command of .A I ary landers, and 
Lieutenant SeMon with another of Virginians, Jed the forlorn hope. Close 
in their rear folfoveed a parly furnished wiih hooks at the end of staves, and 
next a< I va i iced Colonel Campbell at die head of the 1st Maryland and 1st 
Virginia requiems, prepared lor die assault* These all marched undercover 
of the approaches, to wuhin a few yards of die enemy's ditch. 

The American forts, the riik towers, hi id the advanced works were all 
manned, with orders to clear the enemy's parapet previous to the advance of 
the storming parry. 

On the American righr, against the stockade fort, Major Rudolph comman- 
ded Colonel Lee's forlorn hope, sup ported by the infantry of the legion, and 
Captain Kirk wood, with the remains of the Delaware regiment. 

Duval and KHdon were ordered 10 dear away die abbatis and occupy the 
curtain opposite to them, then driving off the enemy from the sides of the 
angle thus occupied, to open die \\-Ay i\i\- the bookmen to draw down the 
sand-bags. This service bein^ performed; Camphell was to advance to the 
assault, and by aid of die sandbars now piled against the face of the parapet, 
to gain its summit. During this operation T the artillery, rifle batteries and 
troops of the advanced works, were to keep the parapet dear, for Campbell to 
mount to the assault. 

Oji the left, Colonel Lee was to possess himself of the stockade, and await 
eve] Us to determine Ins ulierior movements. 

A discharge of artillery precisely at noon, was the signal for the storming 
parties to move. From right 10 left immcdiaic-Ey, a blaze of artillery and small 
arms, directed to the point of attack, covered the forlorn hope under their 
smoke. In an instant, this gallant little band leaped huo the ditch, and com- 
menced the destruction of the heavy abbatis ; but the enemy was prepared for 



XIV 



150 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ch,\p. them, and met the assault with coolness. Bayonets and pikes bristled above 
the parapet , and from the bop- holes in tbe sand-bags poured an IiuessLint 
stream of fire, making (I rear] fill havoc among die assailants; The form of 
the redoubt gave complete command of the ditch, and exposed the party to a 
close cross-lire, the e lice is of which Increased in pwporttou as the abbatis were 
removed. Vet, near three quarters of an hour did these brave mm persist, 
and notwithstanding the fall of their leaders and twu-thirds of their number, 
si ill pressed on ? occupied the curtain t and maintained the coullici ivith the 
garrison, while the bookmen, who promptly followed, u ere struggling to get 
down the sand-bags. But, the opposition they bad sustained convinced the 
genera], that success ronld only be purchased at a sacrifice of lives, that would 
lay him at the feet of Lord Rawdon ■ and the party were called off. The 
neatest part of their men were killed or wounded, but they brought the most 
of their wounded off, notwithstanding the galling lire ihcv had to sustain. 

This is the American aero unit of ih-u termination of tiiis part of the affair* 
The British account, followed by Colonel Lee, attributes it to a sally of two 
parties of the besiege 1 on the right and left of the American party, and a 
charge of bayonets so impetuous, that the two British parties met in the ditch, 
Happy if their impetuosity was checked in time to avoid falling by mutual 

wounds ! 

We can only say, we find no hint, that tins gallant little party ever retired 
until ordered off by their commander, or that they encountered any enemy in 
the dilch, on equal terms. The British areounts of the tiny do not mention 
this stilly, and the evidence of facts is directly against it ; for, how could the 
Americans have brought off their wounded 1 or how could one of themselves 
have escaped ? If such a sally was made, it appears to have escaped the view 
of the American army, and must have been made after the forlurn-hope wns 
withdrawn. No doubt, the gallant parties who made it, would have per- 
formed good service, had they encountered a living enemy- The dead, the 
dyini, and the wounded who remained, could oppose no obsiarle to the meet- 
ing of such impetuous assailants. The linemen probably gave a good ac- 
count of them on their return * 

On the Lett, Colonel Lee found no difficulty in getting possession of the 
stockade It had been evacuated the night preceding, but the movement had 
been so silent, that the fact appears to have been unknown at the time of the 
ossault. Upon the relinquishment of the assault, he bad orders to retire to his 
own position as soon as the cover of night would admit of it. 



* Steeitmati, vol. 2 T p. 3?U 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 151 

Thus ended this bluody and spirited little affair, in which, for the number chap. 
engaged, there was as much bravery displayed as ever was exhibited by man, 
It was an experiment on the practicability of seizing and holding the curtains 
of one or two of the enemy's Jingles, as indispensable to a general assault. 
The attempt did not require the exposure of any great number of mi^n, and 
the object was ceri;Ju[y iW which justified the risk. Had Greene succeed ed 
in carrying this lorr, be had rime enough to have demolished his own works, 
ami would have tatd his election either to march against his adversary, or if 
he found hi it a sufficient store of provisions, to have me* him under ihe 
protection of the Briii.-h works. With the American detachments com man dins 
the whole country between ihi* phice and Charleston, Lord ItitwrLonmust have 
undertaken to reduce the love by siege. A storm would have given the Ame- 
rican general every advantage that he desired. 

The American loss in this affair was very serious, considering their diminished 
force. There were nsar forty killed and wounded, including some very valua- 
ble officers. Captain Armstrong, of the 1st Maryland regime nr, was killed 
and Cap rain Benson Eind Lieu tenants Duval aiul S eld on severely wounded. 
Very few men were killed, except of the forlorn-hope and hookmcn T the residue 
being under cover. But the anxiety of llcnson and Armstrong about the party 
in the dircb, had exposed their persons to the enemy's marksmen, 

Far from being east down by the issue of this attempt, the general orders 
issued cm the mansion, breathe nothing but exultation in the bravery and good 
conduct of the troops, and congratulations on the approaching prospect of meet- 
ing the enemy on equal terms, hi his dispatches to the president of congress, 
General Creenc says— " The behaviour of the troops on this occasion deserves 
die highest commendation," M the> have undergone incredible hardships during 
ibe siege, and though the issue is not successful, J hope [heir exertions will merit 
the approbation of rongress. Had fte Virginia militia joined n.% ugrnmbte to 
orders, suscess would have been complete. The siege has been blnndy lai both 
sides, from the frequent sallies that the enemy made. The garrison behaved 
with great spirit, and defended themselves with judgment and address." i[ Wc 
continued die siege until the enemy got within a few miles of us." « It is mor- 
tifying m lie obliged to leave a garrison so near reduced, and 1 have nothin^ 
to console me but a consciousness, that nothing was Jelt unattempted that could 
facilitate Its reduction." u It trill he mtj endeacottr, in our future movements, to 
ohit<r<i ford R'ttvdoii to mow down iirto the htm ay country, and evacuate Ninety- 
Six; but my force tssn small that I can hardly flatter mj self with ibe hopes of 
success. Our movement to the southward has been attended with very great 
ad vantages, and bad not this re-euforccment arrived so soon, or had not the Fit- 



iat MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, ovinia militia failed me, the manoeuvre would have been crowned with complete 

success" &c* 

It has been said,* that on this occasion a truee was proposed by General 
Greene for the purpose of burying the dead, but rejt eicd by Ougfr, us ihc 
ceremonial of hu vying the dead was, by custom, appropriated to (he v icier. 
The least refjmion would have pointed out that, situated as die two armies 
were, neither could have ventured on rendering this last mark of respect to the 
brave men who M\ between the fi ncs , or even ill the ditch, Without the concur- 
rence of die other. He have it in our power to cxculjmte the .British com- 
mander from the charge of having set up a claim, only to be asserted by die tin- 
disputed possessor of die field of battle. 

No general truce was requested, for this mijrlit have suggested what Greene 
wished concealed,— That he wa$ preparing to retire. But a proposal, through 
The adjutant general, was submittal, for both parties to be mutually pcriiuui'd lo 
pass in security between the lines lor tiie purpose of bury nig the dead, with a 
particular rwjuctf. that due a item ion be paid to the wounded who Ml into the 
enemy's hands. To th is the following answer was returned : — * l Major Genei al 
Greene may, with the fullest eon fid en ce, rely on every attention which 
liumanity can dictate, being paid to those men of the American army whom die 
fortune of war lias thrown into our hands. The killed of yrwr army of yester- 
day, within our anbatis, shall be immediately sent to you to be buried. 7 ' In 
every stage of the siege, the same liberal and soldierly intercourse was main- 
tained between tin: combatants, and the American commander was not in this, 
w any other instance, compelled to submit to any act of humiliation from his 
enemy. 

On the day of the assault it had become indispensable to General Greene, that 
events should determine, whether he should meet and fight Lord ttawdou, or 
raise the siege and retreat. But to be prepared for either alternative, tie had 
sent off his heavy baggage across the Saluda, elL the Island Ford, on the 
route which led to his depots on the Catawba River. 

Lord g&Wi&n had been ever since the Nth, pressing on with all possible 
expedition to relieve his garrison. The force which he had with Mm has been 
variously stated, but it certainly was not less than two thousand men of all arms. 
The American officers, who were banging upon his march, reported it variously 
from fifteen hundred to two thousand five hundred ; and it m<>Ht probably ap- 
proached the latter number. The_BriLish accounts make his cavalry to amount 



* Cckmcl Lee, vol, % |>. 125- 



MAJOR GENERAL GRLENL. I5;i 

one hundred and fifty, but he most certainly had with him a momned force chai 1 . 
coJishlcrahfy above that number. Those ivbo had seen it and felt it loo, estima- 
ted it nt four hundred* The British accounts probably, give only the regular 
cavalry, but it is known that when he retired from Camden, Lord Rawdon was 
followed by a numerous retinue of loyal ists, from whom lie had now drawn a very 
efficient force of mounted infantry, well equipped, and, in his circumstance^ 
full us valuable as his regular horse; as good as most of those under Sunip- 
ter Eiiid Marion, Lord Rawdon had fdt the effects of a superior cavalrv, 
and had spared no pains to collect a respectable body of that kind of troops, 
before be moved from Charleston. Hn readily conceived that the American 
general would spare no pains to retard his movements, and would probably suc- 
ceed, unless he could outnumber the American eavuhy, 

It was wiili astonishment that Greene received the intelligence of hh strength 
in this description of force, and in ir, he too plainly saw the defeat of his hopes 
to succeed in retarding the enemy's progress. An unfortunate incident that 
occurred to a large pmty of Sumptcr's Troops, under the command of Colonel 
Myddleton, tended not a little tu realize his apprehension. It was led into an 
ambuscade, and so completely cut to pieces mid dispersed, that only forty-five 
out of one hundred and jjtty could he collected by their colonel. Some strag- 
glers rejoined their commander, but many vrerc killed, and more too much 
alarmed to return to service. 

Still Rudolph, Washington, and Sampler hung upon the flanks of the advanc- 
ing army, hut his march was too prudemly conducted to offer any opportunity 
jfor successful enterprise- ft happened also, unfortunately, that some doubt's 
were ^Renamed u ith regard to the route which Lord Rawdon would pursue. 
T.'utii you reach Orange burgh, the route is common to Ninety-Sis and Granhy : 
as die latter Ma & Sum piers head quart cvs, and the depot of the American 
stores, as well as the site of an armory recently established- it might have bueu 
an object, with LordRawdom ai p(is.mnt t to visit that post. General Sumptcr, 
there lore, remained at Gran by, and to that point ordii red tip his re- enforce^ 
me jus of militia, mml he had ascertained (hat Lord Rawdon, on the loth, 
pwad Oraugcburgh, on the road ro [Vmcty-Six. by the Juniper Springs. All the 
parties were then sent forward in that direction, whilst General Snmpter in per- 
ga&i moved slowly up the Saluda, so as to communicate with his detach men rs 
uwl NiLKtfy-Stej and ftp In the way to receive the militia who were ordered to 
follow and join him. Thh course necessarily gave the enemy the advantage ol' 
him in time, epecd, nm\ distance, co dim, on the day that the enemy reached Lit* 
tie JNiluda, it was noi po&dbk for General Smnptcr to call in his detachments and 
reach Xinnty-Six in time, to enable General Greene to advance and choose hi* 



151 MAJOR GENERAL GKKENE. 

ciuv. ground for fighting the enemy. In this there was no disobedience of orders, or 
want of zeal betrayed, nor was it ever so regarded by the American commander. 
The mar lay m detaching his panics before be had thrown himself in front of 
the enemy's advance; the latter certainly was the proper construction of the 
orders given him \ but it was perfectly consistent with the immediate object 
of the orders, to pursue measures for galling and harassing the enem y in his 
advrmee. 

There is a vivacity in the letters addressed by General Green r to Sumpter, 
[Marion, Pickens, and Clarke, when pressing them to convene and fight the 
enemy, which evidently discovers that he looked forward to the opportunity 
with pleasurable aticipations. * ; It is my wish, to meet him," he eays> in a 
letter to Clarke of the I7ih, M and 1 doubr not of victory if ihe virtuous militia 
collect and light with their usual gallantry. Come on, then, my good friend," 
he continues, "and bring Licutcnam Colonel Jackson w icfi you, with all rlic 
good troops you have collected ; let us have a field -i lay, ami I doubt not it w ill 
be a glorious one. No time is to be lost, he here bv to -morrow evening at 
furthest." 

But before the morrow evening had arrived, the event of the assault and the 
news from below, had rendered a retreat indispensable. Lord Raw don wag at 
Little Saluda; Sumpter, with all the cavalry of Washington and Lee. and even 
the light troops of the legion, too far on Rawrion*? right to make a junction with 
Greene either certain or secure. Reluctantly, therefore, he rcsob-cd to ahandon 
the siege, and in Ihe night of the 19th moved off across the Sahula, on (he track 
of his baggage; having first Issued orders to Sumpter to march np within the 
fork of the Broad and Saluda^so els to fall Into his track a ud join him, 

But little was the aid to be expected at this time from such a junction. The 
influence of retreat and misfortune, upon the fluctuating spirits of the milhia, 
began to show itself; and both Sumpter and Marion wrote that they were almost 
abandoned by those who had been with them, and found it nejvt to impossible to 
call forth others. Every man of his four regiments, general Sumpter mentions, 
had abandoned him in one day, and scarcely any troops remained with him, 
except his brigade of ten months men. The late re- enforcements gave the 
enemy at least double the effective force that Greene could command, and the 
most gloomy apprehensions once more pervaded the country* The late recall 
Of the Virginia militia, the arresting of the march of the continental troops for the 
defence of that state, the retreat of La Fayette before Lord Cornwall is, —all con- 
spired to strike a damp through the spirits of the people, which favoured (he 
prevalence of an opinion, that the southern states were abandoned to their fate. 
1 1 h said, that there were Got wanting, at that time, politicians who were in- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 155 

dined to I lie compromise of rcl in qui shing the southern, 10 secure the hide pen- chap, 
dance of the northern ant! middle states. The present state of tilings left no 
room to doubt tlic utter impolicy of carrying on the war any further through 
the fluctuating aid of flic mil it in. Measure were immediately adopted for re- 
establishing the South Carolina line ; mid the execution of the cartel having fur- 
nished some excellent materials in the discharge uf the prisoners from the prison - 
ships, different rend ez vous were opened, and Mayhem and Horry's corps began 
to fill Lip ; but still slowly, for they had to be raised upon promises, find state 
promises were at that time fiir below par. 

The retreat from Ninety-Six was pressed without hncrmis si on hv. yon d Bush 
River a distance of twenty-two inilcs ? on ihe route that crones the streams 
at their lowest fords. A retreating army could not have pursued a route which 
would expose it to the casu allies an I dchcys uf ferries, and the American 
general was resolved to relinquish as little ground a- possible. On the 22d, 
Greene halted to observe the movements of the en cm v. On the morning of 
the next day, in to I licence ivas reeeived, that Lord Raw don had entered 
Jvinety-Six at two o'clock on the 2 1 si 7 and the American army was imme- 
diately put in motion ; crossing the Lluoree, Tygor and Broad Rivers, it halted 
on the So th at a place called Tims' Ordinary, eleven miles beyond Lisle's Ford 
on 13 road River. 

Lord Rawdon did not, in fact, move from Ninety -Six until the morning of 
the 2-lth | believing, from tin: m no it of deserters, that the American army was 
siill encamped at IJush River, he took with him the troops of the garrison ? 
and all the force capable of sustaining the fatigue, in all about two thousand 
effectives, and without even their knapsarks, or a wheel carriage except his 
tumbrels, made a mast vigorous push to overtake the retreating army. Fortu- 
naielv. this movement had been anticipated, and he advanced no further than 
Duncams Creek, a tributary stream of die Enurce River. A retreating army 
has always the advantage of sivnrpins away wilh it the means of subsistence, 
and two strong detachments of cavalry and infaimw under Washington and 
IjCCj had sullenly preceded the march of the enemy, presenting a precaution 
against venturing too far with bis foraging parties. With these, in person, 
was the American general, while the army under Colonel "Williams pursued 
its march. 

Pursuit was obviously vain ; for while Greene was falling back upon hi* 
magazines and re-enforcement, Lord Rawdon would have been removing 
further, at every step liotn all support. The very routine was before him 
through which Lord Cornwallls had recently passed, and hy a singular coin- 
cidence, lirccne lay encamped at the very spot from which Lord Cornwal I is f 



16G MAJOR GENERAL CRFXNE, 

chap, career had commence J. Nor were t lie British hoops in a condition to press 
the pursuit ; for they had recently livelier] two hundred miles hi ten days mid 
now about thirty-seven in a day and a half: and the ncivly arrived European 
soldiers, well clad in thick cloths, could ill withstand the niching hears of" mid 
summer in this climate. The American troop* ucrc bur little incommoded 
with any incumbrance of this kind. 

Oh the2kh, therefore, Lord Rawdon commenced his march by the left, to 
bid a final adieu to the interior of South CaroEimu Such was die state to 
which he had been reduced lardy for warn of \,m\ ision, that the army sub- 
sisted aim on wholly on beef, and the onlv bread-stun ' aAbrdcd them, was 
prepared by mean^ of a numbrr of band- mi J Is, which Lord Rawdon bad 
judiciously transported with bis army on its march from Charleston : the few 
mills in the intermediate country bad ab been destroyed. The maize thus pre- 
pared is wholesome, palatable and nutritious, but h seldom rdished by those 
who are unaccustomed to it- 

A distressing scene soon followed the return of Lord Rawdon to Ninety- 
Six. The day of retribution had overtaken the unfortunate loyalists. Very 
numerous, as has been seen, in the com me ncement of the revolution, Gvcry 
|hiag hitherto had conspired no increase their numbers. Ninety- Six had long 
been their market, and the seat of power— the source of wealth, of influence 
and opinions to the surrounding country. The feeble, the avaricious and the 
wavering, had, of consequence, been drawn into its vortex. 

Let the scene now be imagined of so large a proportion of the population of 
ibi* beautiful country, set in motion to evacuate it in the height of all the Inxu- 
, lance which the farms exhibit at this season of die year. Many were the eye* 
*\\ Fit streamed at the necessity of abandoning homes t endeared to them by thou- 
sands of ten dci- associations ; and seeking a precarious and dependent subsi st- 
ance in a ehmaie. which is always viewed with terror by the in ha hit ants of tho 
interior. But Lord Rawdon had called together their chiefs and communicated 
to them the necessity of abandoning the posi that protected them. With it, they 
abandoned all idea of security. 

Nor was it without reason that these unhappy people preferred any thing to 
vernal n i u$ be hi ud u n p ro tected ■ 

Soon after Cunningham's b.oody excursion inro the upper counties, and the 
return of the American army in force into this neighbourhood, many small par- 
ties, in pursuit of plunder or revenge, had been traversing the country in all 
directions, thing tit free quarters on the inhabitants, and aftcinntdy indulging 
their cupidity or cruelty in outrages upon whig and tory. On the latter, the evil 
principally fell; and the specimens of licentiousness exhibited in repeated iiv 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 157 

stances were calculated to inspire the fear, tii.it no safety was to be expected by chap, 
them after the retirement of the Ilritish army* :it '' 

h is confide mly hoped, that the pcrpeti suois of these enormities were gene- 
rally a lawless race of frontier- men, or banditti, ivithoiit connexions, civil, poli- 
tical or military, who availed themselves of the suspension of law and Older 
which necessarily existed during (he struggle dntt prevailed for the mastery of 
the country, The civil arm was nei-yelrss ; and the miliary commanders, 
si nving in a contest which kept their eyes, necessarily, to the point of each 
other's swords, could do but little fur the tranquillity of the country. 

Yet Genera! Greene was not inattentive to what was going on around him. 
In treaties, remonstrances, threats, were all wasted on die Eiir, until events 
aiVorded him leisure to meditate on the means of acting with efficiency, fie then 
addressed a letter to the inhabitants of Saluda, in which he declares himself 
their protector ; and being cordially supported by Pickens m the effort, he suc- 
ceeded in ealmtng the apprehensions of great numbers, and preventing the coun- 
try from being wholly depopulated. But many had wanted moderation in the 
hour of prosperity. They expected that the re- establish mem of civil govern- 
ment would follow the reconquering of the country, and prosecutions, both 
civil and criminal, would await their offences. 

For some days, the roads leading to Ninety-Six were crowded with an unhap^ 
py cavalcade of women and children, wagons, stork, and slaves, collecting at 
thai place, preparatory to the departure of die garrison. 

It is said of Lord Rawdon, that, previous to abandoning the post, he submit- 
ted to the loyalists an offer, M that if they would keep together, and undertake 
the defence of the district against their disaffected countrymen, a small party 
should be left to kerp them in countenance; with tin 1 further encouragement 
that detachments from the Congarees should, at all limes, be sent to their im- 
port, equivalent to any force which Greene might dispatch to invade their ter- 
ritory." 

If such an offer was made, it was rather the dictate of that officers heart than 
his head, Hut in all his conduct during his command he had exhibited too 
much prudence and judgment, to have held out a fallacious hope, which subse- 
quent events prove he could not possibly have realized- An offer so tempting, 
would probably have been too readily ^ras]ied at under the welbgrouiidcd con- 
fidence reposed in his honour and judgment, and would have led to certain 
and fatal disappointment. The intelligence of the day certain I v negatives the 
making of such a proposition, lor the loyalists, who sub mitt edf uniformly de- 
el sued, that the eommu ideation lo them was, that they must all remove below 
Oraugeburgh, or he deemed enemies to the royal cause ; that they should be 



I',:; MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

i!1 ^- put ill possession oillic c?tnt€-s of the w -nigs until restored to their own, and r> 
conducted under pro i err ion pf die British a rim within the new line of British 
posts, Certain it is, that It such a proposition tfa$ made, there was no hesita- 
tion in rejecting it: find Lord Rawdon, leaving one half of his force to cover 
ihc retirement of the loyally under Cruder, on the 29th took up die line of 
march for iho Cnn^arecs, &*' &v> 30&flt side of ?>aLLt<la T at the head of cloven 
hundred infantry, sixty cavalry, and two companies of artillery, with four field 

pieces. 

Tin? movements of the two armies which followed tins period, present a 
curious specimen of the vicis-itudc5 of v\ar. and a brilliant one of the prudence 
and enterprise of the rival commanders* 

Rawdon, though yoliu£ in years* had lived over the experience of ages in 
die retirement of die closet, and was well aware of the Ireeks which fortune 
[iliiv* hi the field of war. On proceeding from Charleston, therefore, he Etad 
issued orders for a strong d em aliment under Colonel Stewart* to follow after 
him to Omngehurgh mid await orders. The position was well chosen for 
support or co-operation. Before leaving Ninety- .Six. he had received intelli- 
gence from Colonel Stewart thai this detachment was on its inarch, and he 
appointed it to meet hem at Granny on the Si\ July. The rime was perfectly 
well calculated, to form a junction with him at rhut place before Greene could 
reach it from the position at Tims 1 Ordinary, allowing for die time thin must 
elapse before the latter could hear of the movement and destination of the 

British army. 

But, the measures adopted by the American general, anticipated Lord Raw- 
don's airai]iiements T and had nearly involved him and his detachments in de- 
feat and niin. 

Lee with his lesion, was ordered to hover about the post of Ninety-Six, to 
follow the enemy in his movements, strike where an opportunity offered, and 
keep the general constantlv informed of the minutest occurrences. While 
Washington wilh his cavalry and Kirkwood ; s infantry, was directed to move 
down between the Broad and Wnierec Rivers to Gran by, and throwing him- 
self between that post and Orange burgh, to pursue the same course pointed 
out to Lee. General $umpter ? at the same time, was instructed to penmate 
lower down the country, and communicate With Marlon in measures of co- 
operation in that quarter. The American armv then recommenced its march 
by the right, and quieted the apprehensions of the country by advancing a 
day's journey on the route to Gran by. Here it halted, as well to aseertam 
the ultimate views of the enemy, as to await the arrival of a detachment of! 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 151 

two hundred North Carolina levies, advancing under Major John Ann- chai'. 
ttroiig. 

At the nig-Sprin^ on Rocky Cr^ek, in the present district uf Fairfield, the 
American general pulsed two days of trst to his army, but to hini ? ot ' an \ ions 
suspense, lie had little doubt of the intentions of the enemy to retreat : but, 
the in die a fio i is of (his intention may have been a feint, and Lord Raw don, 
alter resting uid supplying his army, might again attempt to overtake and 
form Him to battle. In this event, lii^ retreat Jay across Land's Ford on the 
Cuiaw I>li, where his detachments might join him by ascending the east side 
of tile Waieree. ikit, if the liriiish commander should be serious in his pne- 
p:n\i(Iou* for retreat, then ttifC position of the American army was well calcu- 
lated for ulterior operation^ whrther his views were to retire within his new 
line of posrs, or to establish himself on the Conga it e, am] circumscribe his 
operations to the space comprised between the Lriisto to the west, and the 
Con^nree and Santec to the north and east. 

The latter, it appears was the real object of the British commander; but it 
was not until the evening of [he 1st July, that such intelligence was received 
bv his adversary, &s derided the course w hie It he must pursue. We are mi- 
nute as to lime j for so critical were the operations of the two armies at rids 
period, that a day was decisive of the fate of the one, or the triumph of the 

other. 

Washington had intercepted a letter of Stewart's, com m tin lea ting intelli- 
gence of his advancing towards Orange burgh, but stating the impracticability 
of reaching Li ran by by the 3 J of July, Lee, at i he same time, informed ihc 
American commander from the other quarter, that Kawdon had marched from 
Ninety-Six wuh Eussthan half his lorce, and taken the road that leads southerly 
on the south west of the Saluda. 

The direction of the British commander's march was now ascertained, his 
force was reduced to a state which Greene's recent re -enforcements cnaEJed 
him to control, and it ivas also ascertained, both, that the re- enforcements on 
which [taw don fid en I a ted to maintain ins ascendancy could not reach the 
point of junction in time, mid that Lord Rawdon was proceeding in full con- 
fidence that it would. 

Very early the morning following the receipt of this intelligence, the Ame- 
rican army w-as pur in motion, and after re aching Winnsborough, it was 
ordered to disembarrass itself of every thing that could impede its march, and 
was left under the command of General liuger, with orders to press on to 
the Congarcc, while Greene, attended by a small escort of cavaJry and an 



160 MAJOR GEAEEAL GREENE. 

clfA ,r- aid, pushed on to find Colonel Washington, and observe more nearly the indi- 
cations by which his ulterior measures should be directed. 

The forward movement of the American army appears to have alarmed 
Lord Rawdon for the safety of his re-cnforccmcnts> for Ills march was urged 
with an obvious anxiety m reach Crabby in anticipation of the American 
army. Notu -h hist Lidding some unfortunate incidents which attended his acce- 
lerated movements* it proved exceedingly foriunaic for the safciy both of him- 
self and ills detachment- For it brought him to Granby tivo day-* before that 
appointed for his junction with £ tew arc, and. consequently, iwo day* before 
that on winch the American general had calculated to present himself in the 
place of his expected re- en force mem. Bui, still disastrous consequences here 
awaited hi in. Colonel Lee had executed his orders with the greatest zeal and 
activity, and keeping pace on the north east side of the Saluda Elver with 
Lord ft aw don's descent on the opposite side, had detached Major Ejjeston 
with one troop # T C&valry to bang on the march of the British army, with 
orders to harass it and cut off its foraging parties, and otherwise retard its 
march, The great superiority in quality of Eg I es tows horses, enabled him to 
discharge this critical service Wtfa perfect security. 

Having ascertained from EgJeston that Lord Rawdon had with him but 
iixrv horse, Lee dispaxched an additional troop under Captain Armstrong, in 
order to enable Egleston, If an opportunity offered, to strike a blow at the 
English cavalry.* Kgleston very soon made an opportunity for this purpose, 
by throwing himself in front of the enemy below Granby. His reinforce - 
mem had been received in the night, and the enemy ivcrc ignorant of u. Thr 
nest morning, very early, lie presented himself in view of the British cavalry 
with a diminished appearance of hi* original number, and drew on himself, 
as lie expected, an ausek from nearly the whole hostile cavalry, His flight 
extended no farchcr than to the thicket where the rest of his command were 
in ambush, and their joint- charge completely overwhelmed the whole body of 
their antagonists, ] 1 oriy*uvc men and horses, a captain and several other 
commissioned officers, fell into the hand* of the Americans in the face of the 
enemy, and lesbian a mile distant from their army. 

Deprived of his cavalry, harassed by Eglesmn, incapable of collecting pro- 
vision* or intelligence, warned by the audacity of Lee-s parties, of the approach 
of the American army, and learning the distant prospect of a junction with 
Stewart, and the preparations going on in his front to embarrass and detain 



-*-"' 



* tc.C, 3d Julv* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 161 

him, Lord Rawdon halted only to destroy the boats for some dismncc down cime- 
the river, and immediately pressed on to reach Orange burgh. In tills march 
from Niuetv-Sixto Orange burgh, it is confidently ass pried by the Briiish prints 
of die day,* That more limn fifty of the British army fell dead from heat, fa- 
tigue and privation. Lord Raw don's situation was desperate, and some were 
necessarily sacrificed to the sufety of the whole. 

Oji the arrival of Greene at Washington's camp, lie had occasion for the 
exercise of all his equanimity, for fori mm %$\ia had acted the will-o'-uhisp 
towards him, am! seemed determined to beckon him on, only to amuse her- 
Bell" with disappointing him. It was now certain that Rawdon could not be 
overtaken by the main army ; bm, Greene's vie ws had not been limited to that 
one object. As early as the 29\\i, he und received Intelligence of the advance 
of 8 tew art from Dorch ester with a large and valuable convoy of wagons ; 
and measures had been taken to strike a blow at his detachment, that roukl 
scarcely have failed of effect* Tn the actual si axe oC Lord Rawdon^s army, 
the destruction of this convoy, on w T hieh alone he depended to relic ve his 
armv, most probably would have given a bloodless victory over the whole. 

Orders oj" the 29th had been transmitted to General Sumpter, to detach 
Colonel Middlctou with his regiment to rc-cti force Washington, at Antrum's 
on the Congarce ; and to Lee t to hasten up and form a junction with Wash- 
ington on his assigned position, nr appoint some other place where it could be 
effected with more expedition or perform the enterprise hi I use J f, if strong 
enough to attempt it. Washington was ordered to repair to AncruuVs Ferry, 
and immediately on being joined by these re-enforcements, to hasten on and 
intercept Stewart. Rut, as it was uncertain whether Lee could be found 
promptly, or what his difficulties might b$ in forming a junction with Wash- 
ington, the latter was ordered, on beiti^; joined by Middlctou, to proceed, with- 
out halting for Lee. And us it was not certain that Gencnl Sumpter was 
present with his command then under Middle ton, direct orders ivere sent to 
frliddleion, to put him self under the orders of Washington at A nc rum's Ferry, 
ami proceed to the ex ecu lion of the blow Intended against ^tewart^ 

It is curious to follow out these well concerted measures to their final fai- 
lure. In common wich the commander in chief, General Greene had often to 
dissemble his feelings, and to bear with his officers, because the service could 
not well bear their loss. In this instance there was a call for the most absolutr 
self-corn man d + Neither Middleton nor Lcc ever joined Washington, and the 



' Annual Repktft-. 
VOL, II. 2\ 



16:2 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chap, latter, instead of directing his views against Stewart, thought proper to throw 
himself in Trout of Ration, in prosecution of a feeble and fatal effort to cm- 
barrasshts march- The c.\ press dispatched after General Stunptqr, after tlirce 
days search, found him at the Hanging- Rock on the Catawba River, in pro- 
Fceunon of some, measure connected with his command, which he did not 
abandon, and winch detained him from joining tlic army tuvul the 8th or Oth 
of Jll!v. Washington, iu the mean time, anxious to prosecute the #ter']3j3*fc 
ogamsr Stewart, dispatched a courier to Clarion, who was below with four 
Imrid red mounted mititUu prtwini: him to hasten to unite in the undertaking. 
Whns Genial Greene reached Washington-* head-f|UELiters t Marlon had joined 
him, mid at the head of tfaffi two corps united, he resolved to Lead die enter- 
prise in person. 

Pressing down the Orangehurgb road, on the 61I1 July lie succeeded in 
pacing Lord Kawdon, and then watching the progn tea of the RrilMi army 
nt the heart of a company of Washington** cavalry, lest rclidMumld he pished 
forward to Stewart, he detached Marion \o attack and sl i/e thi* important 
convoy, freighted, not only with relief for Uawdon's army, but with I he 
virions supplies necessary to re-establish thi< post at Gran by. 

Tims far every thing appeared to have sue c ceded to a wish. The nnurly 
i-uLrniLiiiicatitM^ kept up with Marion, exhibited the anxiety cutn-rained res- 
pecting pacing events, and positive information had been communicated on 
die TtU, that Stewart was still below and approaching. At otic o'clock in the 
morning of the ftth, Marion sallied forth from hip covert to seize upon his prey, 
but, to his utter discomfiture, Str-wtirt, unconscious of his danger, and hiiluetif ed 
,mlv bv a choice of roads, had utrned a?ide into one, while .Marion had pur- 
sued another and they had parcel each oilier in the night, 

On the morning of the 3th ? Stewart and Rawdon effected n junction in 
Orau -'ohui^h, and the follow ing letter from Marion, of the preceding day, 
inhibits a striking picture of the fact, that the army of ttawdou, at that time, 
was in no condition for tinning or for (lying ; — 

i* Their tmops are so fatigued ihcy cannot possibly move. Three rcgi- 
meius were g*?iftg to lav down ihcii" arms, and it is believed they will to-day, 
U they are ordered to march* They have no idea of any force being near 

them." 

Greene had now been five days incessantly in motion, and tutfeucd with all 
die agitation that hope and fear can dispense. On the Gth, lie turned die 
heads of his crest -fail en cavalry again towards the Con § tree, and I laving 
Issued ortier? to all the troops, that Snmpicr, Marion, Lee and Washington, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEN}:. K# 

could arid to the main army, to form a junction as soon as possible, he resolved W 
to mnreb up m Orange burgh and offer the enemy battle. 

The militia under Pirkens, was Jiot included in this older, for thai oflicer 
was, at this tiine T usefully employed on the important mission of watching 
the motmus of Cruder. Prompt and correct intelligence from that quarter 
was obviously indispensable to the safety of the American army- Uc-cii- 
forceti bv (lie st rength of Cruder, Lord linwi Ion's force would have been su 
overwhelming, that me American commander could not have kept the field 
for a moment : and tlic ferric s- of the Con^aree presmtcd a formidahlc barrier 
to a preeiphato retreat. Yet it was his only retreat ; for baggage* stores, re- 
en to re Clients, all l:iy beyond that river. 

Cruder was, in fact, at (his time fast approaching die post of Gin n^ebtirglu 

That oineer, it ivilj be re eu I lee led, had been It ft at Ninety -Six to eover tin: 
retreat oft he loyalist families. Whilst waiting their assembling ii won hi have 
been happv for his reputation, and that of the British arms, had he confined his 
efforts to the demolition of the defensive works that had been constructed at 
that post, lint iliis bist opportunity of wreaking vengeance on the unfortunate 
wfcfeft could nnl be suffered to pass away. A swarm of tories, supported by a 
regilur force, were permitted 10 carry lire and sword into the Long-Cane set- 
tlement, The ravages sammmed in this quarter gjfo e c&untcnaiicc to the asser- 
tion, thai orders had been issued to lay the whole country waste. This dread- 
ful rabmiJty is sometimes justilied or excused by die necessities which war iiu- 
pus; s : bur wliat was there to justify it here f They were abandoning the country 
— ih 're \V ( 83 no army to be starved into a retreat; and the country was entirely 
to:t r^mme to furnish supplier to that whidi must be the seat of war. There U 
but 1 10 uuie -h r L -asoii to believe, flUI the measure was one of revenue, perhaps 
of plunder, or ijftfe peiulnnee of disappointment. 

Fortunately the |k>od was unexpectedly arrested belbre it had readied very 
far. Tiekens and Clarke were at hand, and fofflft were ad^nicin^ with tlicir 
folnvers to re-enforce the armv, then rctreaum; over Broad Hivcr. The 
ravages of ihe enemy were cheeked, by these parties, re-enforced h_v the enraged 
in? ii(t J tide, whose smoking dwellings siill stimulated their vengeance, and the 
enetnv was onee more ibreed wiihin bis hilrenehments or under the protection 
of bis guns, Recent advices from Rawdou f of his increasing difficulties, now 
hurried on the evacuation of the post (jf .Ninety-Si v 

Cruger, at tbe head of a cavaleade, not unlike the pictures of the Exodu*, 
commenced his march on rbe ttih of .Inly. Many had been the distressing 
scenes that this country had eKlulMcd ; but tow tun! equalled this* And, to add 
to the mental and bodily sufferings of the miserable loyalists, parties gathered 



m major general gueene. 

wwr from the recently d emulated settlements, and re-enforced by those habitual 
plunderers who had disgraced the American cause, hunted and rut off the small 
parties as ibey moved towards the rendezvous appointed on Crugcr's line of 
march — stimulated not less by revenge than by a desire for plunder, glossed over 
bv tli c excuse oE" retaliation or indemnity. Nor were their sufferings destined 
to terminate with this dangerous and distressing journey, to which every age 
and ^cx, and condition, were exposed ; but after reaching the tract of country 
[o which they were ordered to retire, and their land of promise — the rich estates 
of the banished w hi sis they soon found that alt the remuneration and protec- 
tion promised them ended in delusion. If ihey were fortunate enough to survive 
me diseases of the climate, they were soon driven from their new homes by the 
wandering parties of whigs, or perhaps excluded by some prior possessors, who 
did not find it convenient to relinquish their hold. At length they gathered in 
£iv<U numbers in the suburbs of the city, and, lodged in tcn(s, formed a settle- 
ment of wretchedness, which, in the spirit of burlesque or reproach, took the: 
denomination of Rawflou Town. Here many perished miserably ; but many, 
vvho had brought oif i heir slaves, removed to some of the TSritish settlements, 
amon^ the islands, or on the Spanish Main, where their descend ants still exist. 
Others, resolved to brave all the dangers of returning to their native homes, 
secretly stole back, and finally east themselves on the Hcmcncy of their ncigh- 
hours. AVe can, with confidence, say that none who had not rendered them- 
selves infamous by their crimes, were rejected. In Pickens they found a zealous 
ami benevolent protector. Yet, Iw too many instances, family-feuds had been 
so exacerbated by mutual injuries, that private revenge too often exhibited iisi/lf 
iu acts of disgraceful violence. But Pickens, in his communications, a! tributes 
i he agitated state or socket) which still prevailed, to the loyalists who had lied 
to the Indians, and to the wings who still (ay among the mountains, leading 
a half savage lite ; and both, like the Gael of other times, descending occasion- 
ally to the plains from which they had been driven, to gratify revenue or thirst 
of plunder. 

Midiitudiunus and iimM furious as was the tnravan that inru inhered Crugcr, 
he managed to move forward with astonishing celerity. Wlinf ever was the 
speed of his motion, his convoy must keep pace with him, for fear gave u ings 
to their flight, when the danger oflosing Ids protection pressed upon thorn Lord 
ft aw don had w rid en pressing! v t« him to hasten to Orangeburgh, and. by tra- 
velling by moonlight, he was enabled greatly to mitigate the sufferings attend- 
ant upon marching over barren sand* in such a climate, at such a season. 

The route winch Cruder had fa ken, is that which leads to Ortfugebuigh, be- 
tween the great ibrks of the Edisto, crossing into that phuc at abridge, to the 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 16£ 

west of the town, thrown across the northern branch. For a great distance cn^p, 

XEV 

above and below that | joint , the river was impassable, so that he pro™: tied in 
security, from attack lay the troops to the cast of ihrr river. And Pickens, whit 
all the exertions he cimld make, could noi collect together a force sulnVfent to 
retard him in his march. r J 'lie loyalists, acting as mounted infantry -, were loo 
formidable for his party, ni emu ted, as he expresses himself, " on horse s so ex- 
hausted by service, that they could neither get up with die enemy, nur get 
away from him. :? 

As soon as Oruger had descended so far down the fork as to leave no cause 
to fear for the safety of his convoy, he dismissed it under protection of their 
own mounted men, with instructions, to pursue their journey down the south- 
west side of the Edisto, so as to keep that river between them and the American 
parties, Uc then moved on to a junction with Lord Raw don, at the head of 
twelve or dun ecu hundred men. 

On die 10th July, General Greene had collected together all his different 
deta dim cats, and being re -en forced by riumpter with his brigade, and some 
militia, moved on to within four miles of Orangeburgh and offered the enemy- 
battle. Tlie grnmid he had chosen is on the north side of the creek which 
crosses the old Orangeburgh road to Gran by. four miles from Orange- 
burgh; and the force he had vihh him amounted to about two thousand, but 
among them there were scarcely eight hundred regular infantry. Lord Raw- 
don's force, after the junction uhh blew art, is esti mated at liftccn hundred, 
all disciplined men, Ju artillery the two armies were nearly equal ; in cavalry, 
the preponderance was infinitely in favour of the Americans, 

Thus circumstanced, had it no I been for the approach of Cruger, it was 
still in the power of the America n gencruk to have forced Lord Raw don to 
almost anv measure lie pleased, us j&^ty avenue could have been closed 
agaitist communication and STOtftCfr 13ut, the certainty of (Jr tiger's arrival 
in a few days, left no time for deliberation. 

Greene finding the enemy would not leave his ground to attack him, re- 
solved, if prarti cable, to move up and give battle. Nor was it until he had 
closely rceonnoitemk in person, at the head of his cavalry, all the advantages 
of the enemy's position, that he reluctantly concluded he should be obliged to 
relinquish the at rack. 

Orangeburgh is siamted on the east bank of die North Edisto, which wind- 
ing round it, covers nearly one half of its circumference. To the north and 
south are swamps anil ravines, which approach so near to each other, as to 
leave but a narrow isthmus on the east side, and even that is broken and 
uneven. The gaol, a strong brick building of two stories* not inferior, as 



J6G MAJOR GEXERAL GREENE. 

cnxr Greene observes, to a strong redoubt, with some adjacent buildings, completely 
^commanded this approach. The crown of the hill on which it was situated, 
was sutficiemiy spacious for forming and manoeuvring the British army, and 
the fences and houses of dip town nAbrted shelter to die hkntiy from all 
attempts of the American cavalry or mounted militia ; while the bridge in 
their rear afforded a secure retreat in ease of misfortune. 

To have attacked, in this situation, with a force consisiing chiefly of moun- 
ted infantry, would havebe.cn madness; and the American commander, con- 
soling himself with having Jain iwo days in portions where the enemy had, at 
any thnc t ihe choice of giving hanle, and marching on the 12th in sight of 
his position to offer him battle, resolved to retire. As his ulterior measures 
contemplated the separation of his army into twu nearly co^ual parts in the 
very ffe& of the enemy, as well as crossing the Cnngarcc a( a ferry, it w&$ 
of course necessary, that Ihe movement should be masked, until the encm v 
could no Jon^er avail himself of the advantage it afforded him. 

Accordingly, moving olf with his infantry m the night of ihe 13th. whilst 
his cavalry, who had nothing to fear, covered its retirement eifectuajjy from 
notice, the former was across the river before the enemy knew thai it had 
moved from its encampment. The iattcr were then let loose on that memo- 
rable incursion into the km er country, which drove Ihe enemy in all quarter* 
into Charleston, and for a while prostrated every appearance of royal power 

down to ihe £ar.es of that place. 

■— i 

As this interesting pi l!t -< : of do me stir history has never been fully related, we 
shall take die liberty of introducing its particulars as an episode. The corres- 
pondence of the day supplies nil the details 

The command of die expedition was given to Sumptcr, bat tmder him aetnd 
Marion, Lee, the Hamptons. Taylor, Horry, Mayhem, Lucy, and most of those 
enterprising par ( Isaus, who, during the revolutionary stim^le, gaie vigour and 
animation to the American cause. The corn ma ltd consisted of afl the sjate 
troops. Cotouel Lr,e ? s legion, mid a detachment of artillery W-llfi one held niece 
hi the whole about one thousand men, The objects of it were, besides the po- 
sitive injury whieEi there was a prospect of "tafog the enemy by striking at his 
line of posts, to inspirit *hc u hi^s, and by drawing the atteuliou of Lord Kaiv- 
don to that quarter, induce hhn to relinquish altogether, his views upon the 
Conduces mid the country bevond him. 

In the letter to C cue ml inmiptcr, on ihis occasion, writ ten on the I4th t 
Greene advises him, » that by a letter from General Pickens, he finds that Cru- 
der musf have formed a junction with Lord \l.vv Ion ihr- evening hefore," 
therefore he says, " there is no time to be lost, push your operations night and 



.MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 167 

dap ; keep ti party to watch the enemy's motions at Orangeburg, as they move € haf. 
down. Should they move in any other direction ] will advice you. Keep 
Colonel Lee and General Marian advised of all matters from above, and tell 
Colonel Lee 10 thinner even at the gates of Charleston. I have high expecta- 
tions from their force and enterprise, Nothing can deprive you uf complete 
success, but the want or lime, Do not neglect to have your boats in readiness 
for crossing your artillery over Janice, should it he necessary/' 

At the date of tins letter, Genera! Sumner's detachments were sweeping 
down by every mad that led to Charleston; whilst he T with the main body, was 
pursuing the Con :2a re e road leading down die south side of that river, and the 
east side of the Cooper river. 

To Colonel l}P$b with the legion, was asM^ncd the sen 1 ice of carrying Dor- 
chester* and ih^n pressing "]i to carry tenor to die suites of Clinrlrsmiv Colonel 
Wade Hampton, at ihe head of a detachment of Sump tors cavalry, was order- 
ed io co-operate with Lee, whilst Co Jon el Henry Hampton seized and held the 
bridge over the Voiu-tlolcs Creek, to hold these parties advised of the move- 
ments of Kawdon's force- at Oijingclmrgh* But as it was expected that the 
post at Dd^Lssteir would offer some resistance, Henry Muinpton, after posting 
a piirty at the bridge, had orders to proceed oti and support Lee m the attack 
on Dorchester. Ami a detachment of Marion's troops nnderColonel -Mayhem, 
passing the he*x! of Cooper River and Wadhoo Cteek, penetrated bclnw, to the 
eastward of I31gg;ln Chinch, to obstruct the retreat of the garrison bv destroy- 
in l: the bridge over Wadhoo Creek. It would have been difficult to imagine 
arrangements better calculated to effect the pnrposes of die expedition, and if 
anv &C fret remained, it was removed when Colonel Wade [lampion* In concert 
with tiV?i (wlio still acted the independent partisan.) passed on to the east of 
Dorchester, hv die Wassmasaw Knad to (.ioos-t h - Creek JJridge, thereby rutting 
off the communication between Dorchester and Monk's Corner, and between 
the latter place and Charleston by the rotftE west of Cooper Klver. 

Contrary :o expectation, Colonel Lee encountered no resistance at Dorches- 
ter. The garrison was at that time greatly reduced by the draft made on it 
by Stewart, and recently by a very serious inanity, in which it was said one 
hmitlred men were killed and Wounded before it was (ptellcd. 

The sudden appearance of Hampton at tioose-Orcek Bridge, seems to have 
alarmed the garrison of Dorchester, and caused it to abandon the post, riut 
Lee arrived in time to srt/.o a nitmSur of horses, variously estimated at from 
fifty to two hundr' .!, and four wagons, three of whieh were ( mpty, but the 
fourth contained a wditable supply ol'lKcd annnuuliiou. 



IBS MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

<™*p. Whiki Lee &%i $£$&} ing and sending off his prize, Colonel W. Hampton 7 * 
patience, it seems, became exhausted at his post at Goose- Creek Bridge, and 
hearing nothing from the former, and fearing that all fruits of (he uear ap- 
proach to Charleston would be lost by the alarm chat the knowledge of his 
advance would occasion; or per Inns apprehending that J-.cc meant ro Expro- 
priate to himself all the eclat of the dash into the vicinity of Charfeston, 
Hampton moved rapidly down the mad, spreading tenor into the very lines 
of the cily. A see-no of greater alarm and confusion has seldom been exhi- 
bited* The bolls rung, the aJ arm -guns were fired, and the whole city was 
under amis. 

Captain Read, who commanded Hampton's van-guard of twelve men, en- 
countered at the Quarter- House a patrol of British dragoons, whom he 
immediately charged and made* prisoners. The guard posted at than place 
shared ihe same fate, and after exhibiting themselves coolly to the centincls oit 
the ad v Ei ncet I redoubts, Hampton's party retired, bearing with them fifty pri- 
soners, among who in were several officers. 

Hampton's loss in n umbers was I riding; but, in the fall of Captain Wright, 
the service lost a brave and valuable officer. 

The next day, Colonel Lee approached and made his charge over the same 
ground. In his Memoirs, he expresses ins disappointment at finding every 
thing in solitude \ without adverting to the fact, that Hampton had gleaned the 
field before him. 

The two parti est lieu moved on to join Sumpicr, probably in no very good 
humour with each othcr^ 

The first eause why the expedition so auspiciously begun failed of complete 
success, is to be found in an unfortunate occurrence, wliieh drew the com- 
mander's attention away from his main object, and occasioned a loss of that 
precious time, on which he had been warned that his success must altogether 
depend. 

On his march, General Sumptcr received intelligence, that the enemy bad 
appeared in force at Murray's Ferry. This lay to the left of his line of ma it h, 
but he thought it advisable to send off a strong detachment of three hundred 
men to strike at this hostile party. The intelligence was erroneous, or the 
party had retired im mediately ; but, had it been otherwise, it was no object 
in comparison with that against which all his measures had been directed, and 
which could not fail of sustaining some derangement from such a deviation 
Irani original views. 

Accordingly, the enemy received re- enforcements, and then General Sump- 
icr was compelled to check his march, as lie was too weak., in the absence 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, ley 

of his detachment to approach the enemy within striking distance* In the cuw. 
mean time, intelligence was collected, the enemy recovered from his alarm, 
Enid preparations were made for destroying the stores and evacuating the 
post. 

The American army could better have spared the prisoners than the storey, 
for they are said to have been very considerable. 

At Lliirty miles from the coast Cooper River is supplied by a variety of 
branches, all respectable streams, bordered by impassable swamps, and only 
to be crossed in a very few places by ferries, or causeways and bridges- Of 
theee streams, Biggin Creek is the most northwardly, and is esteemed the head 
of the west branch of Cooper River* On the east of this creek, the road to 
Charleston crosses Watboo and Qui n by Creeks, between which the road 
forks, and crosses the latter, esteemed the east fork of Cooper River, at 
two different pointy the left at Quid by Bridge, the right at Bonncau's Ferry 
From Biggin Bridge, the only road westward]}' \o Charleston, crosses at Go ass 
Creek Bridge. 

1'he church near Biggin Bridge^ a strong brick building, is. about a mile 
from Monk's Corner, and the post consisted of a redoubt at the corner, (at 
this time abandoned) and the fortified church at Biggin* which covered the 
bridge, and secured the retreat at that point, by way of Monk*s Corner, But t 
con id Watboo Bridge be destroyed, the retreat by the eastern route became 
impracticable, ami this bridge became of course, an important object with die 
two parties. 

The detachment under Mayhem had not dared to approach die enemy with 
any confidence, prior to the advance of the main body; for the enemy's 
force consisted of at least five hundred discipEincd infantry, being the 19th 
regiment, commanded by Colonel Cotes \ with one hundred and fifty horse and 
a piece i>f artillery* 

On the 16th s Sumpter's detachment* (with die exception of Colonel Henry 
Hampton's) being collected, he marched up' to support Mayhem's detachment 
in its attempt upon the bridge, Re-enforcing Li with a detachment under 
Coton el Peter Horry j the command devolved upon that officer, and he pro- 
ceeded on to effect fh& intended object — the destruction of the bridge. 

The enemy's cavalry were ordered to prevent this, and advanced to the 
attack with a show of great confidence, But, they were received with a 
firmness which drove them back in confusion. Colonel Lacy, who wes one 
of the American party, biuke entirely through them with his mounted rifle- 
men* Some were killed, and a number of prisoners taken* Horry then dis- 
patched an officer to destroy the bridge, and remained to cover the party 
vol, il ^Z 



170 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, engaged Bi the undertaking. The enemy soon made their appearance in such 
force, that he was obliged to call in t lie party engaged in destroying the bridge, 
and to retire before the enemy, to die main body. 

Suniptcr, believing that the enemy had m;i relied out to give him battle, 
retired behind a defile a Hi tie distance in his rear, and prepared lor receiving 
the in. Hut, die purpose of the enemy was only to w car out the? day m am us* 
iug him : and, accordingly, retiring in the evening they heaped together their 
scores in the chuirh, (which might just as well have been heaped together 
out of It) set fire to them, and moved off on the road 10 the eastward, by 
Wathoo and Quin by. 

The flames, bursting through the roof of the church about three in the morn- 
ing, announced to Sunipter that the enemy had fled. The pursuiE was imme- 
diately coin nun iced, but unfortunately Lieutenant Singleton, with his piece of 
artillery, was ordered to remain on the ground, that he might not delay the 
move men is of the infantry, 

Lee and Hampton led the pursuit* until, having passed the Watboo, they 
discovered thru the cavalry of the en^my had separated from the infantry, and 
pursurd the right hand route. Hampton then struck off in pursuit of the cava U 
ry. urging Ins panting horses in the hope to overtake thnn bcibre they could 
make good the passage of die river* Bui he was disappointed ; tliey had eom- 
plcted their escape, and secured the boats on the opposite side, before he came 
up with them* He had then to measure back his way to witness the rscape 
of the remaining object of pursuit, the enemy's infantry; lost, perhaps, because 
the [list had divided the attention of the pursuers. 

31 a i ion's cavalry, under Colonel Mayhem, bad joined the legion cavalry in 
pursuit of the infantrv: and about a mile to the north ofQuinbv Creek, the rear 
guard of the retreating army was overtaken, with nearly the whole of their bag- 
gage. 

The rear guard consisted of one hundred mem commanded by a Captain 
Campbell ; they at first exhibited a show of resistance, but terrified at the 
furious onstit of the cavalry, they threw down their arm? without firing a gun 
—a piece of conduct which had nearly proved fatal to their whole regiment. 

Colonel Cotes had passed Quin by Bridge, and made disposi lions Cor its demo- 
lition, after his rear- guard and baggage should be placed in safety. The plank 
which covered the bridge had been loosened from the sleepers, and a howitzer, 
at its opposite extremity, was placed to protect the party left to complete its 
destruction, after the rear-guard should have passed* 

As neither alarm gun nor express had apprized Cotes of an enemy's approach, 
he was not prepared for immediate defence. But, fortunately for his command, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, J:7J 

be was present at the bridge when the American cavalry came in view, and chap. 
his measures were prompdy tak.cn to avert the threatening danger. His main 
body was, at the time, partly on the causeway, on the south side of the bridge, 
And. partly pressed into a lane beyond it, which wholly disabled them from im- 
mediate action. Orders were dispatched to them to halt, form, and march up, 
whilst the artillerists were called up to their howitzer, and the fatigue-party to 
the renewal of their employ mem at die bridge* 

The Legion cavalry were in advance of Mayhem's commands and Capt&bj " 
Armstrong led their front section. The plank sliding into I he water, and the 
lighted port-fire approaching the howitzer, left no rime for deliberation to a 
body of men, advancing upon, and closely pressed into a narrow causeway. 
Nor did the American Codes hesitate on his duly. One moment longer, and 
the destruction of the bridge would leave the howitzer in security to vomit 
death into the American ranks. History does not record an instance of more 
absolute self-devotion than was displayed on this occasion. 

Armstrong, followed Hose by his section, dashed over the bridge and drove 
the artillerists from their gun. Lieutenant Carrington immediately followed, 
and the third section advanced, but faltered, Mayhem, feeling the halt, charged 
by the legionary cavalry, but the death of his horse arrested his career. Cap- 
tain M : Caul eyy who led hie front section, pressed on and passrd the bridge. 
The causeway was now crowded, and a desperate conflict, Imnd to hand, oceu* 
pied the combatants. Somo of the working party, snatching up their guns, 
had delivered one lire and fled, Two of Lee's dragoons fell dead at the mouth 
of the howitzer, and several were severely wounded ; but the officers were tin- - 
hurt ; and Cotes and his officers, covered by a wagon, opposed them with their 
sworls, while the Erirish troops were hurrying on to where they could display. 
Lee har] cmne up, and a lighting, was engaged with Mayhem and Dr. 
Irvine, his surgeon, in endeavouring to repair the bridge. At this mo- 
ment Armstrong and M'Cauley, I outing behind them, and finding their 
own ptu'Ly halted ; and looking before them, and perceiving what was 
preparing for them in advance, exhibited a presence of mind. In their critical 
situation, which bejongs exclusively to consummate bravery. They knew that 
leaving the British officers in iheir rear would protect them from the fire of the 
army in the front, and urging their way through the flying soldiers on the 
causeway, they wheeled into the woods on their left, and escaped by heading 
the stream, m verify the trite proverb, that "fortune favours the brave." 

General Sumpter, in his official communication, says, " If the whole party 
had charged across the bridge, +hey would have come upon the enemy in such 
* state of confusion, while extricating themselves from the lane, that they must 



172 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cllA r hare laid down tlicir arms/ 5 It is certain that Colonel Lee was very much 
censured at the time for leaving these brave men to their fate; but he has given 
his reasons to the vvcu-lfl, mirl It would be a Jolly to censure him for not perform- 
ing that which he asserts was impracticable. 

Colonel Cotes, after throwing the plank from the bridge, retired to the ad- 
joining plantation, and not daring to trust himself to the open country in face 
of audi an active and powerful cavalry, resolved to defend himself under cover 
of the MUJfe^ of Captain Shubrick's plantation, which afforded him many 
u< [ v a n t a < r cs* T I s c v V& re si tuat ed on a ri * i n sr groi i n d , th e d w el I in g- house of two 
stories find contiguous to it a number of out-houscs and rail fences, affording 
security from the cavalry, and a covering from the marksmen of his cnemy- 

As the main body of the Americans had to make □ considerable circuit to 
approach the house, in consequence of thWcstruciion of the brie] ge; it was three 
o'clock P. M. before General Sampler's force arrived on the ground. lie Ibund 
the enemy drawn up in a square in front of die house, and prepared to receive 
him. Ashe had \^ry few bayonets, it would hare been a folly to match direct- 
ly up to the a I tack; and the precedent of King : s Mountain furnished him with 
his order of battle. His infantry was divided into three bodies. His own 
brigade, under Colonels Middleton, ^\k, Taylor, and Laccy, advanced in 
front, under shelter of a line of negro bouses, which ihey were ordered to reach 
and occupv. General Marion's brigade, which was very much reduced, was 
thrown into two divisions, and ordered to advance on the right of the enemy, 
where ihere was no shelter bur fences, and those within forty or fifty yards of 
the houses occupied by the enemy. The cavalry not being able to aet, was 
stationed in a secure position, remote from the scene of action, but near enough 
to cover the in fin try from pursuit. 

Tt was four o^cloek when the parties hnd reached their respective positions, 
and the signal was given to advance. Willi the utmost al aerify they moved 
up to the attack. Sumptcrs brigade soon gained the negro bouses in their 
front, atid from these diluted their rides with certain effect. Colonel Thomas 
Taylor, with about iony-livc men of his regiment, then pressed forward to the 
fences on the enemy's left, and delivered a fire which drew upon him a charge 
uf the British hayoiicr, which was not to be withstood. 

MarioiV* men were resolved not to be idl? spectators, and seeing the danger 
Of Taylor 1 * party, whh a firmness that would have done honour to veteran 
troops rushed through a galling fire up to the fences on their right, and extri- 
cated Taylor ; and, notwithstanding that, the open railing afTunled but a 
sientler protection, they continued to ftre from this slight covering eis long as 
a charge of ammunition remained in the corps. The- brunt of the, battle fell 



MAJOR GENERAL. GREENE, 173 

upon them ( and they maintained to the last, the reputation they had acquired chap, 
\n many a rude conflict* All who fell in the action were of Marion's com- 
mand* When their ammuulrJou w^$ expended, they were drawn off In 
perfect order* exhibiting not a symptom of alarm, Very early in the action, 
the enemy retired into the house, and within a picketted garden, and the 
action was warmly maintained from the doors, windows and pickets, 

The sun was down when the assailants were drawn off, and this, at this 
season of tire year, will make the combat to have lasted three hours. It is 
eonflrlenrly nflsened, that not a man left the ground while ihere remained to 
htm a charge of ammunition ; and such was their self-poasessioa at the close 
of the action, that they were ready to have returned to it the nest hoar; but, 
the ammunition of the detachment was exhausted, and that captured at Dor- 
chester, by some unfortunate mismanagement, had been forwarded direct** 
on towards head-quarters. 

Still there was a hope left The artillery had been ordered up, and it was 
possible that Captain Singleton had with him Some spare powder. iC Pewter 
ball,*' as General Sumpter writes, « they could have made in plenty," The 
army was drawn off across Quinby Bridge, (which had been repaired during 
the action) and encamped at the distance of three miles, leaving the cavalry to 
watch and control the movement* of the enemy , and intending to renew the 
Combat in the morning. 

But, the daemon of discord was new working the ruin of the expedirioD. 
When the parties who had been engaged, met and compared their losses and 
the circumstances under which they fought, those jealousies which ever infest 
irregular and volunteer troop, suggested to Marion^ men, that they had been; 
exposed , whilst Sampler's own, with the exception of Colonel Taylor's com- 
mand, had bcenspiucd, and the idea furnished a sufficient pretext for disgust 
and retiring* Many of them moved off in the night; the infection commu- 
nicated to some of Sumpter 1 * men ; and to complete the catastrophe, in the 
morning early. Colonel Lee with his legion, took up the line of march for 
head-quarters, without consulting the wishes of the commanding general** 

It is a very remarkable fact,t that in the account which this author has 4 
given of the ba.tr If* of Quinby, he represents it as having been fought by hint* 
self and Marion, without the presence of Sumpter ; when every thing shows; 
that it was altogether fought under the command of Sumpter; and in none of 
the official accounts does Colonel Lee's name appear, except when the fact of 



* General Sumpter** official ktlOT, + Ue'i Memoirs, vtf. & p, 1 M. 



174 MAJOR GENERAL GREECE. 

chap, his separating himself from Snmpicr the morning follow ins: the battle, is men- 
tioned. From the letters both of Marlon and Sumpii r.uow before us, we arc 
led to the conclusion, that Colonel Lce ? s legion mn>t have beer* posted witfa 
the cavalry, which it is well known were not, and could not be, engaged, and 
l hat the legion infantry was held in resent 

We will not a^t.Tt, that it was in the (spirit of retaliation dint £ umpires 
name U not mentioned, for we would i in peach Colonel Lee's recofkciioft $ not 
his veracity; but, it is certain, that this expedition must have rrrmhia'ed in 
great irritation betwern these distinguished o dicers since Snmpicr di reedy 
charges Lee, with having failed in even thing that he undertook during the 
expedition * 

In tfiiisi action, Mai ion lost some bra re men, and others were, for some time, 
lost to the service 1 . Among the latter were Colonels Swinton and Baxter, two 
of the most active adherents to Marlon during all !iw trial*. It is wonderful, 
considering hi* exposure, that his ln*s was not much greater ; Inn, General 
Greene account* Ibr it by ob-crvin^ — "the enemy were nil raw Irishman;, ivho 
knew verv little fthout the use of the ellii, t ' 

v «-■ 

The lews of die encmv has never been ascertained; the American account 
represent it us very great — iuty sa\ seventy killed, and a proportionate num- 
ber wounded. With <o many marksmen t for three hours watching the a ppeur- 
anee of a. musket at a crevice nr a window, or between the garden pium^s, 
and firing by the direction it afforded, there must have been some lives taken, 
but the number was probably esmgarratedr 

Nor can the numbers ucfindly rn^ac;ed be well asernained. The British 
returns of issues, taken in the bug^a^ give nine hundred reruns? and lorage 
for two hundred and tiitv horse.-. fc^iiimuhia: l1n v cavatrv at one iiandred and 
lift v. there coukt not have been ItfSM tiian five or six hundred iuihinrvi 

Smnprer averts, that s * their billtnU'v alone was superior to his whole 
force,"* and li that he attacked diem iviih half' their number." lie rtbls a& it 
may, it is no reproach to the Brhish rotmuundtT, thai he iviire-d intn his cita- 
del ; for, with tlic cavahy watching bis mudous T and fee direr- piirtits of in- 
fant ry alternately returning and advancing, he wmdd probably have shared 
the fate of Ferguson, had he kepi the field* The event vindicates his pru- 
dence and fErnuit^s, 

Notwithstanding the defection of his militia am! the rcdrcrnnu of die 
legion, Sumpter had still a &ul faciei it n amber of troops to have held tin: enemy 



* Sumpter** lellCM, l^Sjty 2 2d and £ jih July, f Summer's letter, $$&* July. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. i75 

in & atate of investment, whilst be tried the effect of his artillery ; but, find- chap. 
ing that it brought with it no supply of ammunition, being but twenty miles 
from Charleston* and at a place accessible by tide-water, having heard that 
Lord R?uvdon had moved down in force fi'om Grangeburgb, being himself 
now fifteen msles be tow Monk's Corner, which is but sixteen from Goose- 
Creek Bridge, wfrre Lor J Raw don's force might ft I ready have arrived, there 
bfiu^ scrums ground fur apprehending dialler, General Sumpter resolved to 
retreat across the Santce, 

Thus, finally , this expedition, which promised so much, ended in disappoint- 
ment. There can be little doubt, tliat the British regiment was in the grasp of 
the American detachment, and ought to have fntEciii General Sum pier, It 
teems, apprehensive that it wm too strongly posted at Biggin Church to ad- 
mit of its being forced, or compelled to surrender in the time he had ai com- 
mand, manoeuvred with a view to induce it to retreat, and compel it to pursue 
the route to the west; in which case, it would have encountered Colonels Lee 
and Wade Hampton- In this, he says, » he was disappointed by the repre- 
sentations of the officer who was charged with the destruction of Watboo 
Bridge. It was reported to him to have been effectually destroyed, but the 
enemy succeeded In repairing it in time to escape by it." The retreat of the 
enemy on the east side of the river, could have been effectually cut off by 
either Lee or Hampton, or both, by crossing below at Strawberry Ferry and 
ascending on that side, so as either to possess and hold the passes a? Wathoa 
and Quinby, or destroy the bridges and pass on to form a junction with Samp- 
ler* The route won hi have been shorter and 'better than that which they had 
pursued. Why tins WM not done, can anly be cxplaiued by the supposition, 
that General Sumpter had no doubt nf his succeed lug in demolishing the 
bridge at Wathoo, by the party detached under Mayhem end Horry, And 
he would have succeeded ; I tad his main body approached near enough to give 
full support to the party detached for that purpose; or If the precaution had 
been taken of demolishing thatet Quinby, and destroying the ilats at Bon- 
neon's Ferry, which could certainly have been effected. 

There was another point of time when the enemy was equally exposed to 
the necessity of submitting. It was when he had taken post in die houses at 
Qui n by, and his retreat had become impracticable, If, Instead of wasting lhe 
ammunition and dispiriting the men, by an attack on the houses, which could 
scarcely be expected to succeed against an officer such as Cotea had proved 
himself, General Sumpter s troops had been drawn off to a convenient dis- 
tance, until the arrival of his artillery; or rather, If the artillery had noi been 
toil behind, the enemy must have capitulated, and there is no doubt would 



1.76 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, have capitulated, for the arrival of the artillery would have confirmed the 
^v,^^^ belief tliey entertained, (ami which was then known to Genera] ISiiiiiptcr} 
that the attacking party was only I he advance of the American army under 
General Greene. 

Finely, it Is not improbable that even at last, had Sum pter marched up with 
Ins artillery, so hoi is si on must have followed ; but, abandoned ftl he. was by Ilia 
troops and exposed to be cut off or opposed by re- enforcements, his retreat can- 
not be censured. General Greene, in his eom run me a dona, expresses his entire 
approbation of it; and instead of chiding or discontent, his letters ure full of the 
most consoling; and en c oiu\ig ins; observations, and expressive of nothing hut 
gratitude for the efforts made by ^umpter and Marion, and their detachments, 
Vet this expedition f bid it succeed rd, would have superceded the necessity of 
the battle of Ivutaw, the object of which Wt® to force (he enemy from the field : 
since the loss of the 19th regimem must have draiin the whole iiritish force 
down from Oran^cbnrajh. as die order had now been received to withdraw 
from Chariest on two of the regiments lately arrived, and hasten them ro New- 
York ; and the remaining British force would all have been necessary to hold 
the line of posts by Dorchester and Monk : s Comer, and even to holding Charles- 
ton itself perhaps in objection aud security. The end in view was an im- 
portant one. and die means provided appeared amply adequate. 

It was not that on this occasion Greene was not disappointed — that he ex- 
pressed no dissatisfnetion to the officers engaged in this expedition; but from 
habitual self-command, and that restraint which he ever imposed on himself, to 
do that only which was best for the service. In correspondence with utbers, 
he repeatedly says, " upon the whole the affeir was clever, but by no means 
equal to what it ought to have been. The whole regiment of six hundred men 
would have been captured if General Sumpter had not detailed too much, and 
Jmd not mistaken a covering party for an attack," 

Yet, although the principal object was not attained, some benefits resulted 
from this expedition ; the British interest was materially shaken- their party 
alarmed and humbled ; the spirit* of the whigs rinsed : and the fact ascertained 
to the world, that the country was not conquered. Nor was it without serious 
injury to the enemy in actual losses ; one hundred aud fifty prisoners were 
taken, and nine commissioned officers, besides an unascertained loss ai Quiuby. 
One officer and some privates had been killed ; stores to a large amount, as 
well in the church as in four schooners that were captured, were destroyed i 



Hrtdie to Henderson txiui Pkkf-sis, 2 2d July. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 177 

horses wagons, and stored, to a respectable amount, were captured and cm* en .\v. 
ried off. 

Anions the latter was a pi|®S not unworthy of notice, from its extreme rarity 
in the American army. This was the sum of seven hundred and twenty guineas 
in i he paymaster's chest, token with the Imggsgg fit Qninhy bridge. Sumpter, 
ihat evening, divided it among the soldiers, and so much hard money had per- 
haps never before been hi possession of this army at one time* Had the general 
been more politic than liberal, the detention, of it fur a day or two misfit have 
prevented the departure of some who left him, and who were the better able, 
and the more desirous to lrnve him, after the receipt of the flittering guinea 
winVh fell to the *hnre of eadi soldier, and it furnished the means of ik'termining 
pre i rv 11 c e u rately 1 3 \ e nu m ber o f 5 u m pt e r *s c o m m an d , Um\ m ueh mo re b < : nc - 
fie; ally to the service could this money have been employed, at this time, in 



ferret scnices ! 



But perhaps the greatest benefit that resulted from tills expedition, was the 
Coniidence with which it inspired the mi lit la m t hems chef. The party ae tu alli- 
en £H£ed in the attack on Colonel Cotes, were almost exclusively Suuth Carolina 
lniiida. mid the bravery they had displayed would have done honour to vete- 
ran tftKtyjft h WW demonstrated, that this species offeree wanted nothing but 
consistency to enable it to meet the enemy with offset, Their terror of the 11 ri- 
flsft bayonet and British discipline he^an to diminish, whilst the respect of the 
en^rny ftn* their undisciplined valour ro*o in proportion. 

General Sumpter retired across the -Santee; and .Mas ion into the heart of ins 
brigade, to undergo any of those military trans forma (Ions to whieh Jie, hi com- 
mon with the other state commanders, was constantly subjected. B\ a state 
law the iuurof militiasernee was two months Notwithsnmdmjnhc prosmuion 
of L-hil government, ilii* w&$ still ilic law under which ihe mllhia were called 
into sen lee : and as often as; the two months expired MiSlfelfl h\-\ in ret Ere, like 
animaJs that shed their horns or =hcii>. jmtll n^ahi rc-ei-tisU^hcd lu Uui uiLuiia 
of as tack or defence. 



VflL. U. 'J-j 



173 MAJOR GENERAL GREE!sX 



CHAP, 
XV. 



CHAPTER XV. 



Camp of Repose at the High Hllh o/Santee* State of the Army. Re-enforced 

from North Carolina, jllcasures to cover the Country. Exchange ofprUotters. 

Cohnrtl Hayne. Rumour* of Lord Comically* reireai through North Carolina. 

Measures to meet him. Aitempt to driu the enemy into Charleston. Baltic of 

The Euuncs. 



GREENE and his army had now been some days for the first time, breathing 
from the intense and continued efforts of this eventful campaign, Crossing the 
Watered ai Simons's Fern-, he had taken post on the east side of that river, in 
the salubrious and delightful region of the High Hills of San tee. 

His camp was on a plain, at that time known by the epithet of Jameses Old- 
field, late the hospitable residence of Colonel John Singleton. 

Here the army enjoyed rest and refreshment, only to prepare ir for another 
great effort to drive the enemy from the in ten or country. " As soon," says the 
general,* "as 1 shall form a junction with die Salisbury militia, and General 
Sumpter's brigade of regular troops, we will seek the sue my wherever we can 
find them, unless they take sanctuary within the gates of Charleston." And in 
a letter to the marquis, he says, « I have already directed Sninpter to join me ; 
with which re- enforcement, aided by the militia, ] mean to struggle with the 



* Inters to severnl) 14th July 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENX 17!> 

enemy until J can hear further from you respecting their future designs hj your %KAS; 
quarter, 3 * 

The baggage of the southern army had been previously forwarded to the 
Iliidi Hills of Sanrcc. When the army moved from Whmsborouah, every thins 
that could encumber Its movements, including the siek and wounded, had been 
ordered away to Simons's Ferry; and some apptt^ hen sion being entertained of 
a blow meditated against it from Ninety- Six, it was ordered to cross the river 
to Statcsburgh, and very minute instructions given for the defence and preserva- 
tion of it* The detachment which accompanied It as a guard, was composed of 
a body of Virginia militia, who had accompanied The ftttillery from Prince Ed- 
ward Court-House* and some new levies from North Carolina* The following 
extraria of letters from Major Armstrong, of North Caroling to whose command 
im\ service was committed, present a curious view of the necessity which the 
American general was under of retiring to diis camp of repose-, riot less for re- 
Covering his sick troops > than for disciplining and re- en forcing those who are 
well. 

(" July 7.) The command you have placed me m t is the most disagreeable I 
have ever had since It* service* The continentals are two thirds sick; it requires 
the rest to take care of the baggage. The Virginia militia arc sick, or at best 
iu such order that it is out of my power to command them to duty ; they arc 
determined to go home, iusisiingthaT their time is out ; the officers say it is out 
of their power to stop them, for they vwll go off in the nighty &c + 

" I have examined die returns of provisions, and find that rations are drawn 
for upwards of one hundred and fifty men, and but one hundred fit for duty." 

M (July 10.) Since my last* upwards of forty of the Virginia militia de- 
serted. 

"Our men are getting siek very fast, 1 am distressed to know what to do. 
I am sure, if the whole army had been picked, you could not have got a 
more disorderly rrew. Plundering and stealing arc in full perfusion, and 
done in such a manner, that we cannot come ro the knowledge of it. 

'* I cannot dcprnrl upon Colonel Lacv'S men to guard the prisoners, for 
they will not be eonfined to camp. The militia will cverv man desert , and I 
shall not have suffinfur men to snard die prisoner* nnd ihs camp/' 

h (July V2.) I am just now informed, that rifieui of them deserted two of 
their posts at the provost-guard." 

Some measures attempted hy General Greene, whilst in this camp of re- 
pose, drew upon him the imputation of under-rating the services of the 
militia. An imputation wliirh found its way to congress, and furnished Ins 
old enemies with a new charge not a little affecting his popularity. JMuch as 



[-0 MAJOK GENERAL GHKENE. 

cj-i-vf. he had been tormented, ami seriously us he had been wounded, in socin« his 
fairest prospects blasted, and his most promising measures MM, by de- 
pending upon t!us fluctuating kind of force, lie must have indeed been more 
than human, not to have ftJt the deepest m on i Head on at the necessity hitherto 
imposed upon liim, of trusting, not hi* awn reputation, (for ifclJ hemi^ht have 
tolerated) Mt K( ted success in rescuing the country from the enemy, to a 
force not calndatcd to carry into effect, measures, on an extended scale, or 
operations that required time. IVith 9 force em honied but for six weeks or 
two months, and consuming hah' of it in marching to and fro, what com- 
mander could mist the safety of his army, and nf the country, in entering 
upon combined operations, which many mom lis might be necessary to bring 
to maturity t especial I}-, when the whole, as in a recent instance, was liable to 
be withdrawn from him, at (he most cviticfd period, by a state governor, even 
without consulting his wishes or his views, or giving reasonable notice of his 
intentions? 

There never was a time, when an army* on a permanent footing, was 
more indispensable to the views of the southern commander, than the present. 
Corn wall is was now descending towards Norfolk— the siege of New York 
supposed to be contemplated by the commander in . chief— all the disposable 
force of the enemy ordered to that place — and a h Yen eh lleer (tally expected on 
the southern coast. Under these circumstances, could he but drive (he 
enemy into Charleston, and leave 111 in under control of a force that could lie 
depended on for a few months, there was the must flattering prospect of 
securing Lord Cornwall Is himself, whilst the attention of Clinton was ab- 
sorbed In the defence of the head-quarters of LJri u'sli power, 

The state of North Carolina was, at this time, straining every nerve in 
the common cause. It is at that point of time thai the eye of candour oi^lit 
to consider the conduct of this slate, in judging of its merits during the revo- 
lutionary war. The wing interest was, at no previous time, at liberty to 
exhibit its elasticity. Repressed by ihe numerous popu Union of loyalists, its 
limbs were fettered : and Us councils distracted, But, when the British army 
was seen to cower and fly beJbre the American, the feeble and undecided no 
louder wavered ; and those whose voluntary hostility to the American cause 
had been made manifest, sought protection in the garrison at Wilmington, 
followed the British army, or ilrd the country* 

A legislature was then convened, not tinctured with loyalty — a governor of 
tried vigour elected — and the hading whigs, for the first time, asserted an 
undivided control over the councils of the country. 



iUAJOR GENERAL GREENE. J SI 

From this time, there was nothing refused that the general solicited j and chap. 
conld die spirit of the legislature, and of Governor Burke, have been infused 
into their colonels of counties, the southern army would never have wanted 
for regular^ militia, horses equipments, magazines, or any thing else that tUc 
country ailbrdcd. 

There is, and perhaps ought to be, a clannish spirit in the states of the 
union, which will ever dispose the writers they produce, to blazon with pecu- 
liar zeal, the virtues and talents of the eminent men of their respective states, 
It is a tendency so natural to man, that religion, the retirement of the cloister, 
and the bare- looted friar who lias renounced the world, acknowledge its 
influence in exaggc rated eulogies on a patron stunt or a beatified brother. 
And it will probably happen, that in future tunes, the states that have pro- 
duced the ablest writers, wiH enjoy die reputation of having prod u mi the 
ablest statesmen, generals and orators. But, if ever the characters of men 
shall be tried by the standard of evidence, rather than the elegance of a wri- 
ters style, and rhe confidence of his assertions, the conduct and correspon- 
dence of Governor Burke of North Carol in a, will entitle him to a respectable 
standing among the illustrious men of his time; nor will the country refuse to 
his predecessor , governor Nash, a full share of its esteem and gratitude. 

It was under the administration of the latter, that the law was passed which 
enacted, that u those persons who have been lawfully drafted, and have ne- 
glected ov refused to march, and go into actual service on due notice, or iind 
a substitute as therein is directed, shall be held mid deemed a continental 
soldier lor twelve months; and that those persons uho have deserted their 
colours, when in actual service, shall be held and deemed a continental soldier 
during the wuiv ? 

Very soon after ihe buttle of Guilford, Governor Nash entered upon the 
serious execution of this law. against these of die. .\orth Carolina militia, who 
had lied on thoukv i\ ithont again n John tig their regiments; and many others 
who had incurred its penalties Many emigrated or absconded, to avoid Its 
operation ; but> the law was submitted to, by a greater number than could 
have been reason id jly expected. 

But; the state did not depend chiefly upon this resource for reinstating her 
rjuota* A draft was ordered, the <jnota of the counties assigned, and the 
militia charged with its execution. lint, law anil order had too lonjr been 
depressed, to i-c^lijul- i»r onee their el as deity* And it required all the zeal 
ami in Hue uce of the Generals Su inner j Caswell, 1'olk, Parsons and others, to 
give speed to the movements nf those, on whom the duty immediately devolved 
to collect and embody the dra tts. The measure, spread over too extensive a 



\?>:± MAJOtt GENERAL GREENE. 

nHAP. space to admit of rapid execution. At length, however, the recruit?! tonga n to 
^j^^t^, collect j and could have hern inarched in rime to rc-enforce the soni'iern army, 
even at Nmeiv-^ix :; ta tfe staEe had, oo arms, and u^ mnans of purchasing 
them. Mesisninprs wore dispoched in all dirccn'oiis to beg or to borrow, but 
iu vmn. Virginia hud none to spare, ami La Fayette could only promise, 
that North Carolina should have the arms, then under repair, as soon as they 
coiiKl be pul hi order. Some had been rcrcmly dispatched by Steuben to the 
Mmthcni army, and some wa^on loads were then on their way from the 
UO] "th, with the same d^riuaiinn : and These, it was suggested, might be 
topped and made use of. We have seen what became of those ar the labora- 
tory, aial those on their way from the north. The supply of about three hun- 
dred stand, previously dispute hed by Steuben, was all that reached Hills- 
borough ; and for some time the troops could neither be marched nor discip- 
lined jW want of arms. Two deiachmoms, amounting together to four 
hundred mid twenty men, tl has been seen, had ah^ady joined the southern 
uniiVj und Greene lmd now fallen hack to receive five hundred men ill en 
assembled at Hillsborough, and expected to march immediately under General 

Sumner, 

Some very handsome measures had recently been adopted in North Caro- 
lina, both lor remounting the cavalry of the nrmy, and for supporting it by a 
regular supply of millria ; and for marching immediately to its support, liftcen 
hundred militia from the districts of Salisbury and 1 ill thorough. 

When General Greene had ascertained, by the most mortifying experience, 
that he must no more rely upon draw ins; eiiher horses or men from Virginia, 
he dispatched Colonel Malmcdy from Ninety -Six, to wait upon the legislature 
of North Carolina, then In session, mid press upon their attention, the necessity 
he was under, of looking to them for support in his present circumstanced 
The application was promptly met, and two hundred horses, a monthly draft 
of militia, to keep constantly In the field the number of two thousand, mid 
an immediate draft for fifteen hundred, to he marched fori h with to the army, 
and to serve three mouths after reaching its destination, were voted without 
hesitation. This detachment of militia, from counties high in reputation for 
brave re, was another object with the sonthcrn commander, for falling back to 
h i s presen t encamp m en t . 

Jt is but justice to the state of Virginia here to mention, that it was not long 
before she repented of die evil she had done in withholding her support from 
die southern army- And although she could not remedy the injuries sustained 
by it, both at Camden and Ninety-Sis, unsolicited, she proffered a draft of two 
Thousand militia and tliree hundred cavalry horses. General Nelson Imd now 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 183 

sac ceeded to the office of governor, and one of the first arts of his administra- chaf. 
tiuii was to communicate xliis vote of the stale !o General Greene, accompanied 
by iht most cordial proffer of Jiis own support* But as the right of coalman cl- 
ing ihc militia after being detached on continental service, had been asserted 
uii-i fat Lilly exercised by that state, although the offer of the horses was accented 
with avidity, the militia vuis not called out, but instead of it the most earnest 
entreaties pressed upon the governor to draw the attention of the state to the 
necessity of replenishing her regiments, now very thin, and I heir eighteen 
months term of service fast approaching its termination. " 1 hope," he observes 
*• every excriton ivill be made to fill up ihe line before the men get their dis- 
charge; and lhat ynur excellency will make every end favour to enforce ihe 
necessity on the minds of the legislature. \our own experience, no doubt, 
leaches you the great impolicy of depending too much or) militia. Regulars 
alone can insure your safety. JMen will not yield to the hardships of a tamp* 
nor submit to the severity of discipline, without a certain line of duty prescribed 
as something professional ; and, by the force of discipline only, are they made to 
encou nter dangers and hardships as the most honourable attendants of a soldiers 
life* 1 would by nil means recommend drafting for three or four years at least. 
Short en 1 1st me n t * a re d angcrous, a n d ca n gi ve no per n i a nen t sec 1 1 rity ♦ 13 efor c you 
can finish a character for Che duties of die field , twelve months experience and 
severe service are absolutely necessary. Eighteen months men arc but little 
better Lban raw undictplined militia. Ltcforeyou can reap any mate rhi I ad van- 
tage from them, their times of enlistment will expire, and they will leave vou 
perhaps at a moment when fcvpfy thing is at stake - and at a time too, when the 
country looks up to the army for safety and protection ; and too frequent calls 
on the militia servo to we Liken the ] lowers of Industry, destroy the means of 
agriculture. and break up the resource* of your country. 5 * 

As far as it was indispensable dial he should depend upon a militia fore?:, it 
was the intention of the com-nander of the southern army, to nutkc use of the 
militia of the three most southern states, and of volunteers from the mountains ; 
and it is remarkable, thai in making out csrimntcs for supplies, he instructs his 
officers to make a double charge where militia are to be tiscd, assigning as his 
reason, that (< alter doing all you can. they will waste twice as much as regular 
troops. ;J 

Yet never was nrcii- L \ition more unjustly raised, than that he undervalued ihis 
species of force. Jle often speaks in ihe Mron^rM levins of their valour and 
patriotism j and only regrets the sacrifice of such men to the exposures and 
hardships of a camp: and his earnestness in preying upon ihc states to raise 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

atu\ their treops by drafts, can only he attributed to Us efficiency informing an army, 
from the excclL^iK^c of the mat trials furnished by the militia. 

Tli is mm hod lie now endeavoured to a v till himself of* to re-establish the 
South Carolina line. 

To Pickens, whole brigade furnished the mort abundant materials, he par- 
ticulEirly addressed himself: statiug the indispensable necessity of furnishing a 
permanent force, for at least tweh c months, in that mode* for the defence of 
the country 5 warning tlirm against resting in security became the enemy had 
withdrawn for the present, and at any rate, in treating if the country would 
not Submit to be drafted in the absence of civil power, that they would consent 
to engage to remain in the field at least four months when called into the ser- 
vice. Wc regret that we have to acknowledge Ins requests were not complied 
with. N"t tor want of zeal in their commanders, but either from the neces- 
sities of the people, or their want of inclination. 

The distresses of the people atthar time, in that quarter, it must be acknow- 
ledged, were verv fire at. In those parts of the country which the enemy hud 
laid waste, they were so great that the southern commander took upon himself 
to order Pickens to take from those who had a plenty, their superfluous grain, 
and distribute it among the neressitious. at a reasonable price, and on a conve- 
nient credit. This salutary measure brought plenty to the door of many a 
suffering family. 

Nor eon Id any one In that fen u n try yet venture, with any confidence, from his 
home* The Indians, as usual, had again been led to mrark their remote settle- 
ments, and the danger was as^ravated by the support of the whites residing 
nmon§ them; and the ravages of <he parties of plunderers who prowled over the 
country, were too alarming to admit of the voluntary adoption oi'any measure 
that would remove them from their families. 

The present respite was favourable to the extirpation of this evil : and i'jckrns 
solicited a ud obtained immediate permission, once more to make an inroad into 
the settlements uf these tf eluded people. This was the season when Mich an 
attack was calculated to produce the most decisive effect. Their corn was ad- 
vaueod to maturity, and whilst it ninnshed subsistence to their invaders, the de- 
struction of it brought with it famine, or sid>niis>Ion, or i-Himiienr 10 remote 
hunting grounds tor their own subsistence. The ehasdsemem inns inflicted h 
severe, but U is hit I ispc usable against an enemy diat so easily evades pursuit. 

The movement of Pickens in that quarter, combined with the spirited iitceI" 
sures of Arthur, Campbdl, Shelby, Scviere, and some ntjjcr distinguished 
leaders on the northern frontier, at length brought these unhappy people Lo a 
sense of their weakness, and enabled the commissioners appointed by Circciic, 



MA J OK GENERAL GREENE. Wh 

iu the spring or rhe yeaiv after living been repeat wily baffled, finally to con- chap. 
elude n treaty of genertd pacification, or rather of cessation of husti Sides,* 

Thus libflratcri from the dang"r which threatened dieir fire-sides, thusa offi- 
cers signified their readiness to in tire h to the aid of the southern army, and 
Greene appointed Shelby to meet film near Fort Gran by, in the latter end of 
August, This was another piirt of the force which he was endeavouring t$ 
concentrate for his future opsratbns. 

Not a moment of the time spout in the camp of repose at the Hills was 
spent in idleness. The com oat ants had retired to breathe, bin it was to pre- 
pare for another despmite nusct- Xm$ hour was devoted to some employ- 
ment having that purpose for its object To refresh his troops, restore the 
sick, discipline thL i unexperienced, invigorate the spirits of the whole* were 
the employments which filled up the limits of the camp. Beyond those 
limit?, the commander had other cares of a more general nature, and equally 
indispensable. To invite the states — to direct their measures — -to collect sup- 
pfi^. — to establish magazines — to reinstate his lines of transportation, His 
armorie* and depots — all required immediate attention. Judicious officers, 
dispatched ill all directions, had these objects especially committed to their 
charge. But* the grand objects of all were the passing events at Portsmouth 
and at Charleston, on the contingencies of which his future measures must 
depend. Lord Cornwollis in *he former, aud Lord 11 aw don in the latter 
place, were the two adversaries with whom he had to cope. He had wrestled 
with both, and respected their skill and vigour. 

Nor could his attention be withdrawn from occurrences passing imme- 
diately around turn* That spirit of plundering which lie abhorred, that 
blood-stained vindictive uc&s which the brave instinctively detest, the fruits of 
that misrule which had long lorded it over thb country, claimed the first 
efforts of his authority* 

"When Sumpter had ret reaied across the Santee, orders had been transmitted 
to him to ascend the Congaree and take post near rVidig'S Ferry, lcavin* 
Marion to take charge of the country on the San tee. The cares of his 
brigade having called Sumpter into the upper parts of the state, the command 
of his force in the field was committed to Colond Wade Hampton. The fol- 
lowing extract of a letter from that officer, will present one among many 
pictures that could be drawn of the licentiousness of man, when his passions 
have burst the bonds of eivil rule : 



* Art. CEunpbd] 1 ? Iclter, 
VOJL, It. g$ 



186 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



sv. 



"The situation in which [ found tins neighbourhood, the day after I had the 
honour of seeing you, is truly to be lamented. Almost every person who re- 
mained hi Hits settlement after the army marched? seems to have been com- 
bined in committing robberies the most base and inhuman ihat ever disgraced 
mankind. 

$ Colonel Tavlor, who had arrived here a fetv days before me, had appre- 
hended a few of the mo3t notorious of those offenders, whtl?i the most timid of 
those w]io remained were busily employed in collecting and carrying into North 
Carolina and Virginia, the very- considerable booty they had so unjustly ac- 
quired. The more daring, but equally guilty part of this banditti, seemed to 
threaten immediate destruction (by murdei- r &t\J to tho.^e who might presume 
m call tin? ro nd net of them or their accomplices itito question* Masters be- 
coming thus serious, made it necessary that something decisive should lake 
place immediately* 

" With a few of the state troops* and those of the militia who had spirit or 
inclination <o engage in it, we have secured all of those wretches that can he 
found, but we mid a number of them, on finding matters were likely to termi- 
nate against them, have taken their flight towards the northward/' &$, 

The answer lo this letter orders all this gang of plunderers to be forwarded 
to head garters, to be tried for their lives and a body of mounted men to be 
iinmcdhuely dispatched after the fugitives, thai they may undergo the same 
fate. And timl martial law had been executed on ihcm, and on all others simi- 
larly offending, from this time, is most certain; bad not the arrival of Governor 
Uudedgc, and the rc-cstabhshmem of the civil power, required that they should 
lie handed over to be tried by a more regular tribunal. 

The return of this gentleman into the state, was hailed by the ho nt hern com- 
jnanderas an event replete with beneficial consequences. Compelled as he had 
been for some months to exercise a military dcspoiism over the state, he now 
saw a prospect of being relieved in his arduous duties by a man of known 
talent, eloihed with dictatorial powers. Doubts had been raised about this time, 
of the legality of the lowers exercised by military authority, and much discon- 
tent introduced, among the fcw state troops embodied under the different officers 
created by Greene, lest his engagements should not be ratified by state autho- 
rity. His only hope also, of raising a permanent force by draft, enlistment, or 
otherwise depended upon the aid of the civil arm ; and if the country 
retained any resources for supporting the war, no other means than civil govern- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. If 

ment could be resorted to for drawing them forth: for there was si ill not a chap 
dollar m the military chest ; 

Another evil also, at this rime universally prevalent, ga^e blm infinite 
trouble, and he believed It entirely out of his power (o suppress it. This 
was the dreadful animosity between whig and tory* General Greene never 
felt any animosity against those who had taken part against the revolution 
■upon principle, and had prosecuted open and honourable war. On a!) 
occasions his efforts were directed towards reclaiming them by mild mea- 
sures, and converting thcrn from foes into friends* Tn this he had been sadly 
opposed by tlie spirit of the times ; and the want of civil tribunals for prosecuting 
such person s, had long been die pretest for inflicting private revenge and the 
most bare-faced robbery* In a letter to General Pickens, of the 30th July, he 
says, ■* I am exceedingly distressed that the practice of plunder still continus to 
rage. Colonel Beard says it is eserciscd to such a degree, that the poor in- 
habitants tremble the moment a party of men appear in sight. If no check can 
be given to this fata) practice, I am persuaded the inhabitants will think their 
miseries rather increased than diminished. I beg you to take every possible 
step in your power to bring offenders to ju slice ; and let those who are capitally 
concerned be sent prisoners to the camp for irial \ for J am determined to subject 
them to martial law if there is no other mode by which tlie evil may be reme- 
died, it is, most certainly, our interest to encourage dm return of the tones ■ 
and 1 wish you to give them all the encouragement in your power, and afford 
them all the protection you can. 1 * 

This inveterate practice of plundering was, in ftct, at this time not only 
disgracing and desolatiug the country, but seriously prejudicing the service; for. 
universally, the plunderer would sieal away from his party if possible, to carry 
off or secure his booty. So that tlie officer (and it is too Que that there were 
such) who did not imperatively restrain his men from plunder, soon found him- 
self deserted and alone. 

The attention of Governor Rutledge was therefor^ immediately called to 
this subject; and the first act of his resumed authority, was a proclamation, 
dated the 5th of August, calculated to put an end to these disorders, by In- 
voking the whole vengeance of the community upon those who had been 
guilty of them. 

Still, the aspect of the war continued, at this time, of the darkest bues. 
The spirit of retaliation had gone abroad ; injuries of the most irritating 
nature were received and inJIkied j and had the commanding general given 
way to the temper and feelings that were excited, carnage and desolation must 
have covered the country. 



188 MAJOR GENERAL UlttiENE. 

CH\? r It is certainly true, that whenever the enemy in tbe revolutionary war, found 
himself com pelted to relinquish his conquests, he exhibited too much of a 
peevish vindictive ncss. 

Among the prisoners who were discharged from confinement, under the 
arrangements of the commissary of prisoners at this time, were those who 
bad surrendered on L"ipmilatioii at the lull of Charleston ; including those 
who had been transported to the fortress of Sl Augustine. By the articles of 
capitulation, these prisoners, most of whom were men of large families, and 
considerable property, were to enjoy that property unmolested, as long as 
rhey demeaned themseh cs peaceably. Notwithstanding many vexations from 
billets and restrictions^ this article had not been wholly violated by the enemy, 
and the families of the prisoners enjoyed die produce of their estates, It was 
some consolation to the prisoners, when shipped from St. Augustine to Phila- 
delphia, to reflect, that whatever privation* and hardships the y might them- 
selves be exposed to, their families had a prospect of enjoying comparative 
plenty, 

But, what was the astonishment of all, when the exchange was immediately 
followed up by a proclamation, ordering all these families to depart from 
the state hi a specified lime. Nor was the favour granted without patronage 
and solicitation, to be permitted to take with them a few sen-ants, or to sacri- 
fice ihelr household property, to raise the money to pay their own passages 
in cartels provided for them. 

Governor Rutlede^c viewed this act with great indignation ; and Jn retaliation 
wns led to the adoption of a measure which certainly cannot, be deieuded on 
the score of policy ov humanity. lie ordered all the families of the loyalists, 
many of whom remained on iheir plantations,* to repair immediately to 
Charleston. Many obeyed the mandate, and served to swell the n urn her, 
and increase the miseries of the inhabitants of Rawdon-towm 

Retaliation, when it falls upon women and children, is at all times, indefen- 
sible ; and besides thaLit should never be resorted to hut in the J a st extremity, 
iu this case its impolicy was obvious, as the residence of their families, hi the 
country occupied by the v. higs, offered a security for the regular conduct of 
the loyalists, and probably for rheir deserting the cause they had espoused. 

Such measures , when once begun, seldom terminate without some repeti- 
tions* It is a struggle in which pride soon takes pan with the leading motive, 
or perhaps supercedes it* 



* £«> Proclamation} ^"Ttii S&jcMftiufc^r. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEKS 189 

It was whilst the army lay in the camp of repose at the Hills, that the execu- chap. 
rfon of Colonel Huyuc took place — a n event which spread Cimmerian darkness 
over the face of lEie army. The feeling it excited, was too deep for utterance ; 
the knotted brow and com pressed lip* were its appropriate expressions. 

It is the remark of one of the general's family, who had often observed him 
closely under every vicissitude of fortune, that this was the only occasion In 
which he ever saw him give way to feeling. The expression was loud and 
solemn with which he vowed retaliation. And poor Pyies, who, after being 
dreadfully mangled in the affair near the Haw River, had miraculously re- 
covered of his wounds, and was, at this time, a prisoner on parole, had well 
nigh felt the weight of the general's wrath* Order? were issued, but soon 
recalled* to put him into close confinement; as the only officer, then a prisoner! 
whose commission, rank and standing made him a fit offering to the manes of 
Haync. 

But, it was only the shadow of the passing cloud orer the mind of Greene ; 
and the following extract of n letter to Marion, written on the day he received 
the intelligence, shows that, instead of indulging his own resentment, his first 
effort was, to restrain that of others and give it a wise direction. 

Marion had, not long before, sustained some injuries from the enemy, for which 
he had vowed retaliation. Greene knew his decisive cast of character; and was, 
not without some reason, apprehensive that he would be prompt, as he was fear- 
less, in a case of this kind. Hence he writes — M You will see by Colonel Harden's 
letter j that the enemy have hung Colonel Hayne, Do not take any measures 
in the matter towards retaliation, for I do not intend to retaliate ujxsn the tory 
officers, but the British. It is my intention to demand the reasons of the 
colonel % being put to death ; and if they are unsatisfactory, as I am sure they 
will be, and if they refuse to make satisfaction, as I expect they will, to pub- 
lish my intention of giving no quarter to British officers, of any rank, that fall 
into our hands. Should we attempt to retaliate upon their militia officers, I 
am sure they would persevere in the measure, in order to increase the 
.animosity between the whigs and tories, that they might stand Idle spectators 
and sec them butcher each other. As i do not wish my intentions known to 
the enemy but through an official channel, and as tftis w$t be delayed for some 
few days % to give our friends in Si* Augustine time to get offl I wish yon not 
to meution the matter to any mortal out m your family ? % 

Promptly as General Greene's resolution to retaliate was adopted, it was 
for the reason assigned to Marion* eomuiunicated to no one bui the lattcF 
until the 26lh — three weeks after the execution of Colonel Hayne took place, 



g 



s 



ISO MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

chap. On tlifit clyVi he iv rites to General Washington — u Since 1 wrotR your excel- 
lency by ttilrftfftl Morris, nothing very material has taken place, except the 
hanging of Colonel I Sayae* one of our militia colonels, it hum the enemy hun 
in Charleston a liuliMimc since, $& a traitor, as they call him. He was a 
man of a. moM a tillable character, highly respected, and of most extensive 
influence. Thi.s insult offered to the good people of this country, and to the 
business of exrhrtn^Cn it being a most flagrant breach of the cartel, 1 am deter- 
mined to retaliate ; and as the enemy are indifferent about their militia officers, 
I m?un to retaliate oti the British officers, a* the surest way of putting a stop 
1o a practice that can only serve to gratify private revenge." 

The date of this letter was that of the receipt of positive information, that 
the prisoners from St. Augustine had arrived in the Delaware ; a considerate 
precaution in their behalf, which entitles Genera! Greene to their lastiu 
™raumde, mid gives an honourable explanation of mat want of promptness 
with which he would otherwise seem chargeable, in not earlier noticing this 
unhappv affair. 

Simultaneously with the writing of this letter appeared his pro dam at ion, 

declaring ; 

il Whereas Colons I Isaac Havue, commanding a regiment of militia in the 
service of the United States, was taken prisoner by a party of British troops, 
and after a rigorous detention in the provost prison at Charleston was con- 
demned and executed on the Mh of this month, in the most cruel and unjus- 
tifiable manner, in open violation of ihu cartel agreed upon between the two 
armies for llie release and exchange of all prisoners of war j and it being no 
less the dtttv than the inr filiation of the army, to resent every violence offered 
to the good citizens of America, to discountenance all those distinctions they 
have endeavoured to establish, in making a difference between the various 
orders of men found under arms for the support of the independence of the 
United States ; and further considering, that these violences are com mil led 
with a view of lerrilyiug the ^oml people, and by that means preventing thrm 
from acting in conformity with thctr political interest and private inclinations; 
and that this method of Irving and punishing iti consequence of those disiine- 
Uons, is no leas opposite to the spirit of the RriiMi, thin it is inclusive of an 
unwarrantable infringement of ah the laws of humanity, and the rights of the 
free citizens of the United States. 

i( From these considerations 1 have thought proper to issue the present pro- 
clamation, expressly to declare that it is my intention to mtikv repfixttfcjhr nil such 
mhittttftitr iti sit Us as qflni us they tafcr, plarc. And whereas, the enemy seem 
willing to expose the small number of the deceived and seduced inhabitants, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. I9r 

who are attached to 1h$t imcrests, if fcf can btit find an opportunity of sacri- chap. 
fic'rn^thc great niinjiji -i 'Vjfitfo have acood forth in the defence ot our cause, I lur- 
ther de-fare, Aid ft is fef$ M$B£wn fe E&fal $8 §$!#&$ 0/ $* ^#?bv$W1fl¥ff t BBtff 
■Htf? /&e i;\hahititnis WkQ ft'itt* johutd their army for the objects of my nprisah. lint 
\vt\\U T am determined to recent every insult that may be offered to the United 
States, for having maintained fciir independence, I cannot but lament the ncces- 
$hv I am iimW of liiiviiiLi rircciTMSe to measure so extremely wounding to the 
scii^nenH of humanity, and so contrary tt> tlie liberal principles on which I wish 
to Rfflft H net e 1 ic wet v. ( ! i vr n 1 1 i " ice, 

Letters were address Jjl on the same day to Lord Cornwallis and Lieutenant 
Co!<mH Efttfiwti&jOil the subject of Colouel Hayue'jj Execution. Lord Rawdon 
hud at ihh time sailed for New- York. The letter to Lord Coruwallis Si dignified 
and respectful, cxprc^ive of a deep sense of in jury, but -withholding all reproach 
Until his answer should declare how far he ttas im plicated. Si 1 flatter m^cl^ 
says the writer, " your lordship is too well acquainted with che feelings of hu- 
man nature, from the history of mankind, to suppose that any national ad van - 
ta^ can result from those cruel distinctions which can only serve to increase die 
miseries of individuals nor can I suppose your lordship can have a single doubts 
that a people who have gone thus far in support of their liberties, will hesitates 
moment to retaliate for every violence offered to their adherents. 1 ' 

To Colonel Balfour, the writer obviously assumes a very di lie rent style; he 
is addressing himself to one who has forfeited his respect — -who had by his pre- 
vious conduct forfrjlfd it; and who, could he have been taken, would most 
certa'mlv have expiated his crime upon the gallows. 

" I wrote to you the 2d lust, rejecting a mi in bur of prisoners, detained con- 
trary to the express conditions of the larc cartel settled for the exchange of pri- 
soner? in the southern department. Since J wrote you I am informed of a more 
flagrant violation than the former, in the cruel and unjust execution of Colonel 
Ilavnc ; for which I mean immediatclv to retaliate, unless von can ■ ffer some- 
tiling more to JLi-seily the measure than I am informed of, or is mentioned in the 
Chariest on paper. 

£E For the honour of humanity, from an abhorrence of every thing that bears 
the marks of cruelty, and with a desire to give every man an opportunity to act 
a^reeabJvto his principles and me I in it lions, it was mv wish to have all consid- 
ered as prisoners of war who should be found in arms and made captives on 
cither side ; and i am fully persuaded that it was no less consonant to 
Lord Corn wall is' intentions, that they should be exchanged as such, than it was 
correspondent with my own wishes,"' kc- "All other exchanges will be dis- 



iy> MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

C]I v P continued in future, until the present obstacles, which interrupt its operations, 
are fully removed." fcc. 

13 ut those appeals ro the world, and to the actors in this dreadful tragedy j had 
IjeCp anticipated by a noble act of self-devotion iu the officers of the southern 
annw Without a knowledge of the resolution adopted by their gen end, and 
while universal surprise at his suppled hesitation prevailed because the mo- 
tive whs prudently withheld, they met toother on the20th 7 and addressing him 
in a memorial equally distinguished for feeling and fn unless, solicited him to 
retaliate, pro losing their consciousness of the danger to which it exjxiscd them- 
selves, and their readiness to encounter it. The original, with their respective 
signatures, is before us. in the handwriting of Colond Williams, After intro- 
ducing Ami subject by observing — & That they are informed not only by currem. 
report, but bv official and acknowledged authorities, that, contrary to express 
stipulations in the capitulation of Charleston, signed the \2ih May, 1780, a 
numhrr of very respectable inhabitant;* of Charleston and others, were confined 
on board prison -ships, and srnt to St. Augustine, and other pJaces } distant from 
their homes, families, and friends ; that, notwithstanding the general cartel 
settled for the exchange of prisoners in the southern department, and agreed 
to the 3 J day of May last, several officers of militia, and other gentle men, 
subjects of the United States, have been and still are detained in captivity. 
That the commanding officer of the Uritish forces in Charleston, regardless 
of the principles, and even the express terms of the said cartel, hath not only 
presumed to discriminate between the militia and other subjects of the United 
States, prisoners of war, pari hilly determining who were, and who were not 
objects of exchange, hnt hath even dared to execute, in the most ignominious 
manner, Colonel llayne of the militia of the state of South Carolina, a gen- 
tleman amiable in his character* respectable iu his connexions, and of eminent 
abilities, &;c* We, therefore, with submission, beg leave to recommend, that 
strict inquiry be made into the several matters mentioned, and if ascertained* 
mat you will be pleased to retaliate In the most effectual manner, by a simitar 
treatment of British subjects, which arc or shall be in your power. Permit 
u s," it continues, u to add, that while we seriously lament the necessity of 
such a severe expedient, and commiserate the sufferings to which individuals 
will necessarily be exposed, we are not unmindful, that such a measure may, 
in its consequences j involve our own lives in additional dangers, but, we had 
rath fir forego temporary distinctions, and commit ourselves to the most des- 
perate situations, than prosecute this just and necessary war upon terms so 
dishonourable," 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 19. 

At the haad of this list of self-de voted soldiers, is the name of hattc Hu- cjup. 

XV 

ger ; JFilliam Wmhin^lon^ signing for himself and his officers, brought up the 
rear. The only known name of the army not upon it, is Colonel Lee ; and in 
justice to his reputation, it is proper to remark, that he had, for some days 
previous, been detached to the banks of the Congaim 

It would seem, that Lieutenant Colonel Balfour was induced, finally, to 
consider this affair in a very serious view. Captain Barry, hie secretary ] was 
dispatched as a special messenger to General Greene, invested, as he expresses 
himself, " with full powers to negotiate and settle the points stated in your 
letter of the 26th ultimo, to Colon el Balfour. Let me flatter myself with 
being in pan the means of happily, for all sides, terminating differences which, 
I would trust, need only a r- and id explanation to be mutually agreed upoiv*&;c« 

But , rhe captam's explanatory mission was arrested at the Eutaws, where 
be was taken in arms> before he could reach the head-quarters of the Ame- 
rican commander. Balfour had written an answer to the letter of the 26th, 
in which he vindicates his conduct, and criminates that of the Americans, by 
charges which gave no little umbrage to the American com man der, 

It is a very remarkable fact, that he avows the execution of Hayue to liave 
been the act of Lord Raw don and himself, without the intervention of any 
court, civil or military, under orders especially given by Lord Cornwallis. 
Can it he possible, that in his tender mercies, the king of Great Britain could 
have vested his military commanders with the absolute disposal of rhe lives oC 
his subjects ? This would be asserting a despotism in the crown s as well as 
in the parliamtni. Yet, such power was certainly exercised by Lord Corn- 
wallis in Camden, by Colonel Browne in Augusta, by Colonel Wemys in the 
case of Cusack, by Major Tarieton in the case of Johnson; and in rindi ca- 
tion of the execution of llaync, in the house of lords it was urged— 4 ' that 
such had been the practice in other cases." 

It was high time to get rid of such a government* In the case of a spy, whose 
crime Is assimilated to that of the wolf who prowls at night, the practice of u ar, 
in its despotism, sanctions it; but, jf in any other case, we arc uot aware of it. 

It docs not appear that Lord Cornwallis ever answered the tetter addressed 
to him on this subject, It was uot long after it was written, that he became 
hemmed in with difficulties, which engrossed all his cares for his own safery,. 

But, the most serious alarm was excited among the British officers serving 
in Charleston. A very few days had elapsed, after die intelligence of Hayne's 
execution, wlien a party, commanded by Captain Ervme of Marion's cavalry, 



* Append*. D. 
rot. ft o^ 



134 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, fell in with and captured a convoy of wagons and three commissi oncd oftV 
cers — a Captain Campbell, who was known and esteemed among the Ame- 
ricans, and two subalterns. On their arrival at I lead- quarter^ they were 
committed to the provost guard , and their apprehensions for their safety were 
soon com munic atcd to Charleston. A meeting of tlic Briiish officers was 
lie If l T and their discontents expressed to Balfour in language, which probably 
produced the mission of Barry. After Barry was made prisoner, Colonel 
Hal four solicited that he should be discharged, as he was under protection of 
a fkgj and that an officer should be nominated tn discuss whli him, the Fubjcci 
of bis mission. The answer to this letter, which also includes an answer to 
B ill In li r's reply to that of the 26 tb, concluded the discussions on this unhappy 
afCnlr. The original is before us, without a word scratched or interlined . and 
con tains too much intrinsic merit to be consigned to oblivion. 



"Head Qi r ART£ftSj September 19th, 1781* 

" Sift, 

li Your favour of the 3d insu I have received, and am happy for the 
honour of Colonel Hayne, to find nothing better to warrant his cruel and unjust 
execution than tire order of Lord CornwaJlis, given in the hour of victory, when 
lie considered die lives, liberties, and property of the people prostrate at his 
feet. But I confess that I cannot express my astonishment that you and Lord 
flaw don should give such an extraordinary example of severity upon die au- 
thority of that order* under such a change of cirnmistanccs, so long after it hail 
been remonstrated against, and after a cartel bad been settled to restrain im- 
proper severities, and to prevent the necessity of retaliation* 

(i You will see by my letter to Lord Cornwallis of the 17th December lost, a 
copy of which is enclosed, that 1 informed his lordship that his order was crue* 
and unprecedented, and that lie might expect retaliation from the friends of the 
unfortunate. 

fi You observe, that to authorize retaliation there should be a parity of cir- 
cumstances, to which I can by no means agree. Retaliation presupposes an act 
of violence having been committed, and that it is adopted to punish the past and 
restrain the future, and, therefore, whatever will produce these consequences is 
warranted bv the Jaws of retaliation. 

u You observe that the inhabitants of any country at war owe allegiance to 
the conquering power, 

:l The right of conquest, from partial successes, is often made use of to levy 
contributEuns, but I believe there are no instances where the inhabitants are 

* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENil, m 

punished capitally for breach of parole given under these circumstances, espe- chap 
♦ dally while the two parties are contending for empire; and this act: of severity 
complained of, Is the more extraordinary, as you had bog lost thai part of the 
country, and upon your own principles the inhabitants owed allegiance to the 
conquering power. 

u The execution of Lieutenant Fulker was without my knowledge or consent, 
Nor did I ever hear of it before, 1 understood there were some who fell victims 
to the violence of the militia for the many outrages they had been guilty of, 
and this without the knowledge of the commanding officer, who put a stop to it 
the moment he discovered it. But there is ft great difference between deliberate 
execution*, and death* which happen from an enraged people, urged by a sense 
of injury and oppress! on, 

" I have never authorized or countenanced an execution but for the crime of 
desertion. On the contrary, i have taken all the pains in my power to soften the 
resentments of the inhabitants towards each other, and to prevent as much as 
possible the dreadful calamines of private murder. It has been my object to 
redttita not to destroy even such of die inhabitants as have been opposed to the in- 
terests of their country ; and I cannot but consider your remarks respecting 
Colonel Grlerson and Major Dun J op, as both illiberal and ungenerous if you 
are acquainted with facts, if not, 1 hope you will be more careful how you cen- 
sure without authority in future. A handsome reward was offered Tor the de- 
tection of the murderer* of both those persons, as you will see by the enclosure? 
No. 2 and 3. 

" As yon have referred the justification of your conduct, in the aflairof Colo- 
nel Hay ne, to Lord Cum wall is, and as his determination upon that matter will 
govern the business of future exchanges, I can see nu advantage in appointing a 
person to meet Captain Harry on the subject ; besides which, that gentleman is 
now a prisoner of war a and no longer in a capacity to negotiate affairs of this 
nature." 

General Greene did not retaliate for the execution of Colonel Hayne, And 
were It now the duty of his biographer, to relate that he had refected and 
relinquished his purpose, be should tind an apology in the observation, that it 
was a promise ** more honored in the breach than in the observance." But, 
the causes which prevented it, were such as will satisfy both national feeling 
and the exigencies of consistency and energy- 

To wait a decent time for the answer of Lord Corn wain's, was indispen- 
sably and, immediately afmr She: date uf the letter addressed to him, uom- 
munecd the active movements which icnuiuated in the battle of Jmut.w, 



10fi 3IAJGR GENERAL GREENE. 

* 

chap. Hero a prisoner fell into the hands of the enemy, whose name and worth were 
^s^wnot to be exposed precipitately to the gallows. This was Colonel Washington* 
And 3 as if. fate were resolved to furnish the American genera] with excuses for 
not executing a threat which, every day it was deferred, became more abhor- 
rent to his feelings, it was not long after, that Governor Burke of North 
Carolina, had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the enemy , and was 
conveyed under the significant epithet of " a state prisoner" to Charleston. 
He was expressly held as a hostage against retaliation. 

But, in feetj the threat of retaliation had produced all the beneficial effects 
ihat could have resulted from die execution of the threat, Balfour was 
universally condemned and execrated for the net he had committed, and the 
British officers generally and openly expressed their disapprobation of bts 
conduct. From the numbers who were made prisoners at the battle of the 
Emaw, it was very satisfactorily ascertained, that the crime would never be 
repeated ; and from that time, one fortunate occurrence followed on the foot-steps 
of another, until the humbled enemy became no longer an object of resentment. 
Yet, the subject was never lost sight of, and was seriously renewed in February- 
following, in a correspondence with General Leslie, who had then assumed the 
command of the British forces in the south* In this General Greene says— 
14 The subject has been referred to congress. I cannot think you are under aay 
obligatlons, either from duty or honour, to support the sanguinary measures 
of Lieutenant Colonel Balfour ; on the contrary, I think you are hound to 
disavow them, especially as they arc opposed to the spirit and letter of the 
cartel, and have nothing better for their support, than claims without right, 
and reasons without force* Captain Barry is ordered into confinement, until 
those detained ujxjo the principles of discrimination are enlarged ; and if there 
k not an order for retaliation in the other case, (Hayne's execution) ) am 
persuaded it will be, because oftfw author 3 * not being mowr pow." GeneraJ 
Leslie requested — w as the discussion might lead to serious consequences, that 
H might be referred ia officers appointed to meet and adjust all existing dilE J 
cultles ;" and it terminated in the nomination of Colonel Allen and Doctor 
Fraser by Leslie, and Colonel J. Laurens and Captain Shu brick by Greece, 
and was iinally superceded by a general exchange negotiated in New York, 
trad by the approach of peace > 

The vindication of the part winch General Greene acted upon the execution 
of Colonel tiaync, must rest upon the correctness of the views in which he 
consider pd that occurrence* And it cannot be controverted, that the act was 
one of tfJi* most wanton and idle barbarU^; sheltered under the pretext of 
necessity or policy, hut really the result of peevish cruelty or low vindictive- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 197 

ness* Men may profess what motives they please buc the world will judge chap. 
of th cm by concurrent circumstances. ^ 

Had not Colonel Hayne come so near to bringing General Williamson to 
the gallows, it is probable he would not have met the fate he did* 

It I* known, tba* having the command at a detachment of Hardens horse 
he had succeeded, by a sudden dash at a place in the vicinity qf Charleston^ 
to which Williamson was in the habit of resorting, in making that officer a 
prisoner. By an act of the most unfortunate indiscretion, he was then over- 
taken by the British cavalry, and immediately committed to close confine- 
ment. 

Williamson was the AmoJd of Carolina; and much importance would have 
been attached at this time to bringing him to the punishment due a traitor* 
Perhaps, also, the insult offered to the dignity of the commandant of Charles- 
ton, and hie commander Lord Rawdon, in invading (he regton over which the 
benign influence of their immediate presence extended, mav not have been 
without its influence upon the fate of Hayne, We shall have occasion k> 
notice a fact hitherto unknown, that will give countenance to the imputation 
of motives so unworthy- 
It is truly to be regretted, that the English nation, as well for U$ own repu- 
tation as for the interests of mankind, has not long since disavowed the act of 
her officers in the execution of Colonel Hayne* [Hay, on the only occasion 
in which it was ever discussed hi her constituted councils,* it was openly jus- 
tified, and an inquiry into tt refused by a large majority. This was in the 
house of lords, on the motion of the Duke of Richmond, in the winter of this 
year. Had it been the undivided act of Lieutenant Colonel Balfour, it would 
scarcely have been an object of national concern* He was the petty tyrant ■ 
haughty, capricious and unfeeling— his character was too insignificant to form 
the basis of a national charge. His acts might reasonably have heen imputed 
to his own vices or folte. But, Lords Coruwallis and Rawdon were men of 
high national standing, extensively connected, and disdnguished in the world* 
not less by the confidence of their sovereign, than by their own actions, ft 
was not to be presumed, that they would commit themselves, in taking human 
life in a case in which they were unsupported by national authority. For the 
part they acted hi the drama, it is true we have only the authority of Colonel 
Balfour ; hut, having never diavowed the action, they must stand charged ia 



* '.jfiKliminn's London Matft2,me } 1782. 



13$ MAJOR GENERAL GBEENE 

chap, the eves of the world. In the discussions in the house of lords, before alluded 
to, their co n currency with Balfour was pdt controverted. 

tn examining the ens e of Colonel Hayne, it is impossible for two minds to 
ht; led to opposite conclusions. His execution can neither be reconciled to 
principle nor policy, and was attended with circumstances of peculiar atro- 
chv. 

Wfl will not attempt to repeat the thrice-told tale of this martyrdom. Those 
only ivlio were prrsent can form any idea of the dignity with which he met 
death, or of the solemn gloom tvhirh overspread ihc city, when he was led out 
to execution- To the last, evnn until the fatal signal was given for the cart 
to move, it was nut believed by the spectators, that the wicktd act could be 
consummated. 

We confidently hope, that of the multitude* who witnessed the spectacle, two 
only exulted Ju it, Colonel Balfour and General Williainson* We would even 
exempt the latttr, and leave the en lire banquet to the British commandant. 

Submitted to the test of prinriplc, the worst that can be made of J-iaync's 
offence was, tliat of high tre^on, As be had ucvtr been in arms ou the British 
side, the charge: of desertion ran not be preferred against him. Nor was it 
attempted to sustain his execution on this charge ;— he is expressly declared to 
have been hung ffi a traitor* IV hence a British commander could derive the 
power to execute even a tntitor without legal trial, we confess ourselves at 
a loss to imagine. That the king may constitute sped a I commissions for their 
trial mar he assumed, but such commissions must conform to the mode of irial 
known to ihc htwsof Rtigland. How courts martial can, by tlioselaws, l)fi vest- 
ed with jurisdiction over the lives of subjects not af the military order, or not 
comnuEtins offtJices which subject them to military law, is equally incomprehen- 
sible* A subject, raking op aims against his sovereign, has always been held to 
have commuted a civil, not a military offence. If the British measure of de- 
claring the colonists out of protection of their laws could deprive a British sub- 
ject of his right to trial, then was he no longer subject to the duties of allegiance, 
and was entitled to the protection of international law. Protection is the pur- 
chase-money of the dude* of subjection. 

If the British commanders acted in ihc exercise of the barbarous powers 
asserted by conquerors over the peasantry of conquered countries, there was no 
point of view in which the case of Hayne ought to have been assimilated to that 
of an individual of a vanquished people. The struggle was a general one, in 
which the whole people of the United Stales were engaged, and until all were 
subdued, none were subdued. But if the enemy were at liberty to exercise the 
powers of recent conquest over minute sections of the country, then the conquest 






MAJOH GENERAL GREENE. 199 

oJTtbat of Hayne's residence, which was beyond theEdisto, had been complete- chaf. 
]y overturned, and, in fact, fully relinquished, and the enemy^s detachments » 
withdrawn within the Edlsto. 

Colonel Hayne had no trial either pursuant to civil or martial law. It is 
distressing to readJihiimple appeal, on this subject, to Rawdoc and Balfour. 

« On Thursday morning I had ihe. honour of receiving a letter from Major 
Frazier, by which he informed me that a council of general officers would be 
assembled the next day for my trial; and on the evening of the same day I re- 
ceived another letter from the same officer, acquainting me that instead of that, 
a court of inquiry would sit for the purpose of deciding under what point of 
view I ought to be considered i I was also cold that any person whom I should 
appoint would be permitted to accompany me as my counsel. Having never 
entertained any other idea of a court of inquiry, nor heard of any other being 
formed of it, than of its serving merely to precede a council of war, [court mar- 
tial it is presumed,] or some other tribunal for eiamjnmg the circumstances 
more fully, except in the case of a spy; and Mr. Jarvis, lieutenant marshal of 
die poHcc, not having succeeded in finding the person Darned for my counsel, I 
did not take the pains to summon any witnesses, though it would hive been in 
my power to have produced many, and I presented myself before the court 
without any assistance whatever. When I was before that assembly I wss 
further convinced that I had not been deceived in my conjectures. I found thai 
the members of it were not sworn, and the witnesses were not examined on oath ; 
and all the members, as weli as every one present, might easily have perceived, 
by the questions which I asked, and by the whole tenor of my conduct, that I 
had not the least notion that I was tried or examined upon an affair on which 
my life and death depended," 

"What, then 3 must have been his feelings when informed that he was con* 
demned to die, ami to die in forty- eight hours ! 

But that his enemies disdained even the shelter of judicial trial was expressly 
avowed: » I have to inform yon," says Mr. Fraxler, the towe-major, *> that vour 
execution is not ordered in consequence of any sentence from the court of in- 
quiry, but by virtue of authority with which the commanfa in chief in Smith 
Carolina, and tlie commanding officer in awrlesion are invested i and their re- 
solves on tlit subject are fixed mid unchangeable.™ 

From this imperious sentence all the efforts of sex, age, infancy, and charac- 
ter were united to rescue the victim ; but no more could be gained than a 
respite to the 4th of August, forty-eight hours beyond the original sentence, and! 
that clogged with this remarkable restriction,—" but should General Greene 



ioo MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cuaf. offer to expostulate in your favour with the commmidhig office^ from thai mo- 
ment this respite will cease, and you will be ordered to immediate execution! 1 ' 

What could these mysterious words have had for their object? 

One would, at first view, be tempted to conclude that the whole of this un- 
worthy transaction had born sot up between the command am and town-major, 
and scdiiou^Ey concealed from the knowledge of Lord Rawdon, the c omnia tid- 
ing ^iViccr alluded to. But we find it recorded hi the annals of the day, that 
the most pathetic personal appeals had been made in vain To the feelings of his 
lordship. Was the idea then to be tolerated, that what his lordship's heart had 
refused to yield, might be extorted from his apprehensions ? or why was Gene- 
ral Greene to be precluded from the knowledge of the transaction, Jest he should 

'* expostulate ? J 

General Greene, in his letter referring this subject to congress/ makes this 
strong charge against him ; " It is said Lord Rawdon was the greal instigator, 
and principal cause of CoJonH Uaync's being executed, li happened just before 
he embarked for England, vMn- ha knew ret '(iliat ion could not reach him." In 
another, of the 25th October, to President M'Kean, he observes, « it is to be 
w ished that vengenee would fall on the head of the most deserving. Lord 
Rawdon was the principal instigator of Haync J s execution, and there is hardly 
a mile from Camden to Charleston in winch he has not left monuments of his 
barbarity, by arbitrary and savage executions, most of which happened even, 

without the form of a trial." 

Such was the estimation in which the life of a rebd was held by their lord- 
ships ! 

We have it in our power to solve the mystery .| In addition to this outrage to 
law and humanity, the execution of Colonel llayne, involved in it an evasion 
of national faith, and was attended with, circumstances of the most disingenuous 

concealment, 

A cartel, it will be recollected, had been negotiated in May for the exchange 
of prisoners. In June, Major Hyrne had been dispatched into Charleston to 
adjust the details. Finding it difficult to liquidate the balance of militia pri- 
soners, a sweeping contract had been made and published, that a genera? re- 
lease of such prisoners, from parole and from prison, should take place on a day 

specified- 

During the whole months of Tune and July, Hyrne had resided in Charleston, 
engaged in this business; and the British had attempted to except from the 



* ^tpttrmbfr ^- * P^rs relative to prisoner* df tfi»i L . 



MAJOR GENERAL GBEENJi. 201 

benefit ofiJio cartel but five individuals, of whom Haync was n&t one. Nor otur. 
was the Idtal ohjoet of the mock-trial he had undergone revealed to him until 
ike d'i>; i hut AltJQr Hyme Ufl Charleston i The cartel expressly makes provision 
for future- as well as present militia prisoners, both officers and men; it contains 
uoexveptiora unfavourable to any'rieseription of militia officers, and Havne was 
hi arms at the time it was agreed upon. 

When the except ion was set up P unfavourable to the five Individuals nljuded 
Co, tfea exchange was suspended, and <hcir case referred to officers mutual I v 
chosen j bui they not being able to concur in opinion, had recomm ended that 
the prisoners excepted to, be enlarged un their paroles, nnd the exchange proceed 
as to die residue j whirii was done accordingly. Two of those individuals, Mr* 
Smidi and Mi\ Skirvmg, were precisely circumstanced as Colonel Kayne was. 
Here then, at least, it was known to the British commanders, that the Ameri- 
can general claimed the benefit of the cartel in favour of all persons similarly 
situated with Colonel Hayne. Nay, a* he was not specially named, the general 
r eeom mend at iun of the commissioners in favour of the prisoners, niMit well have 
been claimed in his behalf. The right to put him to death, at (east, was not con- 
tended for, nor the least ground furnished to him for suspecting such a design, 
until the very day that Major Hyrnc had turned his back to depart, Nor did they 
dare to let the knowledge of their intention he communicaicd to the last; for they 
conjectured that, to prevent the execution, the American commanders would 
perform nets of severity, which they would not so readily execute ivIicji the evil 
was past remedy. Or, perhaps, they shrunk from the appeal, dicy anticipated 
would Nj marie ro honour, humanity, and national faith. 

But the British commanders could not have made a more unfortunate selec- 
tion of a victim, than they did in this instance. Havnc's character was of a east 
to reconcile animosity even in civil warfare. It was something of u. triumph in 
his dying hour, to observe prognostics of the dorp disgust which his execution was 
likely to create, Curiosity had little influence in collecting the crowd that flocked 
after him to the place of execution? it was the last expression of respect, of the 
mourning attendants uj>ou a funeral. And the last mandate that consigned him 
to the gajknvs, contained an acknowledgment that he had not dealt so by his 
enemies. « Ju consequence of the humane treatment shown by you to British 
prisoners who 111! into your hand?, you are respited for forty-eight hours." 
Could the hand that wrote these words have held the pen that signed his death 
warrant ! 

And the circumstances under which Havne had taken protection, were so 
well known, aud so tragical, that there was not a heart among his enemies 
which did not acknowledge his doom, cruel and unmerited. A wUc and 
lovely family, ail festering with the small-pox ! to choose such an hour to 

VOL. II. 0Q 



203 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, propose the alternative oflcaving them to perish or taking protection — thus to 
force upon the best affections of man, the performance or a deed thai lie 
abhorred, was uii outrage to nature \\ litch the vilest would resent. 

His opposition to the royal cause, had been open, manly, and divested oi" 
perse e nth m ; and even those who imputed to him error, acknowledged that 
\iH acted feam T.hc pares* motives, The sncrilice of such a victim, confirmed 
no one in his loyally, and sharpened many a sword for revenge II was, 
ilttlcCd, an impotent and injudicious act of scvcriry> 

It may well be apposed, that atnong the cares which engaged the attention 
of die southern commander* that which g£v.£s life and aeiion to all ijiiiitary 
operations, was not neglected. We are fatigued with dwelling upon die im- 
poverished state of the army ; it h, once for all, enough to say, diat it had no 
money, mid never had any. What (ho officers eon Id manage to draw from 
their private resources, they clothed themselves upon : hut siscih was the state 
of utter privation in which [hey lived, thar we have before its the h:lteroftwo 
officers of high military reputation, in which ihcv inclose their commissions, 
because " so destitute of clothing, (lu (heir own language) as not only to be 
unable to appear with decency as officers, but noi a sufficiency to prevent 
being disagreeable to themselves and others." 

But, Governor Ruihdgc brought with bun the means of c veiling a hope, 
find that hope, for a while, brightened up the countenances of the army. 

The effect of banks upon capital, may be likened to that of a globe of cut 
glass, upon the guinea deposited within It. As long us I he purchaser can per- 
suade, die seller, that all lie sees is real, commerce may go on briskly. Jiut 
wo to the dupes* when the receptacle comes to be explored. The simple 
African will look, hi vaim behind the mirror, for the object which had met his 
eve in front of it. The congress of the United States, after passing through all 
the ordinary routine of expedients to support credit without capital, had 
now thrown themselves upon Mi\ Robert Morris an tl the F tench king, as their 
last hope, Lotus XV J. furnish ed them the guinea, and Mr, Morris proposed 
to furnish the reflect oi\ Any thing which, at that lime, could sustain the 
almost expiring hopes of congress, was conferring a public benefit ^ although, 
it were ordy another shift or expedient, added to the many which had been 
vainly resorted to already, as the substitute for die solid basis of lonns or taxation. 

Mr. Morris was, at this time, engaged in the prosecution of his financial 
operations, of which, his bank was an indispensable machine ; and commu- 
nicated to General Greene, authority to raise money, by sale of bank shares or 
rtrafls upon him to a specified amount, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEN R, ^ 

But, this vi«as no country for the success of such measure?, and lie still chap 
found himself in a situation which is best described in the following answer to 
Mr. .Morris* letter: 

" I am favoured with j^ours of the 12th iji stunt, by the bands of Governor 
Ru Hedge, and am sorry to inform you, that the governor met with none who 
were willing to interest themselves in the bank. I lis route was through a 
tract of country where the inhabitants arc liulc acquainted with commerce, 
and therefore not likely to become adventurers in a measure of that sort. 
But, whether it was owing to an objection to this particular scheme, or to all 
projects of this kmd, thai the people manifested no Inclination to become inte- 
rested In the bank, 1 cannot pretend to determine But, certain it is, not a, 
single substri hereon Id be found, nor a shilling of money raised, 

J[ To conduct a war, which is carried on so much at arms-end as the opera- 
tions here are, so remote from supplies of every kind, and where the enemy 
can be re-enforced with so much facility, and we with such difficulty, and the 
whole service attended with so many contingencies, and all this to be done 
without money, and with a force little more than one-third equal to the ene- 
my *Sj is an unenviable task, and requires more experience, and greater talcuts 
than 1 possess, I find myself frequently ready to sink under the load of diffi- 
culties that oppress roe, where all our resources depend upon txp&l&nk;. 
Hitherto, we have embodied them with some degree of success, bin this can- 
not be expected to continue without more effectual support, I know that 
government is exceedingly embarrassed. 1 feel for them. But, it is nothing 
more than might have been expected from that unhappy policy, (to say not bins 
worse of it) — 1 mean sporting with public credit. 

{; No nation ever had greater resources in the confidence of the people 
than congress had at the beginning or the war; nor would it have diminished 
to this day, had they maintained their own dignity, and a due sub ordination 
of the states. But; the desire of indulging ihosc, and casing Urn people of 
heavy taxes, led to measures that were no less dishonourable than thev have 
been destructive to our true interests. The tender-laws, and the plan of re- 
deeming the continental muney forty for one, have been replete with every 
kind of mischief- Credit and reputation are much alike, either in public or 
private life. Once lost, they are very difficult to be regained, and no advan- 
tage, gained at the expense of our credit or reputation, can compensate for 
the loss of thenu It was ever my opinion, that we ought to have supported 
the continental money ; and, f am persuaded, it would have offered us the 
best medium of any plan we had it in our power to adopt. The hope of 
benefitting by its appreciation, would have supported its credit* If the states 



g$fc MAJOR CENEHAt GREENE. 

chap, coxrld fifl.vc been prohibited from making mowy, find the itixes hrpt in motion, the 

■y IT " 

. coiitinctital money would have ail nfded a tolerable medium fbr liLiMsif^ of all 
kinds. The regit ftti hi plan's icerc another sour re nf mischief; indeed, these and 
the iotdcr-htiva wvw sufficient To stop .ill intercourse anions; men, where they 
could have no election cither in price or pay; especially, wWi\ tl«5 legislators 
of many sinter *liscrov(?red such dMionrst intention*. Trade, minnimv. and 
paper money of all kinds, like religion, depend upon the opinions uf people : 
and where com pulsion Is made i^c of, they soon languish mid die. 

" [ luimmt exert diusfllPj that congress hare given np so much of this just 
and necessary prerogative into the bonds of the states^ and f am very appre- 
hensive, We shall ivant that force and vigour hi our national character, which 
is necessary to our security ; and 1 am not less apprehensive, thai intestine 
broils and feuds will frequently convulse the empire, for want of sufurictit res- 
pect and depend mice of the states upon congress, Politics furnish a kimtty 
subject, and all general principles are liable to many exceptions. Mr as tires 
which were promising in pro s peer, often terminate in opposite eon sequences. 
Perhaps what I conceive now unfavourable*, may produce national advan- 
tages. Time H ill bring all things to light \ there rests too heavy a cloud upon 
die subject for me to penetrate, and J will drop it. 

"When J tell you I am in distress, do not imagine I mean little difficulties; 
but suppose my situation to belike a shipVcrcw in a storm, when the vessel 
is ready to sink, and the water gaining ground in the hold with every exer- 
tion 10 prevent it. It is a maxim in republican government*, never to despair 
of the commonwealth- Nor do [ ; but, I foresee more difticuhies thnat I 
readily see how to conquer. I hope to discharge my duty, but events 
will depend upon means, and upon the hand of Providence. If I have any 
opportunity of obtaining money and drawing bills on you, I shall embrace 
II But, it is a very uncertain source, and therefore I leave you to judge of 
the prudence of exposing an army to such contingencies.'* 

In this letter the reader will have noticed some very early hints on the great 
improvements which have been introduced into the constitution of the United 
States, and we shall have occasion afterwards to show that Morris's bills were 
introductory to one of the most interesting and unfortunate incidents of General 

Greened life. 

Governor Rutledge was soon made sensible, that the southern army could not 
calculate on relief from the source winch he thought he had opened to it. Neces- 
sity compelled him to adopt other means of raising money, without winch, he 
saw how feeble and embarrassed must be its future movements. It was at this 
rime that he resolved to impress for state service, a quantity of indigo, winch 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 3G£ 

article, ftt thattimc : the ttAMte county chiefly cultivated for market, Occupy- chap, 
kg tfrtf, smull sjHiro alien raised, h bad been hid away and conveyed to market 
QtitttiEuiiulJy, as iJiip^rtLsnirks offered. A* these wen* neither frequent nor safe, 
there, was $ geod deal affile article ut that time in die country. 

This was the first substantial supply, not of cash, hat the means of raisin 0, 
cash, the army had ever tel since General Greene had been in command* By 
borrowing c proportion of a for the use of his officers, he was enabled to restore 
them to comparative decency and comfort. 

Bm it was ever the destiny of the commander of this department, as soon as 
reliever! from one embarrassment to be surrounded by a swarm of new ones. 

A change of prospects in die northern department, resulting from measures 
concerted between General Washington and the minister nf France, had disco- 
vered to General Greene that he must prepare for Important movements, hitherto 
not in contemplation. As a leading measure in the nesv plan of operations, was to 
cat off Cornwall is* retreat by water, the southern! commander immediately saw 
and suggested to the commander in chief, the probability of his attempting to 
escape by flight to Charleston, and the necessity that he should be under to set 
about preparing to meet and oppose him in the attempt. But should he fail in the 
effort, he expresses a hope that the commander in chief, after disposing of New- 
York p will ooi be prevented, through considerations of delicacy to himself, from 
following on, and laying siege to Charleston. A luminous and comprehensive 
view of the force necessary, (not less than ten thousand,) nod the* measures 
indispensable, to that attempt is then spread before him, and the whole closes 
with an assurance, worthy the great man and good citizen, " that he shall be 
equally happy in serving as subordinate, or as principal, provided the public 
good is the object, urid the happiness of society promoted." 

To disembarrass himself of the enemy before him, wa* obviously the first 
end to be attained- It has been asserted,* that hi advancing on the enemy at 
Eutuw, General Greene's desire was, to induce him to retreat into Charles- 
ton ; that he only hazarded a battle 10 effect ihat object. Bui, it was far 
otherwise ; he would have esteemed it a capital misfortune to have lost the 
opportunity of reducing htm to a state of impotence; for, without crippling 
him, he could nnt 5 in the event of Lord Cumwallis 1 retreat* have thrown 
himself bi his lordship's from, while a superior enemy lay ready to advance 
upon his own rear. 



■ Lrt's Memoir*, Vol. £. p, 2f8, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap. It is known that, when too late. Lord Cormvaflis actually resolved on 
attempting to escape in another direction ; and had lie not been baffk-d and held 
in suspense until the time had gone by, we shall have cause to show, that the 
attempt to escape to Charleston, would have been vigorously made. 

Rut for the necessity of amending; to this object, General Greene could 
scarcely be justified for regaining active operations when he did, And for 
want of a knowledge of the leading motive of his conduct, he has been 
charged with an unnecessary waste of human life, and hazarding more than 
circumstances would justify, in the instance of the attack at the Eutaws. 

In t\\e latter part of August, and beginning of September, the climate in 
that country is certainlv at its worst: and an accumulation of the usual dis- 
appointments, had left die American army in a state of weakness, from which 
a few weeks might have relieved it. He occupied also a healthy, pleasant, 
and abundant station, while all the posts of his enemy must have been wast- 
ing ^vith disease, There was no prospect of his adversary's being re-enforced ; 
lie was driven from the country where he could recruit, had manifested no 
disposition for action, and the state of the rivers which had been greatly 
swollen by recent rains, precluded all probability of active movements on his 

side, 

Lieutenant Colonel Cruder, actually formed a junction with Lord Rawdon, 
the evening of the day after General Greene had retired from Qrangeburgh. 
This placed the British commander at the head of near three thousand men ; 
and manifested the prudence of his adversary's retreat, and the vigour of the 
measure of drawing the attention of the enemy another way, whilst the 
American general retired, un pursued, to his present position, 

Sumpter's incursion into the low country, drew Lord Rawdon immediately 
down to Charleston, at the head of five hundred men, leaving Colonel Stew r - 
art in command at Orangeburgh. Here his lordship remained only long 
enough to tarnish his laurels with the execution of Hayne ; after which, he 
took shipping for New York, intending to return to Europe, to enjoy the repu- 
tation which he had acquired in arms. But, he was destined to return a 
prisoner of war, in the mortified group which accompanied Earl Cornwallis, 
The vessel he sailed in, w T as captured by the French fleet on the way to the 
Chesapeake* and he was present, no unconcerned spectator, at the operations 
which led to the capitulation of York Town. 

Some weeks elapsed before Stewart was in a condition to move his fatigued 
and discontented troops, and the American general was, during that time, agi- 
tated by no small degree of suspence relative to Stewart's future views; but, 
not doubting that the necessity of providing for his army, would lead him to 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEN E 207 

the baiiks either of the Cmi£arccorS:intct -, measures were taken for removing Cuap. 
all the provisions upon those rivers to ihc north s-ide T and thus limiting his^ 
means of subsistence, while: it en creased those of the Aniens tin army. 

At length, Colonel Stewart advanced on the route to iM- Cord's Ferry, and 
took post on the south side, amidst the Hills near iJie confluence of the Con- 
<raree and Water ec. Here ihe two armies la; hi si^ht o|" each other's nres, 
sharpening their swords lor future conflicts. The heat of the w sat her was 
excessive — both armies had felt it, (one very severely) in the movements of 
,luue ml July; and, as if by mutual consent, military operations were, for a. 
while, suspended. Two lar^c rivers intervening secured ™eli from sudden 
attack ; and eiEI (heir views of annoyance were con lined to watching convoys, 
&KS^| parties, ami detachments. In this service, Wapiti i^ton, afier having 
observed the e net nv until his views became developed, was detached down 
the country across the San tee, and Lee li^Vir&rJs alonj: the north bank of the 
Cou^arcc ; the latter to operate with Colonel Henderson, then in command of 
Sn motor's brigade at VrUIiy 7 ? Ycrry ; and ilie former to strike a[ the comma- 
ui e ei I ion between thecneiuy and Charleston, and co-operate with Marion and 
Mayhem In eoveriu^ the country on the lower Jvantcc. Colonel Harden, at 
the same lime, with a body of mounted militia, collected beyond the Edisto, 
hud it in charge to straiten the enemy in I lint quarter, 

General &fW$ in speaking of die efforts of his cavalry in these expedi- 
tions, asserts with confidence, tL that their character for enterprise was never 

excelled in the world/ 3 

Washington succeeded in falling in with two parties of the enemy's horse, 
and making liliy prisoner?. Lee, crossing the Cougarcc with his cavalry, 
penetrated between the main body of the enemy and his post at Oiangeburgh, 
and in si^hl of the latter plaee, drove in, dispersed, or captured a number of rheir 
communicating panics. Xu tubers never appear to have appalled i3ie American 
parties. Their confidence in their own prowess was &Utd>, that to see and to 
attack were considerd as Inseparable : and their audacity cmiipi-lli-cl the enemy* 
a ready to fatigue his troops by the lar^c detachments made necessary to his 
convoys, 

1 \>r some time :i fie r the removal of Colonel Stewart to his present position, 
his embarrassments iu obtaining provision were very considerable. At the time 
that the grain was? removed across the rivers, that al Icon hi not be secured, Hen- 
derson and Marion d est roved* And every boat above and beEow the confluence 
of the CongEirce and Wateree; was cither removed or sunk and concealed. The 
conscmienee was, that, within anus reach of plenty, Colonel Stewart found him- 
self obliged to depend on the country belosv, for supplies- This compel ted him 



m\ MAJOK GENERAL GREENE. 

CI ' A , P - to ftreu adieu Iiis post at IWchrster, in order to cover the communication bv 
■jFs^^^OiMii^'Init'sli : and it> ptittt ."Uajor .M'Arthur at a place called FniiJavin. rsonr 
tlic head oftlic iiiiviscfiti(M-i <iT l.'ooi^r River, from whkh, supplies rceetVird from 
Charleston were rLuusnnnofl Uv land to his head quarters. And as. this communi- 
cation was iiUetrupud mid watched by AYji'-hiiigtoiii Marion, mid Mayhem, in 
order in Feeiu^ Elit 1 m^tii^ of eomuumicatiiiiz whh rue 'ttjMfK rtijtfc bank of ihe 
Con^:rfrand tlniiv sii|i|i]rf £ from fiie»ee. the British corrjiuandrrtvns under die 
ueee^itv of trmispordnjr boat* adapted to the purpusc, from Faidawn to the 
Contriree. on wa*tm « tu^H 

^Vluk hU dr^chmem* irf*t^ engaged in these operations, General Greene 
was anxiously looking north, couth* and we?i lor bise.\ficcted r-e-enforccnicnts. 
Bui he ft'fcs n0w too much habituated 10 disanpoinnnerns, to look with con- 
fidence. Early in &$&nffl lie had had reason even to expect U'aync with ct Lib t 
hundred Pennsylvania lis, Tjife re- enforcement would have rendered liic 
desEmetinn of his anm^nnist certain. His iinsitinn left him entirely %\ rln'cmu- 
inand of the America irenernl, if ihe latter k:d been sgfttf!£ enough 10 m ail 
lim^ulfuf I he nd\ -Hiiiii^e. lie eaw it, and ihe tantalized slate of his fcrlu.^sis 
mrionsly express Lid in ihe correspondence of the day. 

Afrei' Cotnwalli<= had retreated to Plymouth, and was engaged in tupping 
his men. La Fayette, not doubting the fact that he had been ordered to (he 
relief of New- York, had authorized Wayne lu resume Ids original design of 
marching to die relief of Grrene* But when the British transports were recall- 
(1(1 and prorr.eded np to York Town, Waynes marrb «(w countermanded, ai<d 
finally, as lias, been before related, his detention extended lo the fall of Lord 

{.'ornwallis* 

jt was n iih feeling of extreme regret that the intelligence of In? dcteniion 
was received bv the southern commander, for Lt was ai a iimc that he had fully 
asccr Lai ued r hat almost every other hope had failed him. Nevertheless, he ex- 
presses to the commander in chief, I lis per feet acquiescence hi u lis never ihe 
public service rcifLiired : yet he ventured to hint, Mirtf if the Earcg before Vork 
Town real I v equalled Lin thousand men, Wayne'* detachment might be profi- 
tably employed* in destroying Stewart and cutting olVLord <L , orllw^dlis , retreat. 

Of ail the re-en force in ems that General Greene hart counted nnnn, none 
were received bin about two hundred jNorth Carolina levies, and about five 
hundred North Carolina militia; many of the latter were destitute ut'arins, find 
all of (he former furnished with lhc arm* which he had destined for other 
hands, to wH, the (mopa which lie proposed to raise in South Curolum. 

How it was possible for any ml ut I or temper to bear up against sueh reite- 
rated disappointments, is well calculated to excite surprise. But new diinciiltits 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 209 

only called forth new efforts. That he was at thia time somewhat cliafcd, is chat. 
obvious from his letters, but his expression effecting never went beyond the, 
means most proper for reining men to a sense of duty, or bringing things 
back to the course which ought to have been pursued. He knew that reproaches 
□either instruct nor reclaim. 

In three instances his patience s at this time, was severely tried. 

Colonel Jackson had succeeded in raising in Georgia one hundred and fifty 
men, under the powers granted him while the army lay before Ninety- $jx, On 
the talents of this commander, and the quality of Lis troops, the general had cal- 
culated with confidence: and nothing but a severe dispensation of Providence 
could have disappointed him, The it- hole were taken down with the small- 
pox nearly at the same time; full fifty ofthein fell a sacrifice to it, and the sur- 
vivors were still too much reduced by the consequences of that disease, to be in 
a state for service. 

This misfortune came from a hand which could only be bowed to with pro- 
found submission ; but, from other quarters, similar disappointments were sus- 
tained, not without circumstances for just complaint. On the mi] Ida of Meck- 
lenberg and Rowan, Greene had been assured he might rely for support But 
he was destined again to experience the baneful effects of that narrow-minded 
policy , with which the states, perhaps without exception, were too often charge- 
able; — that of looking too exclusively 10 their own security—of being excited 
only when danger advanced toward* thoir own soil, without recollecting how 
intimately the safety of each depended upon the safety of all. 

The promising appearances upon which he had formed his expectations from 
that quarter, had been exhibited whilst he was retreating towards Charlotte, 
followed by the enemy from .Ninety- Six. As the danger receded, the martial 
spirit subsided, and the promise of three thousand five hundred militia pro- 
duced him less than five hundred. It was the repetition of the occurrences at 
the Dan* But as Greene knew the value of the example and services of particu- 
lar mew in such emergencies, and how much the conduct of the people is 
directed by that of influential individuals, he appears to have been particularly 
excited by a communication from Colonel Locke, informing him that he should 
not he able to take the field in person, in command of the Meckienber" militia . 
This officer has appeared before hi these pages, and had acquired the con- 
fidence of the general by his zeal and servicea* To him he writes, " I mean 
not to censure, but to represent matters as they appear to me* It is true the 
people are tardy in taking the field for the support of their liberties and protec- 
tiou of their distressed brethren. Those in security are too apt to be unfeeling 
towards those in distress, B ut where the people manifest such a lukewarm 0fr 
vol. it. 27 



ill MAJOR GEINEIUL ""GREEN r\ 

chap, position and dueay of patriotism, the laws should bu brought in to oblige them t« 
do what thdr du'.y and interest require- You w ill pardon me if! speak feelingly 
on This subject ; my srifferitigs and distressed situation will not permit me to fi*S 
silent. You are all embarked in the same c#use with me, and your ruin is 
not less ceriain than ours if yon do not support us, though it nmy conic a little 
J at or, 

f* E am not in pursuit of military glory; my object is the safety of the people, 
and Uio establishment of our liberties ; a becoming zeal to promote those ends, 
f hope will not be displeasing to the honest citizens of America," &c* 

Still he had expectations from another quarter *hat could have indemnified 
hjni lor this disappointment. Shelby and Seviere had promised him a re-en- 
force mem of seven hundred of their select followers. With such a body of 
men* \\ tth limbs strung to toil by the sports and the labours of the field, minds 
elevated by mountain scenery, and courage confirmed by many a trying conflict 
In these harder- wars, the American general would have trod on ah- in advanc- 
ing upon his enemy. And they had actually advanced far on then - way to j pin 
him, when intelligence reached them of his advance towards Orange-burgh, to 
which was added, as usual, that he had driven the enemy into Charleston j and 
»t the dose of the month, after frequently expressing his wonder « what could 
detain Shelby and Seviere," he received a letter from the latter, informing him, 
that as they supposed his recent successes rendered their services unnecessary, 
they had returned and disbanded 

It will hardly be credited, that a still greater disappointment awaited him 
from a quarter where he lea&t expected it. 

Colonel Henderson, who had commanded one of the sta*c regiments captured 
in Charleston, and immediately on his exchange, h adjoined General Greene. The 
latter soon discovered his merit and talents, and had employed him in efforts, 
as before related > to raise a regiment of state troops. His success had not been 
great; but with the few j he had enlisted he was ordered to take command at the 
post at Fridig's Ferry. General Sumpter had refund to the upper country from 
indisposition ; but Greene calculated on a permanent disciplined foitre of four 
or five hundred men in that quancr, under excellent officers; Henderson, the 
Hamptons, Polk, and Middle tort. 

When General Smnptcr was ordered to thaf place, General Greene had ad- 
di'cssed a letter to him in these words:— '* As soon as re-enforcements arrive, 
and the troops have had a little relaxation, we will draw our force to a point, 
and attack the enemy w r herevcr he may be found." *And a gain ; I* Care should 






MAJOR GENERAL GREEN K. $y 

be taken to refresh your cavalry a* fa^ as possible, a* we shall, no doubt* have char 
so /ore dm v In a few davv r * * v < 

Wfr&t m$ tea disapsjuuirmeiitf in receiving intelligence from jjtnuicrscm 
on bis assuming the command, that there remained but two hundred men tit 
for duty, and l&Sfl almost m a state of insurrection ; and that he had r^Sdved 
from General $u ropier, a communication expressing his u ish, "' that the troops 
should iiave a respite from service until the first of October, and a* manv of 
them i\ttic?uj^hc!d home, from time to time, as the service would admit of: and 
thai CoiunvJ Henderson apply to Genera] Greene far that purpose, at the 
same time ordering, » (hat the horses of the brigade should be sent "into the 
river stvumps to pasture, and committed to the care of detachments of militia." 
-' Have y says Henderson^ ' : comc here only to furlough a parcel of troops = 
and thnt too when the enemy h at our doors? and thtfr horses to be guarded 
by militia I— no readier way to dismount ihem could be devised- il Wnh 
expectation," says he, further, » of seems at least four or five hundred men fit 
for the field, f mm to take command of rhe brigade of state troops; I have not 
been able to rolled unite two hundred fit for action, and They in a most shattered 
eondiduu, I was doubtful my command would be disagreeable, and norhm* 
would have induced me to undertake it, but your u ish and my own abhor 
rcDce of living an inactive life." 

In a letter to Governor Rutlcdge, of (he same date, he wrote— i( On mv 
arrival to take command of them, I found [hem the mast discontented set ol 
men I ever saw, both men and officers ; a few individual excepted, who. 
regardless of every pecuniary consideration, are determined to serve their 
country. The rhirst after plunder that seems to prevail among the soldiery, 
makes the command aimost inmlefaUc. Thi3 circumstance is the most dis- 
agreeable, as this iufumou* practice seems to be co-uitenaneed by too nmny 
officer*. Until some very severe exEunpIcs arc made, very little credit can be 
expected from them. The men are Jikely and brave?, am! want nothluy but 
service and discipline to make them truly vahi&bie ; hm AJj is impossible to 
bring about, unless tha necessary assistance U given by njllctrs, most of them 
having no more Idea cf subordination than a m of raw miiida,^ 

It seem?, that the public service was, at this time, cspcrieociag the ill-effect? 
inherent in (he prluw file upon which the corps had been raised. The field 
officers were selected, and very jaditiousiy selected : but, in order to expedite 



ft 



* jnh vsm. ir^r. i lint^rwirt *^coiid Uftfi - t -aN .\v%m. 



212 - MAJOR GENERAL GEEENE. 

chap, the raking of the men, the captains and subalterns were commissioned, rodis- 
, crlminately, op on bringing a certain number of men into the field. A* the 
popularity of men in private Life, or their facility ia procuring followers, is 
far from $g£Qg decisive, cither of private worth or military la! cut, it folio vied, 
that: the inferior officers were in many instances badly selected* 1c is also 
asserted, and we have It from high authority, that ihe men had been prmm'&ed 
a participation in plunder. As we are yury confident ihU could net have 
been a pari of their contract of service with their coauuander, it can only be 
Merited to the officers who were immediately engaged in the en Hum cms. 
Hut, whether it was real or deceptive, the influence upon the men wouiri be 
the «uug»— either in inciting to plunder^ or creating discontents* if restrained 
from it And the distributions that had taken place, of the slaves seized 
and carried into North Carolina to be distributed, could not fail to produce a 
necessity to furlough those who had received the compensmiou stipulated for, 
that iliey might lake it home; aud frequently their desertion; and to render 
nil who remained, restive and mutinous, As to the actual correctness of 
Henderson^ account of the reduced state of liic corps there cannot be a doubt, 
as it did not muster ouc hundred and fifty men at the battle of En taw; be- 
sides a detachment of r perhaps, a third of dial number, supposed to have 
been left with the baggage guard, But, this was not the result of mrlough*: 
sanctioned by Greene, or granted by Henderson* General Sumpter'* orders 
and wishes were peremptorily resisted ; and this last occurrence it was that 
(hew Genertil Greene into dial review of the whole of Genera] Sumpter's con- 
duct, since lie |&d commanded in the department, irom which, mere is reason 
to believe, that he imbibed the opinion, that he had never been cordially and 
candidly supported by that officer* 

When General Siunpier interfered with General Morgan in the execution 
of me orders under which the latter acted, General Greene was willing tn 
attribute it to indistinct views of the duties of subordination, and look great 
pains to reconcile those two officers, ami remove all cause for irritation or 
disgust. When the descent Wte mafic up (in Camden, and General Sumptcr 
did not advance with his brigade into the field, to intercept re- en force meats 
from the Side of Llroml and Saluda Rivers ; nor make any other movement, 
until he had completed his brigade: and then, instead of descending between 
the Broad and Catawba, moved down beyond the Brand River; General 
Greene, although seriously affected in his view* against Camden, saw no 
reason to question General Sumpter*s cordiality, and uttered no enmpJuim* 
although many officers in the army were then seriously dissatisfied with. 
General Sumptc-i 1 '? conduct. When* after" 11 rds he was ordered to m&rdi 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 213 

toward* Caw dm, and form a junctloji with the main army, General Greene chap. 
yielded to his remonstrances against thes uea&urc and revoked the order, &ub- 
stitLtfln^ for it a pnrtifuTar charge to watch the movements of Colonel Wat- 
son, to the west of the Wateree, and present his junction with Lord Rawdon : 
when, instead of bending his whole attention to this object, (which he pro- 
bably could have effected, had lie marched his cavalry to Simons' ferry, on 
the Wateree, leaving Ms infantry to hi\m Fort Gran by) Watson was suffered 
to pass him, and itawdon again acquiror] the command of the field: Greene 
con Id not sdil be fed to question the sincerity or subordination of an officer 
of such acknowledged zeal in the service- When, after the surrender of Fort 
G rait by r hi his absence. General Sumprcr took offence, and Qf8m£ to throw up 
hU eujumi^ion, ahh^i^h Greene could not approve of the mode of resenting 
such an injury, by an tict so detrimental u> die cause of the country, he still lore 
with it as an ebullition of passion, and took pain* to sooth and to satisfy General 
Sumpter. When, on the advance of Lord Rawdon 10 relieve Ninety-Si^ 
General Summer snffevrd himself to be cut off from ajunetion.and held Marion 
baok hy hU orders; nouvhh&ianding retreat and defection of the country was 
the ctjiiseqneuce, he istill acquiesced in the excuses alleged, to wit, incorrect 
iutrllUcnice, and the diirtculdcsin getting out or managing the rmlirta. And 
when General Sumpter afterwards formed a junction with liijn> bringing up 
only iits mounted brigade, and reported his four regiments, commanded bv 
Taylor, ^ViTin, Tate* and Richard Hampton, us having broken a nay from him, 
sill 3 not a complaint was uttered. When, on the advance from Tim"* Ordi- 
nary* npon Lord Rawdon, orders dispatched to General Sumpter to form a 
junction near Fridig's Ferry, in order to fight Lord Rawdon, found him high 
up the Catawba, and left htm pursuing a route which precluded the possibility 
of his aiding either to intercept Stewart or fight Lord Rawdon. still the reproach 
uttered on that occaai u n, was tempered with such mildness as scarcely to be 
expressive of complaint; while General Greene himswf, with the only force 
at command; pressed forward to endeavour* when too Iniu. to effect the service 
him self. When afterwards, the flattering opportunity ivas oflered. of cutting 
off the 19ih rcg'imeuL and making every man of them prisoners, at Bisrsin 
Church, although he was perfectly sensible that the attempt ought to have 
succeeded, far Horn uttering a complaint, he addressed General Sumpter m the 
language of culogiijm, and never entertained a doubt of his zeal, aftribtithi"- 
his failure tu the pursuit of measure?, which led luni away from his principal 
object. 

But no w, when he had informed General Sumpter that his resolution was, 
;i as soon as he had refreshed and recruited his arm v, to seek, out the en cm v. 



2U MAJOR GENERAL OdXNE. 

chap if to be found any where without the gate? of Charleston ;-' to find hlro, Ik 
effect* disbanding and disorganizing a force 50 indispensable to the purposes 
of giving art honourable and happy termination to the campaign, he onJv 
balanced, whether to attribute General Surupieri cuuduet to want of cordiality 
in contributing to the success of measures which should crown the com- 
niaiidcrofthcsuuihcn] department with honour, or an avidity for personal dis- 
tinction, which nti] 'died him to a deviation from the plans of 01 juts, that fie 
\\nghi enjoy the undivided honour of liis own achievements. General 
Greene's, feci ins,*, at the time, were certainly vented to Colonel Henderson in 
Jaitgoagc which leaves it beyond question, thai he itJi offended, il I received " 
wiys he* "your favour of the I4di, inclosing General Sumptcr's order fui< 
disbanding his brigades tor I can consider it in no other light. What can lie 
his reasons for sucli an extraordinary measure, I cannot imagine : nnr can 1 
conceive, how he couEd think of raking such a step without consu[nn^ me or 
obtaining my consent for the purpose, [f he supposes himself at liberty to 
employ those troopSj independently of the continental urmv, Ic is lime lie 
should be convinced to the contrary. It Is true, I have granted every indul- 
gence 10 those troops, and given the general a latitude to act much at discrc- 
ftoiii Uut, this J did from a persuasion, that his own ambition would prompt 
ifun to attempt tverx tiling rhat his force could effect ; and it was never meant 
or intended to have any operation when the general was not in the. field! 
Jly a measure of this kind, the country will be left open for the enemy to 
ravage, and the continental army exposed to c\vry attack winch tile enemy 
may think proper u> attempt, while those troops arc at honie on furlough. 
But, besides the impolicy, the injustice done the public, in granting such exten- 
sive indulgences to an order of men who have more than live times the pay'- 
1 if continental soldier.-, who are confined to the field from one year's end to 
die other, forbids the measure, A comparison of services nmsr gH-jfe great 
discontent to the latter, to see the fot nicr, who took the field but yesterday, tit 
liberty to go home and see their friends,, whilst those of the continental urmv 
are rigidly confined to their duty. Upon the whole, sir, I cannot persuade 
myself that General Sum pier gave himself sufficient time to trace out the 
eoiisctpienc.es of die measure he recommends, or rather orders to lake pJace. 
Jim. be that as jf may, i can, by no means, dye my consent to it : and 



■August lGllij 3 7S1 L 
■p Th^y received a prime negro; valued ar three hundred aud sixty dollar*, far ien uxijuErs fmice, 
above a hard dollar \tex ilium* 



JMAJOR GENERAL GRELNE. ii!5 

therefore, you will not furlough a man or officer unless for some particular citap* 
reason : and you will give positive orders, to have the whole collected as last. 
as possible, and every man at home called to the liekl as soon as mav he. who 
are not employed" as artificers* You will procure an exact return of the state 
troops, horses, and accoutrements. It is the governor's intention, and mv 
wish, to have the corps reduced into a less number, (of regiments,) Let the 
horses be recruited hi the moat speedy and convenient manner you mav think 
advisable ; discipline the troops all in your power, and punish plundering with 
the utmost severity. It would be little less than madness, to era lit the indul- 
gences General Sumptcr requires, when the enemy are in motion in every part 
of (he state, and alt our regular force, including the state troops, so much 
mferinr 10 theirs, I have tho public ejuod, and die satciv oi ihc sood people 
of the *ratc, too much at heart, to think of such a measure/' 

If this letter exhibits any more excite ment than the occasion will justify, it is 
but justice to General Greene to mention, that some very strong measures recent- 
ly pursued by General Sumpter, had given the former some uneasiness and 
iron hie. Many leading whlgs, and among them General Isaac Huger, had 
suiYercd wry severely by the retaliating measures adopted by the enemy in 
consequence of the seizure of negroes, made by General bumpier, for the pay- 
ment of his brigade. Their complaints were, of course, pressed at hcad-quar^- 
tcrs a and the general's mind was harassed with the dilemma of compelling the 
state troops to disgorge the negroes on the one hand, or leaving those who had 
suffered, to remain without redress on the other. 

To the complaints uttered in this quarter were added others still more poig* 
liantaud distressing, arising amidst the smoking ruins of Georgetown. 

On thCi^th of J lily, Colonel Lee writes m General Greene, t: I, this moinenr, 
learn, by certain authority, that General Sumptcr ha* detached Captain Davis 
io Georgetown, to seize, for public use, the spadfi ofevrry sort that may bt» found. 
It seems that the tories left much linen cloth, kc. ka, m the hands u-fwhrgs, an 
the evacuation of that place ; and that these goods are now making their appear- 
ance (or*Ede. Your officers are naked, and f presume no order Qi' men have 
greater chihu to your attention," &c. 

The only phiosihle evens c ever uttered by die enemy for the destruction of the 
place whs, Li that the whig* were about to draw from It supplies for their army." 
The raking of t lie streets by the fire from a galley, whilst the town was consum- 
ed, seems to haie been nd m! urcd to prevent the merchants from saving their 
£ood& It is known that that place had begun to open a undo with th* 
LI a van a: and the fast sailing | Joa ^ of Captain Anthony and others did actually. 



216 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, after wards, contribute much to supplv the wan is of the arm v. through this 
xv, 

port. 

At the time tti Eit Captain Davjs is said to have been dispatched for tin's 
purpose,* General Greene was actually making arrangement for drawing, by 
purchase, from Georgetown, supplies to a considerable amount. Captain 
Conycrs was detached for that purpose, and arrived only in time to witness the 
melancholy roufl aeration. 

This beautiful lirtle town, the scat of taste, wcahh. and hospital iiy, was com- 
mit fed to the flames on the first of August. ludcr the name of Hanson, the 
immediate perpetrator of this incendiary act. ts con?Igntti to infamy, and tu 
the execrations of the inhabitants of a place which has never recovered front 
the blow it then received. But the operation was too important in its nature, 
to have been undertaken by him, on his own responsibility- The g&Itey he 
commanded, was dispatched from C harks ton ; Lord Raw don was still in that 
place, and must bcai" tbe reproach, or enjoy the eelar, of this destructive 
outrage. Posterity will judge whether it was not, like the<hiiniing of Camden, 
another proof, that he wanted but an excuse, when obliged to a band cm his 
conquests, to leave them a desaru The date of its destruction corresponds with 
the time of Captain Davis's supposed mission, and renders it probable, that he 
was actually, at this time, engaged In discharging the duties assigned him. The 
fact of the intelligence communicated to General Greene^ on tins subject, we 
will vouch for; of the reality of the act, and its consequence^ we are no further 
informed The disappointment felt by the army, on the occasion, was too 
great Dot to make it a subject of much discussion* And if it be inw, tba* such 
a measure was pursued, under General Sumpters orders, without the sanction 
of the commander of the department, it certainly was calculated to prepare his 
mind for draw his into review all the acts of General Sumptcr since lie had 
been, in command, and adopting the unfavourable impressions which appeal - , 
at this time, to have possessed his mind, towards an officer to whose pn triolein 
and bravery he had ever been ready to yield the most favourable aeknow ledgc- 
ments* 

But the state of things to the north leaving him no time to deli be rate 3 
General Greene, on the 226 August, broke up his camp at the High-IMl]s t and 
calling in all his detachments, except those under Mayhem, Harden, and 
Marion, appointed them to a general rendezvous at Fridig's Ferry. Grrat 
rains had now laid all the swamps, which border the Watcree, for miies in 



* Cdoiid Le«, 30l1i July. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. , 21 ? 

width* under ttftter, and without great difficulty, and some danger to hU ad- cijap 
vance, he could not cross the river, without ascending it to Cain den, By that 
route tie reached Row el ? * Ferry, on the Congaree, on the 23th, and ordered his 
detachments to join him at that place, with intention immediately to cross it, 
and advfmce upon Colonel Stewart. 

But that officer, on hearing of the movements of the American army, had 
fallen back upon his re -en fore em ems and convoys, and taken a position at the 
EfotgHV Springs, General Greene warmly expresses his regret at the enemy's 
retreat, as he conceived an apprehension* that it would finally he continued. 
mini lie should approach too near his garrison to be pursued nith safety, or to 
admit of the full fruition of the ad vantages expected from heating him. 

As ihc British army had moved by furccd marches> to ti distance of forty 
miles below its position at the mouth of the Contraree, it was no longer in the 
power of the American commander to force It to actio u. II c, therefore, medi- 
tated, for the present, a discontinuance of the pursuit, and rrossidg; the river, 
moved slowly down the; south bank, intending to take postal Motte's, rmd wait 
c vents. Colonel Lee in the mean time was pushed forward to watch Stewart's 
movements, and General Pickens, who had now taken command of the state 
troops under Henderson, was ordered to move leisurely down* and take a 
position to observe ihc British garrison, still remaining in Orangeburgh, These 
slow movemnnls, indicative of a wani of confidence, probably Induced Colonet 
Stewart to hah and ti^ht his enemy. Befiftg now separated horn Ornngebnr^li, 
he ordered up tltc detachment from Fairlawu to re -en force him, while the 
garrison at Orange burgh proceeded across the country below, and replaced 
the garrison drawn from Fairlawiu 

This movement, he was enabled to make, without fearing for the safety of 
bis post at Fairlawn, because Marion, at this time, had disappeared from tSiat 
neighbourhood, in one of his secret and rapid excursions, entirely across the 
country, as ftu- as Pon Pon. Harden was, at this time, in ihcu (juarter h . and 
very hard pressed by a British party of four or five hundred men. This 
loyalists, who had been driven to Charleston, had been compelled to encrtsic hi 
active service, under a threat that rations would be withdrawn from iheir 
families- And the demands for subsistence being greatly increased, by the 
necessity of feeding so many mouths, as well as by the prospect of being, crt; 
long, shut np within narrow limits, this detachment had been dispatched, as 
well to collect provisions for the one party, as to destroy the moans of sub 
si sting or the other, in the v trinity of Charleston* 

Harden, after every possible effort to cover the country hi that quarter, 
found Ins force dwindling so fast, under the necessity which the ravagp° jsf 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, this party imposed upon his Jul lowers to loofc to the safety of their families, 



xv, 



and the terror excited by the execution of MavDO, that he solicited support 
from Mm- ion. The latin- applied for, and obtained permission from Greene, 

to- 1 1 rider Lake the enterprise* 

To Cftri| the eounm from St. Stephens to [he Edisto, passing: through both 
J]ne"S of tfaa cnemv T s corn uiuuica dan with C hafJes ton — to surprise, defeat, and 
disperse tills force, actually much superior to his own — to mum by the same 

route, pLLSii tile San tec, deliver his prisoners tea the £urC of Mayhem* find return 
tvv^nlv iiilles below the Emau\ to watch the communication between thni 

■ 

place and Kahtuwn — then, at the call of Greene, to make a circuit .und pa^s 
the eilomy r 50 as to reach a position on the south side of the Eunice, in the 
track of Greene's advance, was all the work of six day*. These movement- 
merited him I received the particular thanks of C undress. 

[[ is not true, ft? some authors assert, that this officer had been ordered; In 
the first instance, to form u junction widr General Greene: : nor. ttftil lhr: latter 
was delayed in his advance for the arrival bf Ration, uniil the army readied 
nlotte's \ the intent Ion of the commander was. to have fought Colonel Strwnri 
whhoLil the aid of Marlon. Until Intelligence was received, that the detach- 
mem ("nun rahhmu had ruarehcd to re-enfurcc the British army* and die 
£<u-i'fcou from Orangcburgh was about taking an e\cHL-m portion for sup- 
porting it, Greene was |>ersuadcd, that hi* antagonist .meatd tto decline die 
combat. That intelligence induced him to adopt a different Conclusion, and 
at the same time 1 hat he became convinced, the Finish commander intruded 
in measure sworuVwhh hhn, the- addition to ^teivurt^ strcinidi made it indis- 
pensable; thai Marlon should be ordered tit die aid of the American army, 
The supine inattention of the lirit^ii commander to the watching of hi? 
adversary, and I lis ignorance of his movements; until a few hours before the 
battle, have been the subjects of surprise and censure ; but, It Is easily accoun- 
ted for from die circumstance* fhiit he knew Marion was below him the day 
before, and hud no suspicion of die. tact, that hy luui'chui.^ the 11 hole night he 
had thrown himsrlf ubuve hun,soas to form a junction wUU Greene* That 
he woidd be attacked in hi^ present po^iilnn by a force which, without that 
of .Mai'ioics, was numerically, a? well as 111 Quality of troops, so much his 
inferior, probably appeared to him chimeric ah 

So far from delaying the march of the army, die order for Marion's junction 
is dated the 4th of September, and on the 5th, v laid him in advance of the 
army, waiting its approach at Laurens' plantation, seventeen miles above the 
enemy. The movement of this officer was ihut of light, and his actions par- 
took of its putitv. To have lost or delayed ah opportunity of fighting the 



MAJOR GENERAL (JREKNK. Jl'f 

haft fes of his country, would have been fomented bv him tint I hii followers as ciur 
a visitation frvwi Heaven, 

On the dih, ( li'iipi-al Pickens 7 command was ordered np t and rlif army 
halted at Laurens 1 phtec ; the litii. was dr; voted to rest and preparation for 
battle: anu on the .afternoon of ihr 7th, the army HftifHrfuuj up to RnrdelJ's 
Tavern, on the Con^aree mad. seven nnlcs from tl*e Kutaws. Baggage, teur?^ 
every t-ttiUcg thai couiJcJ embank or detain, twsre !efi under ^nard at Motte : s; 
the general shared in common widi [\h ulUcers : a change of linen and their 
canteens, wat& all they nu-nmbered themselves ssfeh ; and, e.\cepting tlie 
Tiunhrils. the artillery, and rwtl wn^oilS cuifelnfjiin^ r'urh a hogshead of mm 
ami hospital rtwreret! n*rt a nlwel CferJa^e urcoiUjMided the army. Wrapped 
in tris eloak, and canopied bv ihc I leavens, with his head pillowed on the 
root of a shadv china tree, the £i'uera] passed that ni^hf In slumber*, undis- 
turbed bv anticipations of the bkl*»ti\ sfCPtfift of tin* fijIlOu'Mta: d#& 

The number of men brought by the two combatants into the action of 
En taw, has neve r been definitive! y ascertained : each party con tending; that 
bis force, was much inferior in ]flfa adversary's. The foJ towing are all the facts 
which we rim emnmmid in elucidate die suEjjert. 

The returns upon which (ieiirTa! I ireent 1 ^ order nT battle was founded, are 
dated llic ■ It h of Sep tember > and would farm's!] conclusive evidence of Ins Ibrce 
but for two cruises : (lencrnL Clarion having joined (he day after, his return 
does not <inpenr. and (he number deliii'e.d as a bagi^c- guard, is riot exhi- 
bited. 

The rnnk and fd" of the American regulars, on iliekh, were one ihousand 
nvu hundred and E 1 1 1 \ -^i.\:. The cavaln afxfe $&fC troops., in action, seventy- 
two, Kind I he infantry srvonly-1 lirf! 1 . The. militia of V>irh {.'iirnliiw, Fdiom 
one hundred ami nTu ; jimse td SumpUr anil iVken^ brigade then in ihe 
iidd. three hundivd und sewn. The uumh:'i' *# Jferiw^vs iroop* Could not 
have cxeecdeti fortv ea\idi^ and iv%o [mUilrrd inhi-un ■- uud if *wn Inlirdred 
}je alloueo! Ioj - thtr eainp-Li^iajd. then U\n\ Lhtfe-i in the rear, f :jX'CHr "s whole 
force eonld 1 1 c 1 1 iaave o\eeeded two ihon^am! eouiijatant-:. 

On the oilier side we only ku< w. x 1 1 _i r on the jauetion of Cruder with T.ord 
Uawdoti; in Oraij^ebnr^h. [heir foree appruachet] very near three ihoniand. 
| ; "ive hundred of ilicsi- were mm-dicd ^n' n nder Lord J law don. ami it was 
intimated ihat. tlie ^arri^oti lattly marelicd to Kairktwii, amoLiiucd to % hun- 
dred men. The (kfaehnu'iu, with which Colonel Steuari was lateh re-en- 
foreed from the ktwr phiee, a?afc ^.ipposei! to have er^onied rive hnudred. And 
[tie^e estiinates will ^he a result of two thoiisuud three hundred, the general 
estimate o\' ("olonel Stewart ; s force. F J'Ucrc was another \\g\v taken of the 



220 MAJOR GENERAL GBkENE. 

#*Afc subject *U the Lime, which makes it probable that ;he British force could not 
have keen less. The British regular force at that lime In South Carolina, was 
estimated at four thousand * besides one thousand loyalists under arms, wid 
four hundred cavalry. The garrison of Charleston was composed of loyalists 
and five hundred regulars ; and after making due allowance J or I he garrisons 
of Orangeburg] j and Dorchester, and for the sick and detached, it is not 
probably that the force under Colonel Stewart, could have been less than two 
thousand three hundred. These were all disnpEiitod troops : and a Lirge por- 
tion of the old regiments consisted of Aiumcan destTier:* and recruits, 
adding to llritish discipline, the precision of American marksmen. It will be 
seen, ili at the correctness of their aim made it a fata J day to the American 
officers. General Greene was often heard to si\y r *}■ that at the close of the 
ivar, we fought the enemy with British soldiers, and they I bug! it 115 with ihose 
of America." In cavalry, the superiority was decidedly with the Americana; 
or General Greene would not have fought this action, destitute as he was of 
the means of retreat or support. Washington's cavalry amounted to about 
eighty, and Lee's to as many, and there were about the same number of state 
cavalry, including those brought up by Marion. The British had not above 
half that number, but they were commanded by an able officer, Captain Coirin. 
in artillery, the armies were probably equal. The accounts from deserters, prior 
to the battle, were, that the enemy had five pieces. It is certain I hey brought 
two sixes and a four into action ; whether more, we are not informed. The 
Americans had two four and two six -pounders. 

The memorable battle of [he Eutaw Spring, was fought on the 8th Sep- 
tember, 1781. T3ie day was fair and intensely hot, but the combatants were 
relieved by the shade of the woods, at its commencement- 
it is a curious fact, that there is not in print a correct and full account of lis is 
battle- In common with most official accounts of drawn battles, both commarj- 



? In a letter from General Greene to fvluiiH Willi nnriSj, written in \ovemher, IP7#£ wc find (he 
i"u] loving }inssag(.\ 

iC J find by a parliamentary rvtjisHT there wt-rv riglHivn itaouwnd inw|i^ and upwards, in ihe 
southern d^mrtniunt hst year; besides nil (he milihEc which acted with the enemy, ami those a mount- 
f<.\ to not less then two thousand. e&efushv* of the negroes: they liad more llian one thmis;iiul otiEiem 
In the. different military departments of the army. This ine Indus Lnrr! Ciwipsftli& Attay in Virginia, 
At the tini« I he battle of Eulav Via fnughl, by the enemy \ returns laEd before pari i anient. It am&tfs 
die enemy had hi Charleston, And In their advanced army „ srs thousand seven Eimidrud men fit for 
duty, beaidis il) iUv mih'lia and negroes. What an amazing difference hetiveen tl^ir frircH and ours. 
From these auihoriilfis I find our operations were much more glorious than ?\r.r \yv considered them* 
I long to get rhem away, that the is* ire- may be as ^easing asthenic!* ha* Leea important/' 



MAJOR GfcNtKAL liKEENL. 22i 

ders hud something lo boast of, but much to co uceal. And that of the American cjjap 
corn m ait tier is, in one passage, so an lb jetton* that it requires a very attemive 
consideration of the context to understand, whether be is speaking #? \fo own 
fight and left, or those of the enemy. If tif the enemy* it reverses, und Cuii 
founds some of the leading incident of ihe banfe. 

The truth Is, that in Hie enntmenCLmieui frflM l"ttf!c t the American triumph 
was complete; and it was i he only httifcitstiitii iiiVi'twg the American war, in 
which a British army *y&3 &tW$$ from its ^rj 'iiurl in a piic-litd battle. 'What 
made file triu[ii|)ii more complete was, that it wjw obtained at the point of the 
bayonet. But It$5 equally inifj dim the American army was a fie] 'wards repulsed 
with Ins.s ; and although it retained possession of the ground with its pickets, 
really retreated In some confusion from before the hi si position taken by the 
en em v. Finally, all the fruits of vlctflVy remained widi the Americans, but I J icy 
were purchased at a distressing saa ifice. 

tt js hot Co be wondered at, that in the midst of [his melange of good and 
evil 1'orume, we should find the oiucial accounts perspicuous and prolix on one 
class of events, bn( folding up the others in all the involutions of arnbi^uilv 
PolIev\ as will as the strongest mndeneiesof human feeling, lead to blazoning 
uiir successes on the one hand, and dis^ni^mg our mis fortunes on the other. 

Writers who had no other sources of information to resort to but official com- 
munications, or who were reluctant at detecting the truth and exposing it. 
were necessarily led into error themselves, or not unwilling to lead other*. But, 
to the author, who was himself a distinguished actor [fi the bloody scenes of the 
day, we naturally turn ft>r full and authentic information. Yet, of Colonel Lcc's 
work, we are com pel led to quo re the following passage, from one who was also, 
present ami every where, on that occasion ! '■ "i he most incorrect of all Colo- 
nel Lee/s historical memoir^ -Arc those u hich relate to (he movements of the 
army previous to. arid ai the battle of the Emivw iJjH&jgg;"* 

Fortunately we have U in our p^wcr to (\uow die mrtu. who, we believe. 
never errs on the- events ft hich he deiLTthcs. Colonel OtEm Williams wrote a 
mimue account of (he occurrences of thip battle, whi'm our good fortune ha- 
thrown into our ii;uids. And it has led m inquiries from Colonels Hampton. 
Polk, Howard, Watt.?, and several others of &*i distinguished men of that aOliir. 
which have enabled tts la submit the following account of It t with confidence, 
ro our readers. 



■r — ' J-l-^.| |. — -T 



" M«f«i l?H"-n LJletri :^ - 



$M MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 

e.n.u\ One leading cause of defect in ihc descriptions of the battle of the Eutaw, 
has been a fruited knowledge of the lupograpliy of the Held of battle. In I his, 
and all other cases wc depend only upon actual inspection ourselves, having 
visited iln-in nil. except rhe Coif pens. 

At 4- o'clock in \[\% muni ins, the American armv moved in four columns 
from its bivouac, In the following order : The South Carolina state troops 
and Lee*s lesriui), jmmed the advance, under command of Colonel Heuder- 
$0|t The mi lit lei, both of North and South Carolina; under Marion, moved 
ftftsfi Then followed the regulars under General Sumner; mid rhe rear whs 
closed bv Wasiiinnfon's cavalrv and Kirkwood's Delawares. under Coifing] 

■ ' -m- * 

Wellington. The juriillory moved between the columns. The troops were 
thus arranged in reference to die order of battle, in which they were to be 
formed on the field. 

It is an admitted fact, that on the evening of the 7th, Stewart was umip- 
prized of the approach of the: American army, lie .■supposed them to be still 
posted at Lauren s'< and die a polony which he makes for it is — « tliat the 
Americans had way -laid die swamps and parses in sucli a manner, as to eut 
oft" every avenue to intelligence." He would have found a belter apology in 
the fa<t : that the only patrol which appears to have been dispatched up thr 
Cougarcc road, had been entrapped ami cap fared by Colonel Lee, ihum^ the 
night- So entirely secure had he felt hit rise! f in his position, thai an unarmed 
party, under a small escort, had been advanced Lip the? river for the purpose of 
collecting the sweet putatoc, (very generally cultivated in tins state) lo cuu- 
tribute to the subsistence of his army. This party, commonly culled a rooting 
paiiv, consisting of about one hundred, after advancing about three miles, 
had pursued a road to their right, which led to the plantations on the river. 

The first intelligence, that Greene had approached within seven mifes- of his 
position, was communicated to Stewart by two of thr North Carolina con- 
Scripts, who had departed early In the night. Ami Captain Colfui, at the head 
of his cavalry, was advanced, as well to recall the footing party, as to recon- 
noitre die American position, ami ascertain their Views. 

The American advance had already passed the road pursued by the rooting 
party, when they were encountered by Collin : who immediately r h urged 
with a confidence which betrayed his ignorance of its strength, and of the 
near approach of the main army. It required hide effort to meet and re- 
pulse the British cavalry ■ but, the probability that their m am army was near 
at hand to support the detachment forbade the measure of a p retracted pur- 
suit. The firing at this point drew the rooting party out of the woods, and 
the whole fell into the hands of the Americans* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEN K 223 



*3v 

I • 'ft 



'J 



* 

~ 



.An the mean time, GoldrieT Stewart had pushed forward a detachment of chap, 
fnfantry to a mile distant from the Eutaws, with orders to engage and detain XV ' 
the American troops, while he formed his men and prepared for battle. But, 
Greene, persuaded by the audacity of Coffin, that the enemy was at hand, 
and. wishing to, have time for his raw troops to form with coolness and recol- 
lection, halted his columns, and after distributing the contents of his rum 
easksj ordered his men to form in the order for battle. 

The column of militia, when displayed, formed the first line ; the South 
Carolinians, in equal divisions, on the right and left, and the North Caroli- 
nians in the centre. General Marion commanded the right, General Pickens - 
the left, and Colonel Malmady, (who held a commission under North Caro- 
lina) commanded the centre. Colonel Henderson, with the state troops, 
including Sumpteris brigade, covered the left of this line, and Colonel Lee! 
with his legion, the right. 

The coluoiii^f regulars also displayed into one line ; the North Carolinians 
under General Summer, occupied the right, divided into three battalions, 
commanded by Colonel Ash, and Majors Armstrong and Blunt ; the Mary- 
landers, under Colonel Williams, on the left, divided into two battalions, com- 
manded by Colonel Howard and Major Hardman ; the Virginians, in the 
centre, under command of Colonel Campbell, were also divided into two 
battalions, led by Major Sneed and Captain Edmonds. The two three-poun- 
ders, under Captain Lieutenant Gaines, moved in the road with the first line 
which was equally distributed to the right and left of it; and the two six-poun- 
ders, under Captain Browne, attended the second line, in the same order- 
Colonel Washington still moved in the rear in column, with orders to keep 
under cover of the woods, and hold himself in reserve. The relative num- 
bers of the corps that formed the American second line, were nearly as fol- 
lows: the North Carolina line, 350 ; the Virginians, 250 * the Mary landers, 
,250- ( Those of the militia have been already mentioned. The troops of the 
two covering parties, and the reserve, make up the total of the regulars be- 
fore stated, ' 

In this order the troops moved forward- The whole country, on both sides 
of the road, being in woods, the lines could not move with much expedition 
consistently with preserving their order. The woods were not thick, nor the 
face of the country irregular; it undulated gently, presenting no obstacles to 
the march, although producing occasional derangements in the connection of 
the lines,;. \ _ < . .-^ - 

When the first American line reached the ground on which it encountered 
Stewart's advanced parties;^ was ordered to move on in order, driving the 



":■ 



--■ V ";= : 



221 & MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, enemy before h. And m this manner it advanced firing, while tlie enem) 
^^ retreated, and fell tuEtj their own line, 

£i ahotit two hundred yards west of the Eutaw Springs Stewart had 
drawn up Ins troop* in one line, extending from the Eutaw Creek beyond the 
.. m ain Congarec load. The Eutaw Creek ctTectu&Hy covered his right, and 
liis ]cft T which was in the military language, in air, was supported by Coffin** 
cavalry ? and a i-cspectablc detachment of infantry f held in reserve at a con- 
venient distance in the rear of the left, under cover of the wood. 

The ground on which the British army was drawn up, was altogether in 
wood ; but, at a small distance in the rear of this line, was a cleared field, 
extending west, south and east from the dwelling house, and bounded north by 
the creek formed by the Eutaw Springs, which is bold, and has a high bank 
thickly bordered with brush and low wood. From the house to this bank, 
extended a garden inclosed with palisadocs, and the window? of the house, 
which was two-stories high, with garret rooms, commanded the whole cir- 
cumjacent fields. The boose was of brick, and abundantly strong to resist 
small arms; and surrounded with various ofiices of wood- one particularly, a 
*■ barn of some size, lay to the south-east, a small distance from the principal 
building. In the open ground, TO the south and west of the house, was the 
British epcampmie^ the tents of which were left standing, 

The American^approach was from the west ; and at a short distance from 
the house, in that direction, the road forks, the right hand leading to Charles- 
ion, by the way of Monk's Corner, the left running along the front of the ho ate 
by the plantation of 11 r. Patrick Roehc, and therefore called, by the British 
officers, Hoc he's road ; being that which leads down the river, and through uV 
parishes of St. Johns and St. Stephens* 

The superiority of his enemy in cavalry, made ft necessary that Colonel 
Stewart should cast his eye to the Eutaw house for retreat and support. Tu 
■\| that, therefore, he directed the attention of Major Sheridan, widi orders, upon 
the first symptoms of misfortune, to throw himself into it, and cover theavmy 
-..< \ from the upper windows. On his right atso, he had made a similar provision 
against the possibility of his lines being compelled to give ground. In the 
thickets which border the creek, Major Majoi iuanUs, with three hundred of his 
best troops, was posted, with instructions to watch the flank of l he enemy, if 
ever it should be opened to attack. This command had assumed a position 
having some obliquity to the main Jiife, forming with it an obtuse angle, 

The artillery of the enemy was also posted in the main road. 

As soon as the skirmishing parties were cleared away from between the two 
armies, a steady and desperate conflict ensued. 3%&3^*£$$l the artillery of 



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MAJOR GENERAL GREESfc. ^ 

ibe fust line, and that of the enemy, was bloody and obstinate in the extreme: cmaf. 
nor did the American artillery relax ibr a moment from firtug r advancing, xv " 
until both pieces were dismounted and disabled, One of the enemy's four 
pounders had shared the same fate, and the carnage on both sides had been 
equal and severe. 

Nor had the militia been minting tii gallantry and perseverance, h wo* 
ivhh ccjual astonishment, that both the second line and the enemy, contemplated 
these men, steadily, and without faltering, advance with shouts and exhortations 
into the hottest of the enemy's lire, unaffected by the continual &JI of their 
comrades around them. General Greene, to express his admiration of the 
firmness exhibited on tins occasion by the in ill Em, says of them, in a letter to 
Steuben, » such conduct would have graced the veterans of the great king of 
Prussia.* 1 But it was impossible that this could endure lone, for these men 
were, all this time, receiving the fire of double Lhdr number ; Hieir artillery was 
demolished* ami thatol'the enemy still vomiting destruction on their rank?, 
They at length began to hesitate. 

Governor Euticdge, who was anxiously attending the event of thu battle, «. 
few miles in the rear, wrote to die South Carolina delegates, that the militia 
fired seventeen rounds before they reared, That distrust of their own imme- 
diate commanders, winch militia are ton apt to be affected with, never pro- ' 
duced an emotion where Marion and Pickens commanded, 

General Sumner was then ordered up to support them. This was done with 
the utmost promptness, and the battle again raged with redoubled fury, Ju 
speaking of Genera! Sumuera command, General Greene observes, « that ho 
was at a loss which most to admire, the gallery of the officer* or the good 
conduct of their men/' 

On the advance of General Sumnarv command, Colonel Stewart had brought 
up the infantry of his reserve into Hi] e on his left, and the struggle was obsti- 
nMely maintained between fresh troops on both sides. 

From the first commencement of ihe action, the in&mrv of the -\mcrk-an 
coveting parties, on the right and len\ had been steadily kmd& Thacavalrv 
of the legion, by being on the American right, had been cmihlcd to whhdmxV 
into the woods and attend on its hiihun-y, without being at till ®tpm& to the 
rjuemy's fire. But the state [ronp* under Hen;Ett-Aon hud been in the must ex- 
posed situation on the field. The American right, whh the addition of the 
$gl6& ftSm&fi had imimderi beyond the jStffefc jaft But tho American left." 
!VH far short of th* IJrhfch tfgfe and ihe consequence was that f he state troops 
WTO mpmd to the oblique lire of a \m* proportion of the British right, and 
particularly of the battalion commanded by Majorib&nks. \cv cr was the con- 
volp iu io 



^ MAJOR GENERAL GttEEN*;. 

^f stancy of a pnviy f$tmm mm severely tried. Henderson solicited permission 
to charge them, and e.\rricale hiiiiErlf from (heir ^allin^ lire, but his prefect ion 
could not be spared from ihe artillery or the trillion. At Jcngdi he receive! si 
wound wlncLi iif»?ilHcd Wm from kcrpiug his horse, and a momentary hesitation 
in his troops was produced by the shock. The exertions of Colonel Wade 
Hampton, who succeeded to die command, aided by those of Colonel Polk mid 
Aliddicton, proved sueec-sud in restoring rheni to confidence and order, and 
they rwimied their Million in perfect tranmdHuy. 

In ihe mean tiitie thmp were a^uming important' changes along the front 
line- Swttttitrjj brigade, fttei sustaining for some iimc T a lire superior to their 
own in the ratio of the greater numbers opposed to them, at length vidded, and 
fell bark* The British left, elated at the prospcel, sprang lorn ard as to certain 
rompicst, and (hrir litic became deranged, This was exactly ihe incident for 
which the American commander was anxiously watching, mid the next 
moment produced the movement for availing hi tnself of it. Colour] Williams 
now remained in command of the second line. u - Let Wilfianis advance^ and 
sweep the field with his bayonets, ■' was Hie order delivered to a gentleman of 
the medical staff, who acLcd the surgeon, the aid) and the soldier, indifferently, 
as occasion required. * 

Never was order obeyed with more alacrity : the two brigades received it 
with a shout: emulous to wipe it way the recollections of Uobkhk's II ill, they 
advanced with a spirit expressive of the impatience with whkh they had 
hitherto been passive spectators of the action. When approached within forty 
yards of the enemy, the Virginians deliverer I a destructive lire, and the whole 
second J inc. with trailed arms, and an animated pace, advanced to the charge. 
Until this period their progress had been in the midst of showers of i^rape, and 
under a stream of fire from the line opposed to them. Bnt eye -witnesses have 
asserted, that the roll of the drum, and the shouts which followed it, drew 
every eye upon them alone; ami a momentary pause in the action, a suspension 
by mut Lift I consent, appeared to withdraw both armies from a sense of pergonal 
danger, to fix their attention upon this impending conflict, Jt may well be 
supposed with what breathless expectation the southern com mander hung upon 
a movement on which all his hopes depended. Had it tailed, lie must have 
retired under the cover of his cavalry. 

Upon the approach of die second line, the advanced left of the Uritish army 
bad co m i uc j iced a retrograde movement, in some disorder. Tins was confirmed 



* t*r> Irvinr- 



MAJOR GENEKAL tiUEENE. 227 

by the good conduct of Colonel Leo. The legion infantry hud steadily main- ciiap. 
tamed ils order in lis position on Mil* extreme right; and the advance of the 
British left having exposed Its flank, the legion infantry were promptly whecl- 
ed, mid poured m upon them a destructive enfilading lire; then joining in the 
charge, the British left wing was thrown Into irretrievable disorder. But their 
centre and right still remained : greatly outnumbering the assailing party, and 
awaiting the impending c liaise with unshaken constancy. 

If the two lines on thU occasion, did not actually come to the mutual thrust 
■of the baronet, it must be acknowledged, that no troops ever came nearer. 
They are said to have been so near, t hut their bayonets clashed and the offi- 
cers sprang ai each other with their swords, before the enemy actually broke 
away. 

But, the scales of victory, fortunately fur man, arc never long in cquipose 
on *hese occasions. 

In this instance, the left of the British cenire appear to have been pressed 
upon, and forced bacli. by their own fugitives, and began to §ive way from left 
to right ► At that moment, the Mary I mi dot's delivered their (ire, and to long their 
whole tVouc the enemy yielded. 

The 5! 10 tits of victory resounded through the American line, a Hording a 
^Icam of consolation to many a brave man, bleeding and expiring on the 
Held. Among these was the gallant Campbell, who received a ball in the 
breast during this onset. 

The victory was now deemed certain : but, many joined in the si 1 nuts of 
victory who were still destined to bleed. The carnage among the Americans 
b id but commenced : k was in the effort to prevent the enemy from rallying, 
and to cue him ofl from the b lick- house, which was all that remained to compel 
the artnv Ld surrender, ihat their great loss was sustained. 

A pursuing anm b alwavs impeded by the eifort iEmt is necessary to main- 
tain its own order: while, whether from terror. fur safety, or for rallying the 
speed of the fugitive, is unrestrained. Hmce. cavalry afti the military means 
fir rend ci lug disorder irretrievable* It U obviou?. tIvae Lit ihi< noiut of time, 
the leg toil cavalry might have been turned Li]K>n the BriiUh left nithvery 
jurrcat vi'(wi< Their position was highly favourable to such a movement, and 
their hi fanny weis elo.se np with the enemv to all on I support. M hy tills was 
not done, has never heen explained ; wc can only conjee in re, that It was 
prevented by ryne or both of two causes known to have existed on that day. 
Colonel Lee was generally absent Jrom it during the Eiciion. and bestowing 
his attention upon the progress of his infantry ; and Captain Coffin was hi 
mat quarter, attending on the ret real of the British left. Collin's force was, 



3&a MAJOR GENERAL GKKKNi;. 

c ! up. proba b ly , su pe rior t o 1 1 1 a t of La e i n e a v a I r y : w he UK-r ?o 5 u perior a r u t j itst i f v t h c 
I titters uo t a item p M rtg L lie c 1 1 ar^o i n t lie presence o f the j3 ririsli c u v a I \ *\ ■ , a 1 th o ugh 
supported by that of his onu infauiry, could only have been d reeled by the 
attempt. 

At this stage of the battle* Mojo rib auks still stood firm in tin: thickets that 
( uvered him ; and, as The British line extended considerably beyond the 
American left, their extreme rid it stiil in aiu Jested a reluctance to retire ; ainT\ 
as their left had first 31 ven wav, and vi elded now without rcsisnmce* die Two 
armies performed together a half wheel which brought than into the open 
ground towards the front of the house, 

General Greene now saw that Majoribank* must be dislodged* or the 
JUaryland flank would soon be exposed lo his lire, and the conflict in rhat 
quarter renewed under his protection. Therefore, orders were dispatched to 
Washington, to pass the American left and charge the enemy's right* The 
order was promptly obeyed, and galloping through the woods, Washington 
was soon In action, Nad he had the good fortune to have taken on Kirk- 
wooi \h infantry behind his men, all would have gone well; to have been 
fie taincd by their march, would have been inconsistent with his general feel- 
ing. 

Colonel Hampton, at fhe same time, received orders to co-operate with 
Colonel Washington j and the rapid movement which he made to the deck, 
in order to fall hi upon Wash J niton's left, probably hastened the forward 
movement of the latter* On reaching the front of Majori banks, and before 
Hn nipt on had joined him, Washington attempted a charge but it was Impos- 
sible for his cavalry to penetrate the thicket. Me then discovered that there 
was an interval between the British right and the creek, by which he was m 
hopes to succeed in gaining their rear* With this \icw h , he ordered his troop 
to wheel by sections to the left, nod thus, brought nearly nil his oiliters next 
to the enemy, white he attempted to piiss iheir front, A deadly and well 
directed lire, delivered at that instant, wounded or brought to the ground many 
of his men ami bursas, and every officer except two. 

The (IcLd of battle was, at this instant, rich in the dreadful scenery which 
disfigures such a picture. On the left. Washington's cavalry, routed and 
flying, hordes plunging as they died, or coursing die lie Id without their rl tiers, 
while tile enemy, with poised bayonet, issued from the thicket, upon the 
mounded or unhorsed rider: in the fore-ground, Hampton covering ™;d 
collecting the scattered cavalry, while Kirk wood, wkh his bayonets, rushed 
furiously to revenge their fall, and a road strewed with the bodbs of men 
and horses, and the fragments of dismounted artillery : Leyond these, a- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 229 

scene of imiiscribablc confusion, viewed over ihe whole American line nd- chap, 
vaneing rapidly, and in order ! And, on the right, Henderson borne off in die. 
arms of his soldiers, and Campbell sustained in his saddle by a bravo son, who 
had sought glory at his father's side. 

Nothing could exceed the consternation spread at this tine through [he 
British ground of encampment. livery tiling was given up for lost, the com- 
missaries destroyed their stores, the nmnerouiis retainers of the army, mostly 
ImaiiMs and deserters, who dreaded falling into the hands of the Americans, 
leaping on the fust horse they could command, crowded the roads, and spread 
Bfef&1 to tlie very pates of Charleston, The stores on the road wci-e set fire 
to, and the road itself obs true ted by tin; felling of trees, for in iles, across it. 

Lieutenant Gordon, ami Cornet Simmons, were ihe only two of Washings 
ton's olliccrs who could return into action. The Colonel himself h ad his horse 
shot under him, and Jus life saved by the interposition of a British olBcer. 
The melancholy group of wounded men and officers, who soon presented 
themselves to the general's view, convinced him of the severity of his mis- 
fortune ; but, he had not yet been made acquainted with the full cxt nit nf it. 

Tin: survivors of Washington's command be in a; rallied, united themselves 
to Hampton's, and were again led up to the charge upon Majori banks, bur 
without success. That officer was then retiring before kirk wood, still hold- 
ms; to the thickets, and making for a new position, with his rear to the creek* 
and Ins It: ft resting on the palisadoed garden. Liv Lids time Shci idan had 
thrown himself into the house, and some of the routed companies from the 
left had made good their retreat into the picketted garden ; from the intervals 
of whiuli, they could direct their fire with security and effect. The whole 
British line was now Hying before the American bayonet. The latter pressed 
closelv upon their heels, made many prisoner^ and aught have em off the 
ret rent of the rest, or curcred pell- in ell with them into the house, but for one 
of those occurrences, which have often snatched victory from the grasp of a 
pin suing enemy. 

The retreat of the British army lay directiy through their encampment, 
where the tents were all standing, and presented many objects to tempt a 
ihirstv, naked and lu tinned Soldiery to acts of insubordination* Nor was the 
concealment itlforded by the tents at tins time a trivial consideration, for the 
lire from the windows of die house was giaEliti™ and destructive, and no cover 
from it was any where to be found except amount the tents, or behind the 
building to the left of the front of the house. 

Here it was that the American line got into irretrievable confusion.- — 
When their officers had proceeded beyond the encampment, they fotmd thenv 



JJ<1 MAJOR GENERAL GKEENX 

chap. selves nearly abaii Honed by their soldiers, and the sole marks for the jjariv 
who now poured, their lire from the windows of t be house 

From ilie baneful eiTccts of passing through the encamp inem, only a feu 
corps escape J, Of this mi tuber, the legion infantry appears to have been one, 
Bein g tar on the American right, it directed its movements with a view to se- 
curing the advantage of being covered by the bam; and the narrow est 1 ope of 
die British army, is sumcicntlv attested hv the fact, that this corps was very 
near enuring the house pell-mell with the fugitives- It was only by dosing 
the dour in me faec d$ some nf their own ouicers and men, that it was pre- 
m jiiedj and hi retiring from the fire of the house, the prisoners taken at the 
door, were interposed as a shield to the life of their captors. 

Every thing now com biued to blast the prospects of the Ajuerk-m com- 
mander. The fire from the house showered down destruction upon the Ame- 
rican of beers ; and the men, unconscious or unmindful of eon soq Lie i ices, per- 
haps thinking the victory secure, and bent on the immediate fruition of its 
advantages, dispersing among the tents, fastened upon the liquors and refresh- 
incuts they afforded, and bet a me u ft erty unmanageable, 

Majori banks and Collin, watchful of every advantage, now made siimil- 
um'oiis mo Yemenis : the former from his thick et on the loft, and the I a tier 
from the wood on the right of the American line, GencraE Greene soon per- 
ceived the evil that threatened liim, and not doubting but his infantry, whose 
disorderly conduct he was not yet made acquainted with, would immediately 
dispose of Majoribaiiks, dispatrhed Captain Pendleton with orders for the 
legion cavalry to fall upon CniTm and repulse him, 

We will give die result in Cap lain rendlcton J s own langmige : " When 
Cufim's cavalry came out, General Greene sent me to Colonel Lee, with orders 
to attack him, iVhen I went to the corps Lee was not there, and the order 
was delivered to Major Egtestoti, the next in command, who made the attEick 
without success/' fc( The truth is, Colonel Lee was very little, if at all, with 
his own corps a iter the enemy lied. He took some dragoons with him. as 1 wa,s 
informed, ami rode about the licit!, giving orders and directions, in a maimer 
the general did not approve of. General iiravLW was, apparently, disappointed 
when I informed him Colonel Lee wei* not with ills cavalry, and that I had 
c\ elk ere d the order to Major Eirle? ton, 7 ' 

By this time General Greene, being made acquainted with the extent of his 
misfortune, ordered a retreat. 

Coffin, u ho certainly proved himself a brave and active officer on this day, 
had no sooner repuLcd ihc legion cavsdry, than he hastened on m ehargc the 
rear of the Americans, now dispersed among the tents* Colonel Hampton had 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. ^ 

been ordered up to ilic road to cover the retreat, at the same lime the order was citaf. 
issued to effect it, and now charged upon Coffin with a vigour that was not to 
be resisted. CnElin met him with lirumess, and ei si imp conflict, hand to hand, 
was for a while maintained. Bui Coffin was obliged to retire, and hi the 
ardour of pursuit, the American cavalry approached so near Mnjoribanks. and 
the pickettcd garden, as to receive: from the.ni a fatally destructive lire. Colonel 
Vo\k, who commanded Hampton's left, and was, of consequence, directly under 
IN influence, describes it by declaring ''■ that he thought every man killed btil 
blanch*-' Colonel Hampton then rallied his scattered cavalry, and resumed 
Ids station in the border of die wood. But before this could he effected, 5fe? 
jori banks liftd taken advantage of the opening made by hi* fire, to perform 
another gallant action, which was decisive of tSic fortune of the d/ay. 

The anillery of the second line had Col towed on, as rapidly as it could, upon 
the track of the pursuit, and, together with I wo six- pounders abandoned by the 
enemy in their flight, had been brought up to baiter the house* Unfortunately, 
in the ardour todischarge a pressing duty, the pieces had been run into the open 
field, so near as to be commanded by the fire from the house. The pieces hud 
scarcely opened their lire, when die pressing danger which threatened the party 
in i he house, ami, consequently the whole army, dreu all the fire from the 
windows upon the artillerist, and it very soon killed or disabled nearly ihe 
whole of thcim And Majoribauks was no sooner disembarrassed of Hampton's 
cavalry, than lie sallied into the field, seized the pieces, and hurried them under 
the cover of the house. Then being re -co forced by parties from the garden 
and the house, he charged among ihe Americans, now dispersed among the 
tents, and drove them before him. The American army, however, soon rallied, 
after reaching the cover of the wood, and their enemy was too much crippled 
to venture beyond the cover of the house, 

General Greene halted on the ground only long enough to collect his wound- 
ed ; all of whom, except those who hat I Ikllen under com- of the fire from the 
house, he brought olf: and having made arrangements for burying the dead, 
and left a strong picket, under Colonel Hampton, on the field, he withdrew 
his army to Bu id ell's, seven miles distant. At no nearer point could water be 
found adequate to the comforts of the army, 

Both parties claimed, on this occasion, a compete victory; but there U no 
diificuhv in deciding the question betwnen thetn, upon ihe plain est principles* 
The British army was chased from the field at the point of the bayonet, and look 
refuge in a fortress; the Americans were repulsed from that fortresSn And, but 
for die demoralizing effect of possessing themselves of the British tents, the cover 



232 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, of rhe burn presented the means of forcing or firing the house with certainty, 
and reducing the wheals to submission. 

But if further evidence of victory than driving the enemy from the field, occu- 
pying his position, and plundering his camp, be required, it is found in the 
events* of the succeeding clay. 

M 'Art bur wus called up from Fairlawu to cover General Ste war I *$ retreat ; 
and leaving seventy of hi* svounded to his enemy, and many of his dead uubu* 
ried; breaking the stock* of one thousand stand of arms, and casting them into 
the 3pflfigj destroying hU stores l and then moving d£T precipitately, ho fell 
back^ ami retreated to Fairlawn. The possession of the American artillery* was 
the strong ground on which the British founded their claim to victory. But in 
this the trophies were divided, for one of the enetny J s pieees a the four pounder 
that was disabled on uV Jlcld s was carried olTby the American^ and the two 
others were (airly in their hands* and would have been seen red, had they not 
been brought up, ih rough the officious r-crd of some of the stall" of the army, to 
attack their prior uwner*. 

On the other hand, the enemy tuok 90 prisoners, except about forty wounded, 
whilst the Americans made Jive hundred prisoners, including the seventy who 
were abandoned when the enemv repeated* 

■ 

But the best criterion of victory h to be found in enuseinieuces * and here the 
evidence is altogether on the American *ide, tor, ihw enemy abandoned his 
position! relinquished the country it commanded, and although largely re- en- 
forced, still retired, when the Americans advanced within five inUcsof him, to 
Ferguson^ Swamp, n here lip lieu! first hulled* 

fc wa* General Greene's Iniemion to have renewed the action the uexe day ; 
and In hopes to prevent a junction with M' Arthur, Lee and Marion- had bcVu 
detached to watdi the Bne of communication between the J£utaws and Fair, 
lawn. By the simultaneous movements of the two corps, $o as to meet ui 
mid-distance and out-number Marion, (heir junction and retreat was efleo 
tmdiy secured* This was the evening of the day after the battle. General 
Greene pressed the piu-suit on the mad to Charleston, during the whole of one 
day; but, I In dim; that Colwrol Stewart still retired before huu t and being now- 
left at liberty to watch the .movements of Lord Cornwall!*, and bin wounded 
aE*1 nriwuers requiring mumrlon, ae resohed to route again rotlua Lllgh-Jlills 
aUt San tee, 

The truth is, that the ilridsh power in South Carolina was completely pros- 
trated by the battle of Eutaw % for, indepcndtmtiy of losing in killed- wounded 
and uitamg, near one half oC too force brought huo action, the enemy had 
lost the charm of Imputed invincibility in the field; and, above all, that of 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 5233 

invincibility Qt the bayonet. By a very inferior force, they had been de& chap, 
dedly foiled at this weapon, in a conflict, in which the relative pre tensions of, 
the combatants to this kind of excellence, had been fairly tested. The ques- 
tion had been depending from the very commencement of this campaign, and 
Iiad novv been conclusively decided in favour of the American bayonet It 
was a subject of great exultation among the Virgin) axis and Mary landers and 
every other corps In the army, among whom great pains bad been taken to 
make it the point of honour. 

General Greene had need of all the consolations of victory, to relieve the 
distressed feelings which burthened lm heart at the close of this day. To sec 
the British army, by circumstances which no human foresight could have 
anticipated, snatched from Ins grasp at the moment when he had zxery reason 
10 expect its surrender on the field of battle, might have been borne, by one so 
familiarized to the vicissitudes of war, and the persecutions of fortune* But, 
the frequent LUtte groups of soldiers, bearing on litters his bleeding or expiring 
officers, excited feelings which oo philosophy could control. They were not 
only his brothers hi arms, but his brothers in affection, most of them formed to 
service under lib own eye r the cheerful uncomplaining associates in many & 
-day of toil and privation, and their conduct on this day, had exhibited such 
proofe of devotion to their country and their general, as left an impression 
never to bo effaced from a grateful heart, " Never," says he, in his official 
account of this hat tie, *' did either men or officers offer their bloud more wil- 
lingly in. the service of their country." Thin as were ins regiments, he had 
always been deficient iu olEcers, and now sixty-one had been killed or wound- 
ed* Twenty-one of these had died on the field of battle, and among them 
Campbell, of whose merits he entertained the most exalted opinions. "He 
was," says he. « 4 the great soldier and firm patriuu" 

An anecuW, related of tins officer by several historians, and shedding lustre 
over his tomb, ha* been contradicted by Colonel Lee, it Js this j that after 
receiving his wound, and when drawing fast to his end, he inquired how the 
battle went ; and being informed that the enemy were routed, and flying, he 
exclaimed, ■* 1 die contented*' 1 

Colonel Lee asserts.* that Campbell received the fatal wound in his pre- 
sence, and expired « without uttering a word." The reader will decide be- 
tween the authority of Colonel Lee, and the following testimony of Captain 
Pendleton, to the dying sentiment of Campbell : 



* Lee'i Memtire, vol. S ? p, £02. 
VQU \h SO 



KB MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



CIUF. 



» I was not prm$W wbm Colonel Campbell rrceived his wound ; but, late 
a in the afternoon, I was directed by General Greene to pass through the woods, 
on the south $&$ r*f (fee rond, and direct the straying parties J might meet 
with dispersed through them, to rendezvous nt the house from which we had 
marched j;fl the t&ff»ti«g, In doing this I met with Colonel Campbell, car- 
nod upon a liuer by some *=ol die rs + 1 g$t offi my horse and went to him. He 
perfectly refined his semes, btit was in great pain, and seemed near his end, 
f$c asked me uho hud gained the battle. I told him ivc had completely de- 
ft atcd the enemy, ■* Then.- said he, il I $&. contented. 7 ' I left him, and 
understood he died shortly after. 71 

t" 

In support of Captain Pendleton, it k in our pouer to adduce a fact, well 
Calculated to replace this laurel on the tomb of a gallant officer. In the after- 
noon of the day of the battle, Captain Pea ice was dispatched to congress 
with the intelligence of the victury. That Campbell was not dead when 
Pcarcc left the army, appears from u letter of his, written on his journey, in 
which he pnrticufai !y impure?, " if it be true that Campbell was dead ! ?? 

General Greene, in his official communication, distinguishes particularly the 
Virginians, Maryhmdcrs, Infantry of the legion, and Kirk wood's light infantry. 
To then 1 free use of the bayonet, he attributes the victory • die last mentioned 
corps had moved up with astonishing celerity from lite rear, and forced Iih way 
wherever the enemy's right manifested a disposition to make a stand. Every 
corps in the army, indeed, is mentioned with some expression of applause, 
except the cavalry of the legion, of wlrieli it is only ?aid, i: it was discomfited 
in an attempt on (he right/ 1 Its inactivity dining the action, when opportu- 
nities for service certainly presented themselves, and its shrinking at t lie close 
of the battle, w hen ordered into action, were subjects of no little criticism at 
the time* That the men aud officers were brave, had been proved in mnnv a 
rencontre; but, it was remembered, that nearly the same thin a; hud occurred 
at Guilford. The failure of the charge upon Coffin, had passed under the eye 
of the whole army ; and, although the superiority of the latter had been great 
at the commencement of the action, It must have been much diminished at this 
time, after the fatigues and combats he had undergone, It is most probable, 
that the appearance of the legion cavalry in me field, drew upon It the fire 
from the house, and tEiis may have been the cause that cheeked ami dispirited 
its movements* Yet, rapidity of movement, and acmal contact with the 
enemy, must have diminished, if not obviated this evil. It is but justice, how- 
ever, both to this corps, and to Colonel Lee. to men lion, that General Greene 
never censured cither; on the contrary, at a subsequent day, when Colonel Lee 
^as writhing under the imputations that these occurrences had produced, we 



lUAJOli GENERAL GREENE, m 

m I his tribute rendered by the general to their merit.* - f see by your kucr ggtt* 
to Majbf Burnet, von think gumt hi justice was done your fcg&tiij in wK^W 
report of the battle "of Eutnw; and van lament my giving credit to idle Wfes, 
in fornnng my repots You may fc&a Ensured I did not* There was m man 
that deserved greater credit than yon that day ; and if you are not *o rcpir- 
semeo\ it is my fault. The infantry ok the legion deserved every thing that 
could be said of them also. Nor was the cavalry blamable, but less fortunate. 
They did not make a successful charge in the course of the day, though they 
attempted it several times. Two corps may be equally disposed to distinguish 
&rtm$rm- *<sne n?*y have an opportunity^ the ether not ; and where a case 
of this kind Affljtf happen, I would ask you, whether yon could report them 
to eqmil advantage : If they can be, then iimutum is every ■ thing, action 
nothing Von know, it i* a rule with inc. to give a candid account, let the 

matter operate as it may,' 1 &c* 

Colonel Lee, in his anxiety to exculpate the conduct of his favourite corps* 
has cast an imputation upon the aid who delivered the order to Eglesiom by 
pronouncing it an o mesons order, and one i: in truth never issued by the 
^ncral. 1 " The officer who delivered that order now avows it to the world, 
and with confidence appeals to the expression of approbation publicly declared 
by the general, of hi.s conduct on that day. ® I also feel myself greatly in- 
debted to Captains Pierce and Pt'ndkton, Major Byrne and Captain Shubvicfc, 
my aids-de-camp, for their activity and good com I net throughout die whole of 
the action," Censure, Captain Pendleton observes, noi approbation, would 
have followed li an officious order ," ending in a disaster li conclusive of the 
disappointment of a commander's highest hopes," as Colonel Lee pronounces it. 

Bat the officer whose conduct, on this day, met with the loudest applause 
VNB Colonel Williams; of him General Greene says— " 1 cannot help acknwv- 
ietVm^ my obligations to Colonel Williams fnr Ins great activity on this and 
many other occasion;, in forming the army ; and for \\U uncommon intrepidity 
in leading on the Maryland troupe to the charge, idtirfi m&M. ™ U J *&% I ** 
sfift." Marian, Pickens, Sumner, Henderson, Hainpiun, Polk. M id d I? toil, 
Lee, Washington, and many others, had been previously complimented upon 
their conduct, by his noticing the occurrences happening under their respective 
commands. 



* Onerit! Greene to OJonet L** f October 7% !"&?. 



236 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

Btfcfcfl Henderson. Pickt $& Howard, and mauv other invaluable officers, were 
^^r^-^, among the wounded, Marion and Williams, through the whole campaign, 
seem to have been guarded by t..& hand of Minerva. 

On the evening after the battle, while General Greene was discharging a 
duty which he never failed to perform, that of visiting the. colic h of the wound- 
ed, when lie came to the hovel in which Washington^ wounded officers were 
grouped together; the sight of so many gallant young men, so suddenly brought 
down from the high hopes and ma mat exhibition of the preceding cUy, so 
strnngfv affected him. that after the kin 06$. inquiries which a warm heart, 
mid unfeigned admiration could dictate, he took his leave, with telling them, 
**& was a trying dnty imposed on you, but it was una void able, 1 could not 
help it." 

The American returns exhibit a loss of one hundred and fourteen rank and 
file killed, three hundred wounded, and forty missing; the aggregate exceeding 
one fourth of all who inarched imo buttle. The enemy acknowledged a loss of 
three commissioned o J Vice re killed, sixteen wounded, and ten missing ; Rank 
mid file, dghty-two killed, three hundred and thirtv-fue wounded, and two 
hundred and lortv-scvcn missing- But if the number acknowledged killed and 
wounded, was as much less than the reality as the number acknowledged as 
missing is known to have been, (and the chance of detection was less as to the 
killed and wounded,) then must their actual loss have been much greater For 
General Greene actually carried off the field four hundred and thirty prisoners, 
which, added to the wounded lefr behind the day following the battle, mad*.' up 
ihe number of prisoners five hundred, The whole, killed, wounded, and pri- 
soners, amounting to more than half of their number acknowledged to have 
been brought into the field. A victory on such terms could only have existed 
in imagination, or in bold deception ! 

The immediate cause of the defeat of Colonel Slew ail was certainly, as he 
alleges, the disorder produced by the advance of his left out of line. But for 
that occurrence, promptly and happily improved by his adversary, it is pro- 
bable that he would not have been forced from his ground, and the a flair 
would have terminated in a drawn Ej attic, or rather a repulse of the Americans, 
General Greene's havoncts were too few to have forced the British line, had it 

K 

i 

been steadily p reserved. 

Majori brinks did not live long to enjoy the I ugh rcputaikm he had aeon i red 
on this day. He died on the march to Charleston ; and his tomb is still seen on 
die road -si do s where he expired and was buried. 

The rest of the British wounded narrowly e? raped the restless enterprise of 
Marlon, Understanding that they had been shipped at Fair! awn for Charles- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREECE. ^7 

ton, he moved rapidly, by night, below that place, on the opposite bank of the chap. 
river, ami would certainly have intercepted them, had not a slave of one of the 
phmmtiuns given a signal proof of his loyalty, by hastening to the British camp 
with the intelligence. Marion was, in his turn, compelled to steal away, and 
avoid interception. 

The congress of the United States took particular notice of the affair of the 
Eutnws, After voting their thanks to the commander of the department, and 
every description of troops specific-ally, a British standard was ordered to be 
presented to the commander, and a ^otd medal commemorative of die event ;* 
a sword to his aid, Captain Pierce, who was bearer of the imelligei ice; their 
thanks to the «eneiars aids by name, and a very particular acknowledgment 
made to General .Marion fox rill service generally, and particularly in the ex- 
pedition to Ton Pon. and the battle of Eutaw, 



• Tliis mf.&A it now hi tV hamfl of Mr. Eli Whitney] of New-Haven, The imjjfffc'irjn wns mIs« 
matte in fttpfl&j Rb4 dirtrihutef] to Mi? frfcmk ti\i\tm« whom ir Ik wrrpcLEy pWWT! 5 d> 



i 



m MAJOR GENEKAL GREENE, 



CHAPTER XVI 



General Greene vtc rosses the Santec Jiesitmes his post a? the High Hi lis. Cor- 
respondence. British army IW- enforced, returns to the banks qf the Santee. 
Takes post at Mon&s Conm. Extreme distress of the American army. 
Rviiwvr of Lan! Coriucallis' flight revised. Great efforts to prepare to meet 
him. Governor Burke, of North Catvlina. His laudable conduct. Valorous 
enterprise of Hector JPNeiL Burke and his council arc captured, ax d sent 
prisoners to Charleston. State of things in North Carolina and Virginia. 
Sfieltiy and Severe join the army— are detached under Marion. American 
mirnj cross the Wateree and Congaree, and take post at Ruund-O, Affairs of 
Fa irla ic ft and Dor eh est er. Brit ixh arm if force d i eto u \ th e Quarter- House. Th e 
■mo ttntaineers desert Mario H ■ A mc rican ®m$ u-ahw.i a m m a n ition—th e ca uses. 
General St. Clair. Gist, and Wayne join the army r nith the Pennsylvania line 
and recruits from Maryland and Delaware. Wayne detached to Georgia. 
Preparations for the Jacksonborough Assembly, American army advances to 
caver it Colonel Laurens. Attempt on Colonel Crarg. General Greene 
takes post at Colonel Skirvmg'- 's. Campaign doses. 



tjMjte* Ox the day of the battle of the Eutaws, General Greene hat! received intel- 
uJvw ligen.ee, by express from Governor lit tike, lvbidi forbade his continuing on the 
ionth of the San tee longer ihan was necessary to ascertain whether his adver- 
sary wo li hi await another attack* 

The French fleet had arrived off the Chesapeake, General Washington was* 
on his march ibr Virginia, and Cornwall is was imli caling intentions to maki: 




HS.fatWtr jt,: 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 259 

kis anticipated movement to the souib. To meet and counteract the move- chap. 
incut of Cornwall is southwardly, it was necessary that the Amcrkau army h 
should take a position to the nor lb of the San tee, and that every nerve should 
be strained to collect re- enforcements* 

La Fayette and Govern or Unrkc had been early warned to be on their 
guard against this movement : and they were not inattentive to the discharge 
of their duty* 

On the 12th General (hecne crossed the Santce, at Nelson's Ferry ; and oir 
the loin resumed his former position at the i liik This was the first breathing 
moment lie hat I enjoyed alter the battle: such had been the duties whieh the 
move moots oft lie enemy, die pots of the wounded, mid the order necessary to 
betaken, in the new stale of tilings, had heaped npuu him. 

Orders being first dispatched in every direct inn. Tor every rc-enforccmcm 
that he could hope lor, ivjiIi a view to preparing tor die probable event of 
having to throw himself in front of Lord CormvaJlis. ive find General Greene, 
on the 17th, for the first time after the affair of the Emaws, sitting down to in- 
duce hLmsclf, in communicating with his private friends on that occurrence. 

Writing to General Yarn urn, one of the intimates of his von tin and then a 
member of congress, he says, 5< 1 have the pleasure to infcjrm you, that 
we have had a most tremendous fight, uttil gained a victory* You will see my 
letters lo congress, and have an opportunity to converse with Captain Pierce, 
my aid, who will have the honour of delivering you this letter; therefore 1 will 
not go into particulars, but depend upon it, it was by far the i not t obstinate and 
bloody fight f ever saw, 

" tP'c Jig fit t you must acknowledge* I hope the conduct of the army may 
merit the very parci-nhir appro bat ion of emigres' 5 - I am sure we endeavour to 
deserve It* 

* : I congratulate yon on our happy prospects Ui Virginia* General TVasEiimj;- 
ton is a most furtunate. as well as a grcai and good man. He will be hailed 
as ihe deliverer of his own country. How pleasing the tfjslfc! how honourable 
the nil del-taking! *' Nations shall rise up and call him blessed !' T [ Ion* for 
domestic hfc; hut, Britain will persevere as long as there is a gleam of hope. 
However, I think her prospects tire not a little blasted in the south ; but, we 
are weak and feeble, notwithstanding the enemy fly before us. The? have 
more than two to our one." 

To the marquis J kj whiles— - If voir succeed iigmnti Cornwall]*, which I am 
sure you ivill, unless he grapes through North Carolina, which i sJmll take 
cxvry measure to prevent, J have invited the commander in chief further south, 



2M> MAJOK GENERA t GREENE* 

cum. that we mav ajve at one blow si jfoiish ins: stroke to the war in tliis quai-tciv and 
f shall be equally happy in Bftft&tg subordinate or principal. 

" Wc have had 3 most bloody battle since I wrote you before. It was foughr 
at the Euftuv Spi -lugs, near Nelson's Ferry. AVc obtained a complete victory, 
and had U not becu lor ®*£#f ifos$ incidents to which mihtnnj operative act 
subject^ we should have taken the whole British army. However, we look 
fo$ hundred prisoners, and killed and wounded a much greater number, and 
have driven the enemy til most to the gates of Charleston : we also rook near 
one thousand stand of arms. It was, by far. the hottest action I oversaw, 
and the most blood v for the numbers erased. But, the enemy greatly otu- 

#* — 

numbered us," kc + 

hi his letter to General VY^rffij$#ftj among many other topics, alluding to 
the: attempt on Lord Comwallis, he writes— " I wish most devoutly, Outt 
glory and 6gt$CSSS nitty attend yon, If Comwallis falls, h lueh 1 think nothing 
lliii prevent but Ins escaping diron^h North Carolina to Charleston, C harks - 
to u itself may easily be reduced, if yon bend your force this way. Since I 
wrote yon, we have had a most bloody battle. It was. by far, the most 
obstinate light 1 ever a a u\ Vie 1017 was ours ; and had it not been for one 
of those tittle incidents w Inch often occur in the progress of war, we should 
have taken the whole British army. Nothing could exceed the gallnmiy of 
our officers, or the bravery of our troops, See, 1 am trying to collect a hotly 
or militia to oppose Lord Comwallis, should he attempt *to escape through 
North Carolina ; and you may rest, assured, nothing shah be left miattempted 
in my power, to impede his march, so a* to give your army lime to get up 
with him. Hut, my force will be very small, and I am exceedingly embar- 
rassed with a numerous wounded/' 

In General Washington's answer, dated October Gtb, before York-Town, 
lie writes— " How happy am 1, my dear sir, in at length having it in my 
power to congratulate you upon a victory, as splendid as 1 hone it will prove 
important. Fortune must have been coy indeed, had she not yielded, at last, 
to so persevering a person els you have been. I hope now she is yours, she 
will change her appellation of lickle to that of contain, 

M lean say. with sincerity . that I feel in the highest degree, [he good effects 
which you mention, eis it suiting from the perfect good understanding between 
you, the marquis, and myself, 1 hope it will never be interrupted j and I am 
sure it never cm> ; while we are all influenced by the same pure motive— thai 
of love to our country, and interest in the cause in which we are embarked, 
I have happily had but few differences with those with whum I have the 
honour of being connected in the services — with whom, and of what nature 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE:. m 

those have been, you know* I bore much for the sake of peace and the chap. 
public good — my conscience tells me, I acted right in these transactions ; and ' 
should they ever come to die knowledge of the world, I trust I shall stand 
acquitted by it," Li-. 

In a letter of the 16th, tQ General Nebou, m find the following passage* 
rclaiivc to the Virginia line: — lL Since then we have had a bloody action, 1>\ 
whidi their ranks are considerably thinned. The officers paid severe lv for 
the honours of the day; hnr, audi as fell, met their late with becoming diinitv. 
Your fiiH' participated eousidcivibly in the |u>s; arid their very m a teriul ser- 
vices claim the most generous acknowledgments of gratitude from their conn- 
try. Lieutenant Colonel Ciiuijilu-]], who commanded the brigade, and who 
was killed in the heat and fury of the coiiHicr, merits all that can he said of a 
brave, active, and intrepid soldier. His worth I recommend to you as de- 
serving very particular public notice- f Jc has been engaged in our service 
from the commencement of the war, and has hied more than once to save the 
liberties of his country. A numerous family is left behind m lament his loss ; 
and a wry gallant youth, his sun, who is a lieutenant in the Hue, and who 
fought bravely by hts side, is here to partake of such honours as Virginia may 
think proper to besuow on his father's merit." 

In a letter to General Smatlwood, he says—'' Nothing could exceed the 
gallantry of the Maryland line. Colonels W'illinms, Howard, aiid afl theoffi- 
cers exhibited acts of uncommon bravery : and the (roe use of the havouer 
by I his and some other corps, gave as the victory. But, though our ^lory 
was complete, and advantages great, yec it has been at (he expense of much 
blood. Many brave fellows have fdlun, and a great number of officers arc 
wounded; among the number, is Lieutenant Colonel Howard. The Mary- 
land line made a charge that exceeded any thing I ever svw. Bur. alas f 
their ranks are thin, and their officers few 1 

* Are we to have fury re-enforcements nr not' or, am I :o be left to sink 
afier the great exertions we have made ? It is a lun^ time since I was favoured 
with a line from yoti. From others J ca:i hear of troops eons tug, but never 
can hear of their arrival." 

in al] his communications it is perceived, that Greene wrote with great 
warmth on the bravery of his officers and men. Nor, was he less jusi ro the 
m-rksof their antagonists. ThrpMi^ tiebeitfltvi upon the latter h not the 
mere atTectatlou of rating still higher his own exploits; it was the unaffected 
effusion of real admiration- Hut, WfO arc left to conjecture what this (i inci- 
dent" was, to which he so often alludes, as the cause of his failure to capture 
the whole army. 



^y MAJOR UKNEUAL GREENE 

chap. There can be no doubt« it was the disorder produced in Ins army by ihti 
KV ' plundering of the cfnnp. But for this, Majoribaaka, when he charged upon 
them, must tevc been oven h row u In au instant ac tbe point of the bayonet; 
and flic pfemsa of the house would have covered the men from the enemy, 
while they set lire to li. He was unwilling to excuse his loss of the priHe, then 
nlmosi iu' liis S rnap l by acknowledging the disgraceful conduct of his men In 
that Instance. Their bravery, previously, had been such, and the often w, 
though fatal to him, so natural to men of their banitSp that he obviously wished 
to throw the fact into rhe n ui 

We will dlsuil&s the subject of this bat tie by one further observation. Every 
autftov who ha* related it, has averted, thai when the American line charged 
upon the enemy, the contest ivas maintained with audi obstinacy, that die 
soldiers felj pierced by mutual wounds, A* Urn experience of military men 
gnus far to discredit the truth of this assertion, we have taken sunie pains to 
ascertain how fuv it comported with facts. The result is, that one such in- 
dinnec wus seen, General Greene's body-servant, a black man, a private in 
the Maryland line, bad taken his post to the rank* (as did every other of 
every description belonging to the regiments ;) he happened to encounter an 
adversary worthy of coping with hinaT and they feK and were found mutually 
transfixed, each by the other 1 * bayonet. Although iJie feet does hoi furnish 
ground sufficient 10 except the battle of the Eutuws from die general rule, 
« that soldiers never neutaJJv stand the thrust of the bayonet;^ yet, it proves 
the near approach, and desperate resolution of tbe assailing parly, and the 
ftmmes* with win. h thifjr were received. Less reality often furnishes ground- 
work for more fiction* 

Critical find embarrassing a? Greene's situatiou had often been* it never was 
more so than mi mediately after the battle of the Euraws, Ills militia MH>n 
all left him ; of the North Carolinians, there remained hut one hundred* and 
their term of service was near expiring, Pickens, .Marion, and Hampton, 
bat! been necessarily detached to cover the country ; and with tbe continentals 
alone, he had to dinehurge nil the painful and necessary services required by 
ncrtr six hundred wounded, three hundred and nTtv of his own, and two hun- 
dred and fifty of ihe enemy. Added To this, the fatigue and exposure which 
his troops had recently undergone among the swamps at tins season ofilm 
yemv hid brought ou then* the diseases of the climate, and the commander 
Idmsclf became a subject of their attack. 

At all dm eg emhu missed la the qunrtcr-ni aster *s department, his means of 
transportation by land were quite inadequate to his present necessities ; but 
for die contiguity of tbe river, it would scarcely have been possible to move the 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- £43 

Army, without leaving its wounded behind. By collecting boata, the wounded chat* 
were happily accommodated in a manner well suited to their situation, ami 
sent up the Water ee. But exposure Co the miasma of the swamps, at dim 
season, could not fall to produce attacks of endemial disease among them and 
their nitcmhmts* 

General Greene certainly could not* Ten day* after the batlle of Euta«\ hare 
mustered* at head -miancr*, one tl inland men fit for actio m With this diml- 
mmve ftfffie, and In msclf labouring under disease, two important object* press- 
cd mi Uh aneutium The most positive Intelligence was now received, " that 
Lord Ci>rmvp|Jb meant to penetrate, with his army, from York to South 
Carolina by lanri ;" Riid " iliat in conse^Lieuee of the a nival of the French 
fteet, Lord Com wall is w$$ tttttnf moving Irani York to James River, and was 
getting bis boat* across from Queen's Creek to the College Lauding, from 
thcoeu to Jamettown, and there to trass James HIver to Cobham, irom thru 
place to South Carolina/'* A simultaneous movement of Colonel Stewart's 
farces, confirmed the truth tyfttlff intelligence. For that officer, after caJLccfiU" 
all the rc-ciifnrecmem* he could gatligf front hcknv, strengthening his cavalry 
to the number <rf two hundred , had qihc more advanced to the Eutaws* and 
was pushing the American detachments both up and down the Santce, Hamp- 
ton above, and Marion below, wore both obliged to retire tirross die rivers; 
and some apprchensmu was entertained of a serious blow bring meditated 
against the boa t& transporting ilu- wounded, 

Bad the enemy, at that rime, pressed across the Santee, dierc was but too 
much reason to apprehend they might have reinstated iheir power; prostrated 
Though u was, at the Jiutaws. But either they were too much reduced to 
attempt it, or proposed oujy to hold their adversary in check from opposing 
Lord Cornwall!*; or, as Marion mentions, b » made ihe muvemem only ».fc 
bravado? with a view to regain the hold on public opinion, which had bmi 
forfeited by his recant retreat," 

Although the movement of Lord Cornwall!*, wltb a view to retreat soudi- 
wardly, is not mentioned by aay historian of the war, yet the intelligence came 
from La Fayette <uu\ Muhlenberg, through Governor Burke, and there is little 
reason id doubt its reality. It is known that La Fayette actually moved to die 
hank of James River, to coliiilcwcl audi a movement, and Muhlenberg wa* 
thrown across the river, to place himself in Lord Cornwallis' from. ^m frith 



•Governor YhxW* L*ier>, i^amd H *ivl 0ih ^jnmib^ and tndoontj -horn U *Wt*e 
tnti WiiJilf-tibijr^. 



«fc| MiUOlt LiJiNOAL greenk. 

chap- a hope uf i'eslstjn£r him hi hi.* progress, but, as Muhlenberg declares, ;k whh a 
view to precede lilni, aild bv dimming; all the means of subsisreuce and tram* 
portution, to impede hi« |itf>g£fi& utilN hfccouJd Ik overtaken by a force coin- 
patent to cope wirh him." 

l ! l*on the tot intelligence of this movement of Lord Cormvallis, the uuwii 
an i mn ted nwiftsarm were adapted by Governor Burke, to co-operate with 
nfuftlCtttaft Every i*mt oh the Roanoke, Nclisp, and Meherrin were secured 
untlcr guafrjfe or destroyed : evrry crossing place guard cd 5 and crossed by 
abbatU*i ami the militia were ordered otu en masse — a proportion to guard 
the mad* and passes while auothcr protected Uteir families In tlieir absence 1 . 
The \v\m\p smtc* from the Dan to i he sen- coo si T appears to have been set in 
morion by this active governor. But In the mid^t of this preparation, an event 
nccwred which bos few parallels in history* A band ftf loyalist?, not reced- 
ing tl'kftf hundred, headed by the eeicbran d pai-ilsnn. Hector 31'Ncil, Usump; 
from Wiliniii^toTi. penetrated the country as JiJigEi nn as Hillsborough, and 
^eizhizthc governor and some of his council, and every CfjutmontaT ami militia 
officer in the place, made good their retreat, with didr prisoner*, to Wiluilnu. 

ton. 

The celebrated attempt of Pulaski on die king of Poland, may havcTui-rikli 
ed the mode] j and concemporaiieous events will explain the motive The kes 
ro (he object of this dudug adventure ia furnished by i lit- fact, thai Burke wn^ 
Immediately shipped 10 Charleston as a mte ptitimtr* Lord Bart don, it will 
bn recollected, had recently fafton into the hands of thcallicfi; ihfc w ent oc- 
curred about a fonni^ht after his capture wm published ; and hh Jord&hip had 
Wen piirtiCLilflrly dwell upon as the- object of retaliation for the execution of 

II ay nc. 

This motive, whirl* never could hove been doubted, wns afterwards c,\pli 
cidy avowed. The homages of St* Augustine had been release^ and it became 
necessary lo procure other*.* 

The success of xlm adventure, equally bold \u ira ronreptkm and execution, 
produced an extraordinary oxeUnuicutamou": the loyalists of the state. TJiey 
begun immediately so assemble in die vielnhy of die Pee Dee and i-cuew their 
ravage *, and to harass the whi^s In every quarter. General Green*, 1 dispatched 
General Sumner, a* *ood 03 he received die intel%eoce of the govanwrVran'. 
mrc, with instruct jo m to promote and execute the measures of that active 
governor, aed counteract the evil conacqueuces apprehended from hi* capture; 



Qtil^t letter M OanertiJ Mnrriii. NtiveunFi't 17th, 



AiAJOR GENERAL GUfclENL, £ft 

and |W he hud long been sensible that the post at Wilmington Has the source uf chap 
many an embarrassment in North Carolina* he seriously meditated an attempt 
to re J licc £f, But his force, at present, was scarcely adequate to his own 

safety. 

That Lord Cornwall^ had provided a number of boats, transportable on 
wagons, in the nature of pontoons, U welt ascertained ; and the reasons which 
led to live relinquishment of his project of retreat southwardly, are easily 
dcducible from the occurrences of the day. It will be recollected, that the 
French fleet arrived in the Chesapeake the 1st of September ; that a few days 
after, the British fleet, tinder Admiral Graves, made its appearance, and Count 
De Grasse stood out vf the Chesapeake and engaged him \ having first furnish- 
ed an accession ofitrength to La Fayette, which put it in his power to advance 
upon, a fid alarm the adversary. This was the period of the attempt of Lord 
Cornwallis to escape into Carolina, and also of its relinquishment. The arrival 
of the French fluet sUgg&gted the movement- its departure delayed it until lit 
found himself environed with difticultics. J3eknv him he saw the whole conn- 
try i[) fttyjttf to oppose his retreat, whilst Greene waited in the south to receive 
him on the print of the bayonet ; above him La Faycrm watched his oppoi ■- 
tunity of striking when he should expose his dank ; towards the oeean, the 
face of the bay was covered \\ irh the Heels of France, and Washington wn- 
advancing to .seize him in his toils. Yet, it was not until the 30th of >Scpicih- 
ber that he found himself entirely hemmed in on I he south, and eoinpeJEed i> 
cover himself beneath the shield of his intrench me nts. 

Until then, Greene was indefatigable in his efforts to collect his milhta, tin- 
only it- en fare em cm, with the exception of some few North Carolina levies, 
then within his command. 

The dav uhieh iiavc the nnnv of Lorn Corn wall is to the id lies, iva., die f;r^ 
that brought complete relief to the anxieties of the soujIhtii aiiiiiiKiiidir, He 
then thought t\\\\i men and munitions of war woiiEd lie MippJied him in abun- 
dance* 

During the time that the American anuv lav h<t ;:t <!ie Hills. th# Liieiin 

■ . i. 

had no: been idle m the work of annoyance or desolation. 

Colonel Stewart being confined by a womul received at the Lutaws. Major 
Doyle commanded the army on its return to the San tee, This officer had 
taken poyt at Fludd's plantation, three miles above Nelson's Ferry ; and, ac- 
cording to the intelligence of the day, after all the reductions which the lirhhh 
force had recently sustained, boih from battle and disease, had under liim an 
army of two thousand men, besides a detachment at hand of three hundred, 
under Major M l Arthur, at Fairlawn. The loyalists, also, why had mired lo 



a§ MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

cmr. Charleston were, it has beer i sccn t about this time, obliged to engage inactive 
service, with little discrimination, They furnished a very eilfiricnt band of 
mount cd ht&tiftfi Many of the lower and poorer orders, and of the, young 
and adventurous, joined the royal regiments. The terror at seeing tlie Bri- 
tish arinv tlrhen before the Americans, had either induced them to steal away 
from the roviil garrison, or converted them into at/rive enemies. 

So much had the American cavalry suffered in the late battle 1 , that the enemy 
had, ftir some time, a decided superiority in that species of troops; and it was 
not until the cavalry of Siunpt*T ! s brigade could be again brought together, 
and Horry T a and Mayhem's, widi Marion** mounted infantry, collected at 
head -quarters, that Greened superiority could he restored. That it should he 
restored, was indispensable both to the protection of the country, and the 
safety of his own army. 

Those officers were, therefore, immediately on Doyle's advance, ordered to 
lake the necessary steps to strengthen the main army : but, until that was effec- 
ted, the enemy possessed the undivided command of the country to the south 
of the Samcc and Congaree, and westward to the Ed is to* 

But, Major Doj le saw his reign was ephemeral, and improved his oppor- 
tunity in plundering the country on the Santecand Conga re e, of c\er\ negro, 
young and old, and of almost every thing else that could he carried away. 
Fortunately* Marion and Hampton still guarded the opposite banks, to afford 
protect ion to every tiling that could be removed across the rivers. 

Emboldened by their successes, the enemy began, aboul the close of the 
month, to meditate, or to threaten operations beyond the rivers ; and the 
weakness of Greene's force, and the collection of boats by his adversary, at 
one time, excited the most serious expectation that the attempt would be made. 
i>nt, Marion had now embodied a respectable force, and feeble as he was, in 
comparison j every where presented himself to the enemy, resolved to oppose 
him in the passage of the river. Disease had also assailed this active ofliccr 
and his command ; and in Mayhem's party atone, we fi nd h\ at this time re- 
corded, that there were one hundred men sick. But, disease could not drive 
the men of that day from the field. Could it have done so, the state of things 
hi the American camp, at the time of this demonstration of the enemy of an 
intent to pass the river, mi^ht well have occasioned the dissolution of the 
army. 

Among the evils brought upon the southern army, by the incursion of Tarle- 
Con and iNnicoe into Virginia, was the destruction of its hospital -stores, which 
had readied the Point of Fork on their way to head -quarters* Immediate mea- 
sures were adopted to replace them, and an active and intelligent purveyor 



JMAJOlt GENERAL GRKENh. 2M 

sent on to the north to procure « supply. But, none had arrived at the time chap. 
of the battle of Eutaw ; nor could the army stores supply even the ordinary v 
comforts allowed to the sick and wounded. Coffee and sugar could only be 
procured at Newborn in North Carolina, and transported by the way of 
Charlotte, to avoid Wilmington and the loyalists; and after beina: purchased 
at the rutc of fifteen pounds for one hundred weight of tobacco, ii may very 
well lie supposed, in whatqiumiilic-S at what cost, and in what time it reached 
the army* It happened, fortunately, that Governor Ruiledge had, at ibis time, 
a small supply of medicines, among other articles which he had procured In 
Philadelphia, and brought out for ihe slate troop*. These were cheerfully 
furnished to the suffers It) the common cause, and relieved the minds of the 
officers from the dreadful necessity of seeing their comrades perish from 
wounds and disease, for want of the most common medicines* Yet, the re- 
lief must have been very inadequate to the necessities of the army, li Our 
sick, and wounded/ 1 * says General Greene to the president of congress, 
i! have suffered greatly. The extent of our hospital*, the malignity of disor- 
ders and increasing sick since the battle of Eutaw, together with the numerous 
wounded on hand, the little means we had to provide for them, and the great 
number of our physicians who fell sick in service, have left our sick and 
wounded in a most deplorable situation. And numbers of brave fellows, who 

havi* bled in the cause of their country, have been eated up with y and 

perished in that miserable condition. Hospital stores and medicine have been 
exceedingly scarce — not an ounce of bark have wc in the department at this 
time ; but, fortunately the cold weather Is coining on, and the malignity of the 
ft; vers begins to abate/' 

Kveii the indispensable article of salt had now failed; and it must be ac- 
knowledged, that the subjoined extract of a fetrer to Colonel l^vic, seems to 
indicate ihdl the gftBPftft patience began to full wiili tU " Captain Meals* 
writes vou bv this opportunity, of our approaching deplorable situation for want 
of the article of salt. Vou are loo well acquainted whb the wants and suffer- 
fogs of this little army, to vender arguments necessary to induce you to exert 
yourself m provide ibr them. I shall only observe, that an army winch has 
received no pay for mure than two \w*. distressed for want of dotuing, stib- 
iHied without spirit?, and often short in the usual allowance of meat mti bread, 
will mutiny if w c tail in the article of salt. And besides, if they iye-M ever to 
well disposed to bear up against misfortune, it would soon produce such a 



• stthoctotar. M*b«fcafas 



MS MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, variety of diseases ami complaint*, that the greater part would soon be trans- 
JJ2L. ferred from the field to the hospital. We have nn other source of supplies but 
from you J and you may easily foresee the consequences of a failure, and will 
take seasonable measures to prevent them, tf not, should the army disband, 
rhe evil will rest at your dooiv' 

An expression of 'impatience, to one who had served iilm so faithfully, ami 
r,nssr^od so h*& a portion of his esteem as Colonel Davie, eoukl only have 
■wn wrm>- frtmi General Greene by filings highly wrought apon. Birl the 
i^ftt&gft of lus soldiers «g»p always brought dose to him. The hospitals iic 
i-onstanriy v&fci in pei-on : and as they had been, in ihe cqtotta rf His ftftfee* 
^ mni'clu s fetched alonsr the road from his present rncampmem, as Ihr as 
Vimhw, m visits were extended as far as the latter place, To witness ttes 
.uJTcrinrrs of brave men, and mk the power to relieve thm, was well esfct*. 
hiud in \>rm!uce the feelings which this lettered prases. General Davie was, at 
-his time, commissary genera] of North Carolina, and this letter found him at 
Halifax- It is unnecessary to add that it was answered with lechng, ami at- 
imkd to with promptness^, Bat Ins means were small ; the &mm great j 
*>id the ma^ziues remote, and hi the mean time the army suffered Symp- 
toms of mntinv aetuallv did make their appearance, preceded by a most parhetn; 
mm of tte Marvland line- in which they call the eye of the general to their 
tinned rank,, reduced from a full brigade to the number of two hundred, and 
Implore his jusuce and his humanity to relieve their want*. What cmdd he do 

hut weep ! . 

He was cnmpdled to do more ; although the contract had been grossly 
violated on the part of the government with the soldiery Timothy Griffin, a 
private soldier, perished on t hegaU*"™ tl ** encouraging mutiny and desertion," 
three days after the foregoing letter was written. 

It was in the height of his distresses, and when the term of die Virginia line 
wanted hut a few weeks of expiring, and not a recruit was marching lo supply 
their place, that General Greene received the intelligence that his Aim laud 
$®d Delaware recruits, near seven hundred in number, had been halted, and 
turned into the army destined against Cornwall. Every other ^enforcement 
he had vohmiarilv abandoned to Virginia and the marquis ; but these w ere ab- 
solutckv indispensable to his keeping the field; and General Gist had been 
earnest* pressed to hasten them on to join their regiments. Never was their 
presence so much wanted ; and injustice to the oniccrsand men of those corp*, 
whose foree was now reduced to a shadow, the general could not have held 
himself justified En dispensing with their presence. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- %® 

His letter to General Washington, on this occasion > exhibits symptoms of chap. 
suppressed feeling, but profound deference* Resignation to the will of his com- 
mander and friend, and a willing sacrifice to the public good J but not alto- 
gether free from the conviction that bis recruits might have bven dispensed 
null. M I wrote your excellency," he says, " on the 1 7th, by Captain Pearce. 
Since which, 1 am informed the Mar) land troops, lvho were expected to re- 
enforce this army, have been ordered to join the army hi Virginia. Our situa- 
tion is truly distressing, and the want of a re- enforcement very pressing; but if 
it \i ill interfere with more important concerns, I am very willing to struggle 
Willi every dial unity and h icon Yemen ce- However, I am told your force in 
Virginia amounts to lit tit: less than fifteen thousand men. If so, the Maryland 
troups will be of little or no consequence." 

Em lik officers and men were not all equally passive \ some complained bit- 
terly that they were sacrificed unnecessarily t and the example, remonstrances* 
and even severity of the general were necessary to restrain their feelings. 

It was at this time, when pressed to the earth by die distresses that surrounded 
him, and listening to the daily representations made of the forlorn state of his 
men and olliecvs, not un frequently accompanied with the indignant exclamation, 
** we are abandoned, let us reth'c," that lie uttered that celebrated declaration, 
which South Carolina will never forget, if I will deliver the country or perish." 

AVhethcr it was to improve the opportunity afforded by the complete diver- 
sion of all support from the southern fumy, to that under Washington ; or, 
reallv to favour Cornuallis in the attempt which Greene was endeavouring to 
defray there tifcfii, at this time, a vigorous effort made to revive the royal inter* 
est in North Carolina. The embers in that quarter had been only covered — 
thc} H Vicrc not extinguished. Crai£. it has appeared from intercepted letters, 
had always maintained a correspondence whh secret adherents ^ the royal 
part)', in every part of the state ; and, under his instructions, they watched, n* 
silence, for the time when he should issue the signal for resuming their arms. 
As soon as the militia were called out to march to the support of Greene, in 
the preceding months, Craig had exerted his influence to Impede or defeat the 
drafts and other measures of government r and hi his dispatches to Lord 
Cornwalfis, he says, with great confidence, that such and such parts of the 
country " will not turn out.'* When, afterwards, the militia were called out 
to oppose Lord Cornu allls on the Roanoke and the rivers to ttie north of it, 
he appears to have availed himself of the removal of the friends of the revo- 
lution, and sutnmDuud his adherents into active employment* Some idea will 
be formed of the cxeent of the British influence in that state, from the force 
which is said to have assembled under il s fteale. It was estimated at one 
vol. tit 32 



doQ MAJOR GENERAL GREENS. 

cu\r. thousand men ; and to this party Craig attached tlie celebrated Major Fan- 
ning, with a detachment of regular cavalry, so as to produce a most serious 
diversion in the neighbourhood of Cross Creek. The whole country between 
the Pec Dec and Cape Fear River was quickly overrun, and two Americas 
parties successively attacked and overpowered. Buf, fortunately, his career 
was not of long duration.* A Major Butler, at the head of about an equaJ 
number of militia, and some levies, attacked M'Neil, killed l&tfy and se- 
verely chastised his followers ; and General Rutherford soon after succeeded 
in dispersing their collected force* But, the alarm excited throughout the 
country adjacent to M*Xeil J s enterprise, for some time prevented die militia* 
of that quarter from obeying the sum mo lis of Marion to repair to his stazv 
rhird. 

The intelligence of the defeat of this formidable body of loyalists, was 
attended with a piece of information false: in fact, but which created the great- 
est uneasiness in the mind of the southern commander, lie was informed, 
tlnit General Rutherford was pursuing the loyalists with lire and sword, and 
driving before him every a^e and sex, to compel them to take refuge in Wil- 
mington. Kvery act that increased the miseries of war, General Greene had 
uniformly marked with disapprobation and even punishment; and the atten- 
tive perusal of his sentiments on this subject may, it is fondly hoped, contri- 
bute at some future day, to temper the horrors of civil warfare T and teach 
men, in chose contests in which their own passions, or the selfish views, or 
fanatical opinions of others, may involve them, the folly of giving way lo the 
exercise of unnecessary cruelty and violence^ It will also present a succinct 
view of the policy which always governed his conduct towards tins class of 
people* 

a . We have various reports here," says the writer, " respecting your ope- 
rations in North Carolina ; all of whmh agree, that you arc treating the inha- 
bitants denominated lories, with great severity, driving them, indiscriminately, 
from their dwellings, without regard to age or sex : laying waste their posses- 
sions, destroying their produce, and burning their houses, That we have 
great reason to be offended with the Infidelity of the tories, must be confessed ; 
and that vour sufferings in captivity have been sufficient to exasperate you,, 
must be acknowledged* But, in natural concerns, as well as in private life, 
pa$&iwi is a hud counsellor^ and resentment an unsafe guide, If we suffer those 
to influence us, a sense of injuries will often hurry us Into acts of the most 



* P ; Horry % Je iter, 2 8 tti Somber, 3 78 1 - 1 tfoh cr ! Sth, 1 76 L 



AIAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



mi 



borrld cruelty ; and, whatever may be the opinion of people respecting se- chap 
verity, both philosophy and experience prove, that persecution does but con* 
firm the error It is meant to destroy. And, therefore, I think those meaiures 
highly unwarrantable, which carry the marks of cruelty ; and in fact, only 
increase our enemies* If we pursue the lories, indiscriminate!}-, and (hive 
them to a state of desperation, we shall make I hem, from a weak and feeble 
for, a firm and determined enemy. The enemy iiave^n numberless instance*, 
made those active enemies, whose political sentiments have been favourable 
to thorn. I speak from observation, and am persuaded of the truth of the 
remark. Besides ihe disadvantage of increasing die number of our enemies, 
as well as rendering them formidable by obliging them to engage in the Bri- 
tish regular battalions, cruelty is a reproach to our cause ; and we set the 
enemy an example, to treat our people with thai severity which we have so 
pittm, .and so justly complained of. Burning and destroying the people's 
property who are called tones, will authorize the me my to retaliate. And 
they want but a pretext t as you may see by the proceedings in the British 
parliament, and by the minister's instructions to lay waste the whole country ; 
nor will their army fail to do it when authorized by our own example, and 
have so fair an opportunity of laying the odium upon us. As there are a 
number of confederated states, I cannot think anyone at liberty to take mea- 
sures which may expose the rest, especial ]y in a matter wherein the)' do not 
a^ree hi the policy or utility of the measure. To my opinion, destroying torv 
property is nothing less than a kind of war upon ourselves particularly in the 
articles of produce ; for it is uncertain where our army may operate, and not 
unlikely that our own ravages may prove distressing to ourselves. I have 
viewed the measure in every point of light, in id tbfetlclt not less injurious ; in 
point of policy : that] inconsistent with the principles of Junuanlty. An to cx- 
icnn hinting the tovies, it has ever appeared to me to be a chimerical plan ; 
especially in a country wSic-re *o grcEifl a proportion are disaffected. The very 
attempt, I fear, will soon unite such a force s as will be able to contend to 
advantage, with such bodies of militia as we shall he able to keep in tjie lie) it. 
For, eis the former will act from tii^pair, and our people only iVom principle 
or choice, they will be much more determined and uniform in their exertions 
than ours. To drive the lories to the necessity of engaging In the enemy ^ 
regular battalions, h what the enemy wish ; and there is no way in which we 
can serve l heir vie.vs so effectually, as promoting this mode of recruiting: and 
though they may afei to pky the tories, they eajnn&t but be pleased at the 
policy. To detach the disaffected from the British interest is our true policy 3 
i nd this can he done by gentle means only ; and such as remain stubborn and 



IS£ 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 



chap, obstinate, there arc ways and means of bringing to punishment, far more con- 
sistent with the (1 ignity of government. If the enemy can form a tory-intcrcst 
sufficient to balance the militia of the country they know they can carry 
their point, their regular force lining greatly superior to ours, If Ave can but 
detach the torles from thorn, and k*avc the militia to aid the operations of the 
regular army, wc can, with little difficulty, give full protections the country, 

" Our prospect arc flattering in Virginia, but the events of war arc prtcarlouE 
and uncertain ; and, therefore, wc should take our measures as if we still expect- 
ed the war to ra£C with unremitted fury ; and wc should embrace the present 
moment to employ our force to the besi advantage. For litis purpose I have 
sent Colonel IVIaimady to wait on you, to see what force you have, the nine 
they are otit for, and how they are provided lor serious operations { and whether 
any thin 5 can be attempted against Wilmington, which Governor Burke and 
myself had tn contemplation holme he was surprised and taken prisoner. 

41 1 am told vou refuse to pay any regard to the promises which have been 
made to the dUaiieciod, who have surrendered, and have not since violated 
conditions 011 their part. Nothing hi my opinion, can strike a more deadly 
blow at the cxi^ciuc of the present government. It is impossible for those 
people to determine who has a rfcht to enter into those engagements, if those 
in power, for the time being, have not. And if another comes and reives to 
pay any regard to such engagements, public truth and national confidence are 
at an end, J cannot credit the report ; and therefore only give it as hearsay. 
\\q have one common mm ^id one common interest ■ and I persuade myself 
you are not Jess anxious tn adopt the most salutary measures for promoting 
thc-ni, than 1 am. I have nothing more at heart than the interest and happiness 
of this ooumrv. which. I fetter myself, my past exertions for its protection, and 
for the enlargement of my suffering brethren in captivity, must convince you, 
and ever v well wisher to our cause, 77 &c, fcc 

MajorCreig did not await the attack meditated against Wilmington. Hear- 
ing of the surrender of Lord CornwaUis, and the advance ^ CieiuT&l Ruther- 
ford, lie evacuated the plaec on (he Uih of November, and transported his men 
and stores by water to Charleston. 

This event restored North Carolina to a state of tranquillity, to which she 
had ]ong keen a stranger. In Witmiiigion, all the hope* of the ctoifccied cen- 
tered ; and from that place emanated ail the orders that directed theni s and all 
the funds and supplies that supported them. Their hopes sunk when that place 
was abandoned : and to fly or to submit were the only alternatives left them. 
Never was a change more fortunate, or more desired, The money and credit 
of the state were exhausted, and although almost the only source of supply ffl 



MAJOR GENERAL GKEO£. j&g- 



ta the son them army for some months past, it could furuish nothing but what cm? 

XV] 

was obtained bv impressment* An unfortunate measure of Governor Nash 5 ' L _ 
had totally prostrated the commerce VWil had before been carried on through 
her numerous small ports* He had sci/.cd upon imported articles bv impress- 
ment : and no more article were imported, Governor Burke had assured the 
merchants, that the fault should not be repeated ; and upon the evacuation of 
Wilmington commerce began to revive and to flourish. But still, there was 
neither credir nor money to procure any thing for the army; ant. it must have 
Starved in the view of plenty^ but for a aise de guerre, of a very justifiable 
nature, phiyed oft" at this time upon the financier, Mr. Hubert Morris. 

[t is related lip Marshall^ Life of Washington,* that i( ihc distresses of the: 
southern army, like those of the north, were such that It was often dim cult to 
keep rhrm together. That he might relieve them when in the last extremitv. 
and yet not diminish the exertions made to draw support from other some c.-=, by 
creating an opinion that any supplies could be drawn from him, Mr. Morris 
employed an agent to attend the southern army, as a volunteer, whose: 
powers iv ere unknown to Gen em! Greene. This agent was instructed to watch 
its situation j find vt hen ever it appeared impossible lor the general to extricate 
himself from his embarrassments, to furnish him, on his pledging the faith of 
.government for repayment, with a draft on the- financier, for such a sum as 
would relieve the urgency of the moment. Thus was Greene frequently rescued 
from impending ruin* by aids which appeared providential, and for which he 
could not account/' 

if tliis be correct, and we presume it is related upon authority, it must hi: 
acknowledged to have be«n a most un candid and illiberal piece of conduct, to 
one who did not merit It. And one who Mr, Morris knew and acknowledged 
did not merit it: J or in a leEter from the hutcr. of the 10th of September, wt> 
find the lol Joking hi-fliK complimentary paragraph. " While I eon ujrulti Into 
you on ihc many ^ik-ce^e? which you have obtained, under cverv ffeatlvaii* 
tage, let me also congratulate you on the just sense of your merits which h 
now generally difmscd. 'i'lie superintend ant of finance in particular, ciro.uu- 
=tatieed as the American ? u peri nleiid ant U. must give the fullest applause to an 
officer wild finds in his own genius, an ample resource for the want of men, 
money, clot lies, arms, and supplies. ' : 

\\c are at a Joss, however, to imagine who this? agent could have iiecn : a= 
the c\ idenee is before as of Greene's bcins often Hides' ihc itccesshv of horrotv- 



Yol, 4. p. 557 not <i ft 



254 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 



XV 



mat*, log the smallest sums in geld, to keep up his secret intercourse with Charleston* 
Mr. Joseph Clay, who appears to have been the only individual through whom 
purchases oi' genera! KUpplies were ever made, was connected with the southern 
arm v. not a? a volunteer, but as commissary of purchases ; and ah" the drafts 
which ever parsed through his hand£ t to the relief of the southern commander, 
were matle ItfiCffl the governors of the respective states, within his department, 
or were those which had he en drawn by the commissioner of Joans upon Dr. 
Franklin, minister to France, a; early as September, 1780, 

The on! v evidence wc find to support Mr. Mai shall, exists in the clearly sub- 
stantiated fact, that General Greene was mo?t unmercifully pinched and cramp- 
ed in the article of cash by the financier. Lc\ the following extract, from die 
<cime letter, furnish the proof H I have made another attempt to place some 
money in your hands, by requesting the lieutenant governor and council of 
Suuth Carolina to pay you f when convenient five hundred pound this currency, 
advanced by order of congress to them, their state being accountable. As I 
gtttumethvif will mention the affttir t you -need notfi 

The previous attempt hinted at* was that by Governor Rmledge, before 
.elated ; and this draft, with one upon an individual for a small advance made 
for the education of his son. were the only attempts made to phec money in his 
&mi&- Both these orders General Greene refused to present, declaring it 
- cruel to make the demand upon a gentleman just returned from captivity, 
and known to be destitute of every thing. 3 ' The first sum in cash ever ad- 
vanced by Mr- Morris, was that one thousand pounds. Philadelphia currency, 
paid to Captain Pearcc, when be brought the news of the battle of the Jbhitaws, 
and that was paid upon the lowing strong demand upon the gratitude of him 
who received it. " 1 have detained Captain Pearce a day, in order to make upj 
with infinite dinku]ty. one thousand pounds, Pennsylvania currency, in gold, 
which he is the bearer of, and which I hope will be agreeable and useful." 
This was in November, 1781 ; and this was expended in hospital storey and 
atlicr necessaries for the army. 

Mr* Robert Morris has acquired a high reputation in the United States, 
for the intelligence and effect with which he conducted the financial affairs of 
she United States, Unquestionably, his services were great; and it must be 
acknowledged: that he entered upon the office at a time highly favourable to 
ihe acquirement" of reputation. So entirely prostrate was public credit, thai 
ie was impossible for him not to acquire applause if he effected any thing, 
however inadequate to public exigencies. But, the bubble that had occu- 
pied the place of property, had now burst, and a solid medium must find its 
way into the country from abroad, or out of individual hoards at home ; in- 



MAJOA GENERAL GREENE. m 

&k&4 of the factitious representative which hat! recently melted from the chap 
hand that held it. But, the stream would have been slow in filling the va- 
cuum j or must have been laved out as fast as it entered , had it not been for 
the act li ei I introduction of a large sum in specie from France j and the substi- 
tution of a powerful army and navy from the same quarter, for the swarms 
of militia, which must faffig been otherwise employed* Mr. Morris was ap- 
pointed early in 1 781 , just when these causes began to operate. Although the 
science of banking was in its infancy in America,, yet Mr. Morris knew how 
to avail hhnscif of this great art, of placing capital at the disposal of mer- 
cantile intelligence j and its sister art or abuse, of chix/Jing the public eye by 
die same piece of coin, mutti plied by a thousand reh>cror& 

Specie made its appear ance in circulation ; members of Congress, and all 
the re'int-e of attendants at the scat of government, were paid in hard-moneys 
a general exhilaration was produced : the financier was the channel through 
which all flowed ; and all who drank at the fount . bestowed on it a bene- 
diction. 

But j the stream sunk in the sands long before it reached the sfatc of South 
Carolina, and never reached it until after the fall of Lord Cornwall's ■ nor for 
Ion;: after, except indirectly through the supplies acquired by conquest. On 
the contrary, the only fund in the military chest, was ordered to be withdrawn 
from it. This was the balance on hand, of the bills drawn upon Dr. 
Franklin, about three hundred thousand dollars in amount; and which, by the 
resolve? of congress, were among the funds placed at the direct disposal of the 
financier. 

In the month of August, when General Greene's officers were destitute of 
necessaries j almost to the offending of decency ,. and his army in the greatest 
want of many hid Is pe usable art teles, when the country rung with felicita- 
tions on the revival of credit, and the great benefits resulting from the judicious 
measures of the financier, the general resolved on an effort to appropriate to 
his army, some of the general benefits, and dispatched iiajor Burnet to 
wait in person upon the board of war* and endeavour to obtain from tlieui 
some relief. That board, which at this time began to be very complaisant to 
the southern commander* readily entered into General Greene's view*, and 
voted the supplies solicited, but referred to the financier, to determine if the 
public funds would admit of their being procured. After some demur, the 
financier agreed to sanction the purchase, but the articles, B timet was given 
to understand, must be procured from Bosion, 

The delay incident to procuring them at such a distance* and transporting 
tfvem by land, the army could not submit to; but, Burnet was provided 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chaf. agamsT the contlnemcv. G re cue considered the French bills as i)lcde:cd to 
^^jL/'ijft army, and Burnet, to whom they had been confided, had his instructions to 
sell as manv pf diem as would relieve the necessities of the army. In the 
south, this had been hitherto impracticable ; bin, credit was rising fe PhiUidd- 
pliia — the ?catof bom mercantile and [jolitical negotiation; and twenty thou- 
sand dollars of the bills were sold before Mr. Morris got intelligence of their 
being in market* L"pon hearing of this fact, he im mediately interfered and 
stopped the sale of the residue. But, B timet had provided the money indis- 
pensable to his purposes, and the balance !s&S deposited with Colonel Petit, 
to await the orders of the general respecting them. The sum thus obtained hi 
cash, judiciously applied in aid of drafts on the states, enabled General Greene 
to make such purchases, as anticipated the necessity of looking, for the present, 
to Boston j to supply his most pressing wants. IVizes and importations intro- 
duced into the ports of North Carolina, fit nil shed many articles that would 
have been months in passing by land from 8$$fa$ to head -quarters : and 
Philadelphia furnished others. Hut, with ah", It was a mere alleviation of dis- 
tress, not the restoration nf comfort. 

During the time that the allies lay before York Town, General Greene had 
made an earnest effort at ensa^m* them to turn their arms against Charleston, 
as soon as they should have reduced Cornwallis. The season was highly 
favourable to the attempt; and it was unquestionable that the plurc could not 
hold out long against such a force, so amply provided with battering artillery, 
and all the equipments necessary to a siege. To have prostrated the enemy's 
power in the south, would not only have hastened the termination of the war, 
but have relieved the southern country from that lingering and distressing war, 
which he foresaw it would yet have to undergo. To have attempted the siege 
without a naval superiority, would have been frivolous ; but with Ii H«lc was to 
be feared, either there or i a any other quarter; for it had been fairly ascer- 
tained, that the force tinder General Heath was sufficient to hold Sir Henry 
Clinton in check in New- York. Unfortunately, it has been seen, that Count 
Dc Grass e had entered into engagements with the French forces, in (he West 
Indict to join mcm # a specified time, which precluded a delay before Charles 
tan; or, a fatalist would suggest, was led on by destiny to the unhappy catas- 
trophe, wlileh awaited his fleet in that quarter. 

General Wash iugi on apprized General Greene of this obstacle to a co- opera- 
tion ! but, not discouraged from an attempt which held out so many public 
advantage*, and so much private relief, he dispatched Colonel Lee to ih- com- 
mander in chief, fondly hoping that the pressing hitreatics, engaging add res*, 
and military reputation of Lee^ would do so me tiling towards promoting this 



MAJOR GENERAL ft$US$gt& o$l 

favourite project, But solicitations were vain; and after iJic fa if of York chap. 
Town, fill that could be obtained for his relief, was ma leaving of a body of two 
thousand French troops to cover Virginia, thus to place her at liberty 10 devote 
all her resources to the support of the souihcru army* 

Colonel Lee ? being baffled in his principal object, now turned hi> attention 
to one personally, of not less interna Nard sen Ice, desertion, and limitation 
of enlistments, had greatly impaired Iris legion : and Captain Rudolph had 
been dispatched some lime before the battle of the Eutaws, to endeavour to 
recruit it in Virginia. As it was not a state corps, he found the effort useless, 
and returned battled and disconcerted. " The executive" says the marquis, 
"has been tried on the subject personally, and by letter, but nothing could he 
effected in your favour. As to my ordering any of their levies on rids service, 
it is a meagre ^hieu I have no power to attempt. These are to fill up then 
line, and they woold consider it a sacrilege were but one applied for anv other 
purpose*.' 1 

In fact, at this time no one of the Virginia levies con Tel have been spared for 
any other purpose. For Virginia had not, in both armies, eight hundred ci^ 
listed troops under arms; and those of General Greene's army" must all be dis- 
charged in January. Anxious to provide against every contingency, as well 
as to stimulate every state to its duty, tin* state of Virginia was also pressed on 
the subject of recruiting its troops, of w inch there was a prospect that she 
would soon have not a man in the licit!, as the business of enLEstmom, or rather 
of drafting, had for some time flagged greatly, or been Wholly abandoned. 
- Inclosed," .says General Greene* to Governor Nelson, " I send you a return 
of your line, serving with this army ; and small as their numbers arc, jhey arc of 
great importance in this quarter, as our whole collective strength does not 
exceed one thousand men lit tor duty. In this state of limits, wcTcannot look 
forward to die ih oil period of thuh- service, in our remote situation, without 
The most sensible pain. Our con diet has been too unequal, and 1 cannot think 
of prosecuting the war on such unequal ground : nnr would it be in mv power, 
however strong my inclination, ro sup^rt the spirits of the nuicers and soldier* 
under such severe trials as they have lately gone through, f hope, therefore 
you will re-enforce me in time, or I cannot be answerable for consequeuccs. J - 
A request, whirl: we rather apprehend. It was wholly out of the power of the 
governor 10 comply with, as .the time of sen ice of die troops hi Virginia, It it 



— • ■■Mirti 



vol. n. S3 



Xft MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ciiai* believed, would cspirc, contemporaneous! v. with that of those in South Curo* 

xv]. 

Ima. 

The personal influence of Colonel Lee, effected no more than the solicita- 
tions of Tliulolph, or die pressing instances of La Fayette, Secure on every 
point at which prjgfttla was vulnerable, it was but consistent with (he nature c?f 
man, if the Jirti hours ql respite from toil and apprehension were devoted to 
indulgence, ami the wants of others deferred as the employment of the ■nc.n. 
From this time Virginia appears to have relired from the war. 

It was not until the last of October that General Greene was able to replace 
the six-pounders, lost at the Entawsi Colonels iSheluyaud Scvicrr also, joined 
him, about the same time, with five hundred men, and a detachment of one 
hundred and sixty North Carolina recruits was added to his infantry* The 
approach of these corps was the signal for preparing for active movements ; 
the weather had heroine cold ; the frost had delivered Ins army from the 
remains of their agues; the survivors of his wounded had rejoined thtijr regi- 
ments, and the corps under Sumptcr, Horry, Mayhem, and Marion, had been 
tolleeted, or w ere concent rating. 

Seviere and Shelby, Horry and Mayhem, were ordered to place themselves 
under Marion, to act in the country between the San tee ami Charleston. 
Together dicv formed a very efficient corps of cavalry, mourned iiiJantry, and 

riflemen* 

General Sumptcr was ordered at the head of Iris brigade of state troops, and 
Some companies from his militia brigade, and from Pickens 1 , to take post at 
Oraugeburgh, and cover the country from the inroads of the loyalists from 
Charleston. While Pickens, with two regiments, covered the frontiers from 
the predotorv war still raging there. a "d kept in awe the Indians* About the 
1st of November the commands of Sumpter and Marion crossed the rivers, and 
advanced upon the enemy. The former soon fell in with a strong party of 
loyalists, tinder General Cunningham, who had advanced near to Orange* 
burgh, and one of his officers, a Major Moore, had the misfortune to be led 
into an ambuscade, and sustain some loss. The force of the two parties being 
nearly equal, about aeven hundred each, General Sumpter was obliged, for the 
present, to fall back ; but his advance was very fortunately timed to check the 
further progress of Cunningham, who, it seems, had issued from Charleston to 
pursue a pillaging excursion in the upper country. 

General Marion also found it necessary to make a halt, by encountering 
Colonel Stewart, posted at Wantoot, at the head of near two thousand men. 
The enemy, it seems, were, at this time, seriously engaged in prepariug to 
sustain a siege \ laying in provision and collecting all the slaves in the count ry, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 259 

first for fortifying Charleston^ and then to be cou verted into plunder, Else, cmr 
why remove the women and children. The sequeJ was conclusive of the mo- 
tive. They had heard of, or anticipated the fall of Corn wall is f and were pre- 
paring to abandon the country, but not without first borrowing jewels of gold 
and jewels of silver from the Egyptians. 

The intelligence of the surrender of York Town, reached the American 
camp the last of October ; but, the official communication was not received 
until the 9th of November. On the lUth it had taken place; but, twenty 
d&vs were then necessary to convey intelligence now transmitted in less than 

five* 

The day was observed as 9 day of jubilee in camp. The few enjoyments 
that U afforded were liberally distributed; and, that not a heavy hen it might 
darken the festivity of the day s punishments were all remitted, and the doors 
of the provost thrown open. 

The Pennsylvania and Maryland troops being now on their march to join 
him. General Greene could have moved with confidence across the rivers for 
the long wished- for purpose of driving the enemy into Charleston. This ob- 
ject was now become one of high importance, that elections might be held as 
generally as possible for men ibers of the legislature, and civil government fully 
re-established. 

The miserable state of the quarter master general's department, prevented 
the possibility of marching before the IS th, "Our situation, 1 * says the com- 
mander, iu a letter to die president of congress, soon afcer the battle of Eutaw, 
rt is truly deplorable in the quarter master's and ordinance departments, iVc 
have no ammunition, and not half tents enough ; few camp- kettles and no 
axes; and until very lately, no ranteens* Colonel Cavrin^ton has done all in 
hi* power : but, what can a man tlo, empty-handed and so remote from sup- 
plies of all kinds. >Ve have not a ream of paper with the whole army : but, 
I am in hopes, our success in Virginia will pave the way to more easy and 
effectual supplies, and in the mean time, the army will bear their sufferings 
with a soldierly patience. 31 

On the lttth of November, the camp at the Hills was a. second time broken 
up ; and as the route to be pursued led the army off from the support of Ma- 
rion, who was charged with guarding the left of the army on its march, 
Captain Egleston, with the legion, strengthened by a detachment from the 
Virginia line* was ordered to join him. The main army then took up the line 
of march on the route by Simons' and M' Cord's Ferries, ihrough Orange- 
burg h to Riddlcsperger's; thence by the Indian -iield road to Ferguson's Mill, 



260 MAJOR GENERAL OKFE\lv 

cu.w. where that road crosses the Edisto ; mi ending to take post ai Jfe, Sanders' on 
die Round-O, 

The intention of the Ainrricau general appears, fit first, to have been, to take 

a position Qfi the Four- Holes. Ibr the double purpose of cover: u g the counuy 
bevond him, aud controlinE the movements of tlit x enemy on his right, Intel- 
ligence had been received from Charleston, by jVhtrion, of mi intention to eva- 
cuate that place, and con cent rate the enemy's force at Savannah. Such, 
possibly, would have been their course, had the French fleet rippr-arcd off 
Charleston* and thu army thai captured Cornwall is \n\t in motion for the south. 
General (jrecne did not credit the information, except as dependant on an 
Event which he knew, and the enemy did not know, would not take place — the 
co-operation of the French fleet. i: Nor can J flatter you," says he, " with 
the hopes of getting rid of them at so cawy a rate, I cxpen several more 
good hard fights this winter; and If we hold our ground until spring, possibly 
an evacuation may take place, for fear of a combined operation with the 
French fleet. ;? 

But, independently of the object of intercepting a retreat to Savannah, if in 
e out em plat ion by the enemy, the position at the Rouud-O, was favourable to 
covering the country; and an event had occurred, which rendered it indis- 
pensable that he should throw the Edisto between himself and the enemy. 

It was on the sufficiency of the force assembled under Marion, to keep In 
cheek chat of the enemy under Stewart, that Greene had ventured to advance 
to the Four- Holes, or meditated taking a position so much e a posed to an attack 
from Charleston. The mountaineers under Sevierc and Shelby, constituted 
the rc~enfurcem cut upon which he had ventured into the field. And this force : 
to his astonishment (tewta! fetefc. lie had been given to understand, that they 
were to remain In service (i undl the spring of the year, or until Charleston 
w f as reduced. " T To his disppotutmenr and surprise, they a I! abandoned Ma- 
rion by the 25th of No vein her. It is, most probably, nitribmable to Shelby's 
having obtained leave of absence, as we find no other cause or cacli^c for 
their retiring after three wccki* ; service. Perhaps the service was not sitJFi- 
cicuilv active for their habits. Greene had informed Marion, (t that he must 
give them something to do, or they would become dissatisfied. ;? In all his 
cflnrrs to effect thbj Marion had been un successful. He had approached the 
cm UY) but could not tempt him from his encampment, Vudi numbers dc- 
K id ed I y superior to the Americans, it was with chagrin that Marlon found it 
Impossible to induce him to lake the field. And it was not until Stewart 
decamped from Wruitoot, and retired near w Goose Creek I J ridge, that Marion 
discovered the cause. Colonel now General Stewart's (having lately beeo 



* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, m 

promoted) orderly sergeant fell kno the hands of Marian, and on him was <w\v. 
found a return, from uhich, it appeared, that oui of two thousand two iiundrcd 
and seven ty-t wo men, the enemy had nine hundred and twenty-eight on the 

sick-list 

To keep hold on public opinion, to command the country, or to collect pro- 
vision* and plunder slavey the enemy had kept the Field hi this sickly pan of 
the smte, during the whole of the fall ; but, they must have paid dearly fork in 
the desi ruction of troops* If, on the 23di of November, so uBar one half of 
the British troops were still sick or convalescent, those who are acquainted with 
the dunatCi will readily judge of the affliction and mortality that must have 
prevailed among them at an earlier period. Place an hundred Europeans in 
the same country, to perform the same service for the same mouths, and ninety- 
nine of thera would, at the present day, be attacked with bilious fevers. 

The only services in which the mountaineers (as the}' were called) were 
employed, while with Marion, were in attacks on the post at Falrlawn, and 
on ihe. redoubts at Wappctaw. "KtacTfiuents p_£ about two hundred of them, 
supported by Mayhem's cavalry of about one hundred and eighty, were, in 
both instances, employed under the com maud of Shelby. The latter place* 
on being approached* was abandoned, for (renrmr Stewart was then drawjng 
in his forces under the protection of Charleston,* 13 hi, the attack oh Fairlawn 
was made while the enemy lay at Wantoot- A garrison, of considerable 
strength, had been usually kept at that place, to cover the landing-place on 
Cooper River ; hut, when the main army of the enemy lay in advance of it, 
the? garrison had been weakened, no doubt, upon the supposition, that in; ser- 
vices were rendered unnecessary, Marion knew that the garrison was reduced, 
and Oiined a blo\v at it by turning their left, and moving rapidly into their 
rear. The landing-place was «#fca»d by a fort of too much htreugtk to-be 
carried by assault, widt such-troops as Shelby's ami Mayhem's 5 Out, at the dis- 
tance of half a mile, was a strong brick-house, twih at a very early period, 
and known to have been calculated for defence, as well as coniibrti This had 
been inclosed by slrong abbatis; and being on the route from Charleston to 
Monk's Corner, had been used as a stage for then- troops and convoys, in pass- 
ing from post to post. It was sufficiently capacious to cover a party of con- 
siderable magnimde, and was unassailable by cavalry, the only force from 
Which sudden incursions could be apprehended. It was also a convenient 
depot in the transposition of negroes, stock, &c, taken above tha British posts, 
and moving to Charleston, and had been used as a hospital. 

in pacing the post at Wuntoot> JUayhem was ordmd io$iuw himself, and to 
endeavour to decoy the iiritish cavalry }mo the field* The manoeuvre did not 



^tti 



I 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

chap succeed, but it brought out a strong detachment, to tread on his heels and 
preclude the possibility of his effecting any thing further, unless with great dis- 
patch* 

On approaching Fairlawn, every thing within the abbatis indicated resist- 
ance; and the loss of titne, with the fort in view* and the enemy in his rear, 
must liave resulted in disappointment, A party of the riflemen were ordered 
to d if mount, find, approaching the abbatis, appear and act as infantry, while 
the residue of that corps, beaded by the cavalry, advanced boldly into the field 
and demanded a surrender* The idea of resistance was abandoned, and the 
place surrendered at discretion' In it were found three hundred stand of arms, 
many stores of value, some sick, and eighty convalescents, able to have fought 
from the house windows. 

The medical men. officers, and the sick were parolled ; and the convalescents 
carried off on horseback, behind Mayhem's men. But the house, with its con- 
tents, and the abbatis, were committed to the flames. 

This exploit was made the subject of very heavy cool plaints at the time, by 
General Stewart, under the charge of burning a hospital, and behaving with 
cruelty to the unfortunate tenants of such an establishment Bui obviously, 
more from the mortification of having it done cfose in his rear* and not being 
able to prevent it, than from any just cause of animadversion, either in law or 
fact. 

A correspondence ensued, in which ihe American compander exhibits as 
accurate a knowledge of the laws of arms as of their practical uses, h was 
bordering on the ridiculous to claim the immunities of a hospital for a 
place which had been appropriated to so many military uses; it was even 
denied that the sick were under a military guard, notwithstanding the quan- 
tity of en- we and stores actually found ha the place- But it .ought to have been 
recollected, they- w*i£,njDt_guarded by others because„they were now able to 
guard both themselves, and the .depot put under their protection. The Ameri- 
cans were particularly reproached with hurrying oiTsick men from their beds, 
to perish in the swamps* when it was not only proved, that no one was taken 
off who was declared by the physician too unwell to move, but that Mayhem 
had offered to leave the whole, if the officer who commanded would give his 
receipt for them as prisoners* After this, the cruelty* if any, lay altogether at 
the British officer's door ; since he could only have refuse to give such a receipt, 
in the hope that the captors would be embarrassed and overtaken while bear- 
ing oflf their prisoucrs* It was obviously too much the interest of the Ameri- 
cans to have made this arrangement, to admit a doubt on Mayhem's declara 






MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. £ft 

don, that he had offered to make It; but humanity, no less <han policy, removed chap. 
the obstacle to retreat, in the means employed to bear away lus prisoners. s- 

That hospitals may justly be the object of military operations, results from 
the consideration that they are auxiliary to the restoration, if not the nurseries, 
of military force. That rhe buildings which solace the sufferings of the soldier, 
are not to he wantonly burin, is but a partial application of the more general 
rule, that no buildings not appropriated to active war, shall be wantonly de- 
stroyed ; but it Was unfortunate, at this time, for the argument of General 
Stewart, that the smokes of Camden, of Georgetown, and of Biggin Church, 
were ascending; and the consumption of stores had been the cause, or pretest, 
of their destruction. 

That the unhappy tenants of an hospital are to be treated with farms atten- 
tion to their actual situation, is also but rhc application of the general principle, 
that the miseries of war are not to he unnecessarily aggravated. But the 
sick and wounded of hospitals are the recruits, on their way to add numbers 
to the enemy's force, and are ihirJy_the subjects of capture and parole. Gene- 
ral Stewart asserts the contrary doctrine, hut-General Greene's reply places the 
subject in its proper light, and maintains the priaciple asserted fay Stewart, to 
be only an exception, resting on the basis of positive stipulation \ or of conihw 
demanded by example, which had never been set towards American prisoners* 

The whole of this aflair is easily explained. The enemy had lost a garrison ; 
and would have obviated the disgrace, or mitigated the mortification, by per- 
suading the world that the Americans had attacked ami burnt an hospital. 
It was an ordinary rase de guerre: but eighty prisoners, aU able to bear arms, 
delivered in safety at the High- Hills, (the Ameri^tr depot,) bore sufficient 
evidence of the reality. 

General Greene received. *vith astonishment, the intelligence of the Intended 
return of Ins mumitauieerk Upon this re- enforce meat he had ventured across 
the Santee, and was now Loo far advanced to recede. Marion also, relying on 
this support, had passed the Santec, and penetrated down the country, on the 
enemy's right. The baleful efforts of retreat had often been experienced, and 
at this time would have been seriously felt Yet Marion, in his weakened state, 
would be greatly exposed, and if any capital misfortune should be sustained by 
him, the main army must retreat with preci pita don. The most pressing en- 
treaties were dispatched to prevail on the mountaineers to remain ; but before 
the message reached Marion's camp, there was not one of them remaining. 
Fortunately, however, Greene's movement across the Congarcc, had induced 
Stewart to draw towards Charleston;, and leave Marion in safety; and that 
movement of the enemy, evincing his ignorance of the actual state of the Ame- 



tei MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

chap, rkan army, or a consciousness of Lis own weakness , induced Greene to under- 
take an enterprise, calculated both to confirm the enemy in the opinion of the 
American strength, and* by forcing hum into Charleston without risking an 
action, to get the entire command of the state* This was an important object, ■. 
just &t this crisis, for the governor and council had issued proclamations, and 
made arrangements for elections to take place in a few days, for members of 
the legislature. 

"With these views. General Greene, leaving the army on its march under the 
command o!" Colonel Williams, moved briskly forward towards Dorchester, at 
the head of about two hundred cavalry t and as many infantry. The cavalry 
consisted or l-ee T s and Washington's commands, and one hundred drawn from 
Sutnpter's, The infantry consisted of those of die legion, and detachments 
from the Maryland and Virginia lines* 

Colonel Lee, in reletting [Life expedition, appears to have forgotten, that lie 
did not command the party* He had rejoined the army, but was, at the umc t 
confined by indisposition. Subjoined to a fitter of Colonel Williams' to Ge- 
nera! Greene, of the 4th of December, dated at Riddlespeiger's, we find the 
following paragraph* under the hand of Colonel Lee — 4 * I have the honour of 
your letter of the 2d, and have the pleasure to inform you, that I have perfectly 
recovered from my indisposition. I shall continue with the army until 1 know 
how and where to find you. !? The face is indeed notorious that the command 
wasgfren to Colonel Wade Hampton, whom Colonel Lee represents as acting 
a subordinate part on this occasion^ 

General Greene flattered himself with the hope, that he would be able to 
surprise the post at DoiTWrer. Uutj notwithstanding the celerity of his move- 
ments, the pursuit of the least fre^upjited paths, and every precaution for 
arresting intelligence, he was so watched anu ouu^mded by the loyalists in 
the woods and swamps, dun notice of his approach pi^ceTIeiritfMa half a day; 
and the enemy lay on their arms all the night of the 30 th T expecting; an attack. 
As be did not appear, at a Late hour on the 1st of December, a reconnuitering 
party of fifty loyalists, was dispatched for intelligence. Hampton's advanced 
guard fell in with thi& party, and suffered but few of them to escape* Soe!ose 
was the pursuit pressed to the enemy's post, that the wbole cavalry of die Bri- 
tish army, which, with a strong detachment of infantry, had been dispatched to 
re-enforce that post* issued out to charge the pursuing party. Never did the 
heart of the commander swell with a umre pleasurable anticipation than at 
ihis pioment* This was the very corps he was most desirous of cutting off; for 
it was the one which would give bim the most trouble in Ins future measures j 
besides the probability that the surrender of the infantry would follow its des- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. m 

truction. Hampton darted on them with all the speed that could be given to chap, 

lijs horses, hut they wheeled ami avoided the conflict. Twenty or thirty. 

chiefly loyally were killed, wounded or taken, and such an alarm excited 

by the presence of the com m under, and the belief that his whole force was 

upon diem, that during the night, the garrison destroyed every tiling, threw 

their cannon into the river, and retreated lo Charleston. The fort at Dor* 

Chester was so situated, that a reireat was practicable* either by land or water, 

and either on the east or west side of the river, which ever was ruast secure 

from annoyance. An army must have the command of both banks of the 

Ashley below Dorch cater, to cut oil' the retreat of its garrison* A bridge, on 

Thedhect route of the cast side of the river, being token up, the advance of the 

pursuer on that side was stopped ■ hut, Greene could not have pursued from 

another cause— the infantry of the enemy exceeded five hundred. 

The enemy halted, and was re-enforced at the Quarter-House, about six 
miles from die city^ where the Isthmus is very narrow ■ and Genera] Stewart, 
making a simultaneous movement from Goose Creek Bridge to the same point! 
ail the force that could he summoned from Charleston, joined them, and the 
whuie were actively employed in preparing to resist an immediate attack. 
The alarm hud been rapidly spread by the fugitives, and the force of Greene 
so magnified by report, that, in addition to three thousand three hundred men. 
then (including the ' garrison of Wilmington) in the city and its neighbourhood, 
and one thousand loyalists, Generai Leslie, who had now succeeded General 
Stewart, resolved to embody the young and active of the slaves that had been 
recently crowded into the dty T into regiments. It was a fearful sight to the 
remaining inhabitants, to sec the first recruits of these regiments paraded ; 
and not less unpopular, with those who feared the loss of their plunder in 
slaves, from the measure of liberadng diem. When the ahum subsided, the 
project appears to have been relinquished. 

General Kosciusko, who had preceded the army, had selected Colonel £aun- 
$$& place, on the Round-O, as a proper position for an encampment. The 
arttty was joined by the com mander at that place, on the 7th, and Colonel 
Lee ordered to take command of the light dctadunenL Marion, advancing 
still nearer to Charleston, kept the right of the enemy in check. General 
Sumpter occupied Orangeburgh and the Four- Hole Bridge : Colonel W\ 
Hampton, with fifty of the state cavalry, kept open the communication with 
Marion ; ColoncU Harden and Wilkinson watched the enemy's movements on 
the south, between Charlnston and Savannah ; and Colonel Lee, posted in 
advance, kept him from prying imo the real weakness of the American army. 
vol. fi. Si 



2<36 MAJOR GEXERAL GREENE. 

chxp. His a singular fact, that there were not, at this lime, eight hundred men at 
the American head-quarters ; and, after supplying the different detachments 
with ammunition, the army liad not four rounds to a man left* 

The army hod kftgB greatly disappointed lately tviih regard to ammunition. 
From Camden, sotitb, the country afforded little or no means of transportation : 
nearly all had bnen destroyed ; and what remained, as well as what the coun- 
try hsyond it for some distauce* afforded! had been necessarily occupicrtj in 
collecting magazines on the line of General St, Clair's advance with die 
troops from York Town* Caprain Pendleton had been dispatched to super- 
intend this indispensable object j and the quarter master 7 * department, at all 
rimes ill-organized, had been embarrassed in the transportation of ammunition, 
to such a degree, as to produce this unexpected and distressing dearth of t hat 
article in the army* 

ColonaJ Williams, in a letter of the 4th, says — ** Your success at Dorchester 
would make your enemies hate themselves, if all circum stances were generally 
knowm ; and she same knowledge would make your friends admire the adven- 
ture even more than they do. [ am very happy that you have obtained your 
wish without risking a general action ; and I hope you will be able to keep 
150ssesiion of what you have *ot, until the re-enforcement, under General St. 
Clair, will enable you to take more." 

It was with no small anxiety , that General Greene's mind was turned, at 
tiiis time, on St. Clair's advance. The ground acquired , since the passage of 
ihc Congarec, had been too much rhe result of manceuvre, to be held with 
confidence. The actual state of his strength, could not long be concealed from 
ihc enemy ; and the approaching necessity of discharging the Virginia troops, 
was well known to Leslie! for their term of service was no secret. The 
enemy' s force already doubled Greene's, though all had been concentrated ; 
and the return of their convalescents to the ranks, during the st?aaon of health, 
must daily increase this disparity. 

To complete his causes of apprehension, no ammunition having yet arrived 
lit quantities to supply himself and his detachments, whilst all were clamouring 
from Georgia to the Samee ? for this sine qua non of war, he had not a car- 
tridge that was not dealt out to his men, and their earcoueh-boxes not one - 
fourth filled. 

This disgusting state of things had, in part, resulted from one of those con- 
tretemps, \o which the southern commander had often been exjxised, by rhc 
multiplied, multiform, and a n combined arrangements through which he was 
compelled to draw his supplies. 

Laboratories had been established by Steuben, in Virginia, for the ordnance 
department of the southern army ; the greatest part of the ammunition, intend- 



MAJOR GENERAL UKEENE, 267 

ed for it, was haired there, and its fixed ammunition supplied (ruin jhcuco. ^ 
Steuben, being &#ftift3frd ivith the deputy commissary of military stores, J?™ 
whose duty it was to forward this article, had, with the concurrctKV oifiencral 
Greene, displaced him, and appointed another in Ins stead. The dispjacr-d in- 
cumbent appealed to the board of war, and they thought proper to reinstate 
him. This had happened hi Xovcmbcr, and some time in January he had nut 
yet resumed his operations; sickness had detained him on Jib journey from 
Philadelphia. The department became totally deranged ■; and when the offi 
«$*, dialed hy Genera] Greene with Inquiring into mid remedying the evil, 
eiinieinto Virsjjnia, they found every thin- {here prostrate, and scarce a pos- 
sibility IliJi of giving a 5 p iu k of life fo the qnim master general 7 * means ©f 
transput union. Wiilunst ihe*e ? ihe little ammunition manufactured, twM not 
he transported to hcad-miartcrs. 

Colonel Cnrnngton. in the middle of November, when the capture of Corn- 
Wnllls had furnished a large supply of cartridges, writes almost in despair—" I 
have obtained of the military chest, taken in York To* n, two hundred and 
6% gglfttitai m the im of my department, t could obtain no more ; this seems 
tu be my only dependence for forwarding uiy business. There appears to be 
an end 10 business here in every department; (he people, wearied out with 
impressments for the last campaign, arc no longer to be lugged into any ser- 
vice, or to afford assistance in any respect, without money. Of this we have 
none ; and as to government powers, the) appear to be dropping to the. ground < 
we cannot get a house together; and the governor being sfck, no executive i* 
convened so mrmnuiiicate with. J am endeavouring to lay a foundation for 
the most nectary stores to he got on as tar as Peyton burgh, from whence 
I still have confidence of IPCraw, and the as<^tauts*hi \orth Carolina, for 
getting the 1 ei to you. As to Virginia, I find the same kind of Indifference. \ u 
ilutVj prevails with too many of those employed In mv department, as is exhi- 
bited by the officers of eivil government : and as I have no means of paying 
them, I have no means of getting ihose into my scrvieu who will vaiue the ap- 
pointment so inudi as to attend to their business, ti nil that zeal which will 
oyiuvonicj ddlleukies. The want of money is made use of as a pretext for the 
tiUME villainous mulim-nce. In n\wi, I find we arc at last to depend on nuir 
own exertions immedUteJy, m diosu points which u e can cJlect with the aid of 
a few virtuous men from the army." Again, on (he SStli, he say*— " The 
quarter master for the reasons I had the hunour (ogive you in my last, areof 
but link- use to me. And as to government, It scums to 'be at an end, Tho 
governor is a good man in his office, but j» unbappilv dogged with a privy 
council, (he constituent parts of which arc both, natural \y and politically too 



~>68 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ctup. feeble for die public purposes of the present day, I have, in a great measure, 
dropped both government and assistants, and am addressing myself to die peo- 
ple ," Stc. ke, 

IVior to General Greenes leaving the Hills the last time, it has been men- 
tioned, that lie had been straightened for ammunition. For ten days after hr 
was ready to march, he had been detained there fur no other cause. And it 
may be imputed to him as an error, that, with such prospects, he had ventured 
to take the fit Id But ii must be recollected, that the detachment under Se- 
vere and Shelby had then arrived; and to have held them in a state of inac- 
tivity, would have been not only useless to the public, but have certainly pro- 
duced discontent and desertion in their ranks. A small supply of ammunition 
had arrived before the march of the main army. And by dispatching Captain 
Pendleton, on the line of communication with his depots, to ClutrJottc. to 
whom wt& added Mr, R. Forsyth, with in struct ions to proceed still 1 art her, it 
was supposed that the present state of destitution cnuld nut have occurred, ll 
must also be remarked, that the letters of Colonel Carrington had not then been 
received ; and from the fall of ComwalJis, there was just ground to hope that 
thing* would have improved, instead of becoming desperate, In Virginia. 

On the article of subsistence, the deranged state of the quarter master's de- 
partment gave the southern commander no alarm. Had he, indeed, been 
compelled to rely on its aid to transport provision to his army, lie could not have 
ventured a foot in advance. Buc to relieve that department from this heavy 
part or its duties, or rather himself from the necessity of depending on it, was 
one object for raking the position on the Uound-O. It was in the midst of a 
plentiful provision country ; and aldtough rice was an article to which his 
soldiers bad not been accustomed, and the uses of it in au army were not then 
tested, as they have been in latter times, it was found to afford nutritious diet for 
man and horse. To the officers, and to the sick T a source of supply was 
opened for delicacies, to which they had been tanjf unaccustomed- This was 
an abundant supply of venison and wild-fowl, in which the neighbourhood 

abounded* 

Animal-footh General Greene hud long since ascertained, was best, supplied 
to the soldiers upon the hoof, This was a standing relief to the quarter mas- 
ter's department ; it also lessened the consumption of salt, then worth five 
hard dollars per bushel; and by obviating the necessity of magazines, left the 
arm} more at large in its movements, and presented fewer objects to be guard- 
ed by himself, or struck at by the enemy* Indeed, scattered lis the loyalists 
were* at all &3S9& over the country* and hardy and enterprising as many of 
their leaders were, tin : enemy would always have been able to annoy Uie army, 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 26S 

bv destroying its magazines. For beef-cattle, no region could afford better ciur. 
pasture, at this season, than the rice-fields and cane-brakes of the low coun-.J^l. 
try, 

The dcrEingcments in the quarter master's department, therefore, furnished 
strong reasons in favour of the movement to his present position. 

While in a state of almost positive incapacity for action, General Greene had 
to sustain one of the most serious alarms of his life. Indeed, through his 
whole correspondence, -we see hut this one instance of extreme apprehension. 
Not Song after his taking post at the Round-O, ColoneUohn Laurens finally 
carried into effect, the design so early conceived, of joining General Greene 
This active young patriot was never a! rest -with himself, but when active I v 
engaged in the service of his country. He had, very recently, returned from 
France, charged with the invaluable supplies from that country, which had 
been delivered in Boston. He immediately resumed his post in the family of 
the commander in chief, until the fall of Lord Cornwallis; and acted a con- 
spicuous part in lIip conflict* which preceded that event. The happy termina- 
tion of that enter prise, left Laurens ai liberty to solicit others, and he imme- 
diately obtained leave of the? commander in chief, to repair to the oolv scene 
which was likely to present opportunities for the exercise of his spirit and 
naiiiotism. , 

General Greene knew too well his talents, his zeal, and his temper, to keep 
him lung in inactivity ■ and a detachment was formed and placed under his com- 
mand, charged with co-operating in the measures previously adopted, for con- 
limns; the enemy to the limits to whic|i he was now restricted. 

Laurens was so ^reat a favourite, and so well known in the low country of 
South Carolina, that he soon found the means of opening a communication 
with Charleston ; and through one" of the channels o( information he had 
opened, he learned on the SStfy that a fleet from Ireland, with three thousand 
troops on board, was wirhiu two day's sail of the bar ; that Some of the offi- 
cers had actually arrived, and that a rc-cnforccmcnc of two thousand more, 
was hourly expected from New York. 

Lee, iv ho was, at the same time, with his detachment low down Ashley Ri- 
ver, received the same intelligence; and the recking couriers, from both ihese 
officers, arrived at the same moment in the American camp. 

The hiunsui mind ivadrly credits mictli^encc of events that It has antici- 
pated, and Greene had repeatedly foretold, that Lhe Briti&h army to the south 
would be rc-en forced ; as Well to maiiitahi the uli wmktis prineipJe, for which, 
feagj^td was negotiating, fa because tlie war iulm languish altogether, unless 
pressed in this quarter. Recent movements among the Indians, the nevtv- 



■ 



2 T0 .MAJOR GENERAL GI4EENE. 

<jhap. failing presage of movements in the British army, bad also taken place j his 
ii^, own diminished avid ill-provided condition, invited attack; and the source of 
the information appeared of unquestionable authenticity. To have tamed a 
deaf ear to it> would have been presumptuous ; and the night was consumed 
in preparing dispatches to Count Rochambeau, the governors of Virginia, 
Maryland, and North Carolina, and many others, earnestly soliciting imme- 
diate support. To insure dispatch and effect to these application*, and hasten 
the advance of St, Clair and Wayne, officers of known zeal and fidelity, 
wore made the bearers of these message*. 

The impression made upon the mind of the general, was vented in many 
of these letters, tn one, written to General Smallwood, who, at this time, 
was discharging in Maryland, the duties previously, delegated to General 
Glsr, now on his march for head -quarters, he writes— " I fear the misfortunes 
of this country are never to he at an end. After driving the enemy into 
Charleston, with the remains o\' our little army, i was in hopes to have a 
little respite; especially after General St. Clair should join us, which 1 expect 
will take place In three or four days. But, alas I I got Intelligence yesterday, 
that four rcgimenw of infantry, and two of dismounted dragoons, were hourly 
expected from Cork, and three regiments from New York. This force, with 
what the enemv had before, will make them upwards of eight thousand 
strong at Charleston, besides what they have at Savannah, Our force, when 
collected altogether even after General St. Clair shall have joined us, will not 
amount to more than one-third of the enemy's. In this alarming and dis- 
tressing situation, 1 beg of you to have forwarded, every man fit for duty in 
Maryland ; and T if any little articles are wanted for their equipment, that 
they be forwarded after them- Should these re-enforcements arrive, (and 
ihere can be little doubt of it) it roay eerve to convince you, that the enemy 
mean to make still greater exertions for holding the southern states; and, 
therefore, no time should be lost in filling up your regiments. Unless I am 
speedily supported, I shall be obliged to abandon the country, or expose the 

army to min. ;? 

To Colonel Davics, now at the head of the Virginia board of war, he writes, 
" ibr God's sake, my dear sir, give no sleep to your eyes, nor slumber to your 
eyelids, until you get the troops on the march. Captain Ragadale has orders to 
apply for two thousand militia, and to gee two thousand beeves put up to stall- 
feed for tliis army. . Please to lend your'aid in this busiuess^and forward us a 
good quantity of spirits if yon intend we shall either live or fight. If Virginia 
does not exen herself for our aid, we arc inevitably mined. An individual can 
do but little without assistance ; and I beg the legislature and executive of your 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. £71 

state not to deceive themselves with false hopes. Fresh misfortunes mav arise chap. 
without effectual assistance, which may lay a (rain Again fur new calamities to 
Virginia. But* beat lug what concerns her own safety, she should not he un- 
niUidfitl of the suffer! tigs and tliar resses of h er sister sta tes. So mething m ust he 
done in your state to give more effectual aid to the business of transportation ; 
Colonel C arrington says he can gel no assistance." 

To the governor of Virginia he writes — IE I am sensible the censure always 
fiilte upon the otter who 3s unfortunate. Jet who will he in fault; but this would 
give me little concern, did 1 not sec two states invoked in the ruin j and, per- 
haps, three. But 1 flatter myself, ! have something to hope from Virginia, in- 
dependent of her federal obligations, as I paid particular attention to your safety 
last summer when f was pressed with difficulties and dangers on every side. 
I hope j therefore, you will not suffer me to sink, and those states to be over* 
come which have been so ravaged and destroyed as to pain the humanity of 
every observer, Let me in treat you not to suppose that J am laying before 
you an exaggerated account; for you may be assured, that our difficulties and 
dangers are as great as I have represented them. I shall do all 1 can ; but it 
would be nothing [ess than a wanton sacrifice of men! to attempt any thing 
against so unequal a force as is expected. The enemy have now, before any 
re-en forceuicnts arrive, a greater force than our collective strength, after Gene- 
ral St. Clair shall have joined us," fee* 

Notwithstanding the sanctity attached, by military men, to the use of flags, 
and the affectation of using them only to mitigate the mis cries of war, it is a 
well known fact, that they have, in practice! other uses attached to them be- 
sides keeping open an intercourse with an armed enemy* There was one sent 
id to General Leslie the following morning, with some earnest remonstrances 
on the subject of exchanges* which had probably been deferred, not without a 
motive \ and its return gave full certainty to this state of facts, relative to re- en- 
forcements. — That from New -York, consisting of two regiments of infantry, 
and about one hundred and fifty dismounted dragoons, was actually on its way, 
but the Cork fleet had brought withh only a re-enforcement of about skty ar- 
tillerists. 

i 

Against this additional force, General Greene resolved, not only to main- 
tain his ground, but to advance as soon as his own re-enforcement should 
arrive* 

Had the intelligence, which had produced such excitement in the American 
camp, been really true, there can he little doubt that Greene must have once 
more yielded up all his hard earned conquests. Count Roc ham beau plead ed- 
the want of instruction from his court and orders from General Washington > 



«$ MAJOR GENERAL QKE&3X. 

Cl !^ p and could promise no support until Greene should be pushed beyond the 
J^r^s Roanoke or Dan. North Caroling ever since the capture of Governor Burke, 
hnt J got into such a state of confusion, that she could not even get herlegisla- 
tm-c together. And Virginia* convulsed by a quarrel with her own governor, 
mid with the li minder of die United States ; without a farthing in her treasury, 
or a prospect of any until October ; so impoverished, that her one thousand 
recruits, in depot, " were kept from perishing" only by the private advances of 
i he gentlemen at the head q( the war department;* could only promise that 
those recruits should be immediately marched to head quarters, As to die 
militia required of her, Colonel Davies writes— " I ana sorry to say, that I tear 
the whole power njf 'government would not be sulliciem to rc-enforce you with 
two thousand men at this tine; the truth is, the governor and council is hot 
vested with any power to order them out of the. stated 

it was in anticipation of all th<2 mortification and distress to himself and his 
urmy, the detrition and ruin of a country which iiU heart had often bled for t 
and the baleful influence on the American cause, that must result from ever 
Again retreating before a superior enemy ; that General Greene addressed to 
Governor Hull edge that letter, which was the subject of much animadversion 
itt that time, and may at all tunes be the subject oC very various opinions, on 
its prudence and policy. 

It bears date prior to the receipt ot the intelligence which we have noticed, 
but expressly in anticipation of it; and from its importance will merit to be 
transcribed at h?ngt|i. 

li From the preparations making in Charleston for its defence, the measures 
taken to incorporate the torics* and embodying the negroes, as well as to spirit 
up the savages on the frontier, it appears the enemy have further designs upon 
this country. It is difficult to tell what will be their plan J nor can we tell how 
far European politics may effect our operations here. Our attention is naturally 
directed to two objects: one Is to cover the country, the other, to drive the 
enemy from their strong holds* An additional force to our present strength 
may become necessary for either, or both. Should the enemy have in 
contemplation offensive operations in this quarter, they will, undoubtedly, re* 
enforce their army here, will oblige us to fall back, unless we receive reinforce- 
ments also, and once more give the enemy command of the most fertile parts 
of this country. A change of sentiment may also take place among the inhabi- 
tants — new difficulties arise, and the issue of the war be protracted, if not ren- 



• Calonei Dikviti* 5 letter, Slst January, J7I2. 



MAJOR GENEIUI- GREENE. i>7 



ajca 



de red d on b t ful. G ood poll cy woul d d ictatc, thereto re, th at y oi i g® o u hUr i ■ c n * l| j en ci ! a p 
yourselves by every means tIu? natural resources of the country will admit* 
He-en farrcnients from the northward are precarious* and a longtime on their 
way. which mult expose you, upon nil emergencies, to fresh calamitlv.-, mdess 
you take measures, seasouKbly, to provide against them, It ii true? fipaist Is 
a national consideration- btti far Jess so than security against the ravages of a 
cruel and bloody enemy. Bat supposing the enemy should not have anv im- 
mediate offensive operations 111 view, and only mean to secure themselves hi 
Charleston, it is an object highly worthy of consideration, whether It is not for 
the Interest of govern me into furnish such a force, as to oblige them to a ban do u 
it, or to hold it at such an expense, as \v!J] be both inconsistent with their na- 
tlona! policy and national interest. I can readily conceive they may be wilfins; 
to bold the place, ifit can be done with safety with a small garrison T when ihev 
would noi think of the measure, if they were obliged to employ a large one. aiuf 
evacuate It, 

11 The cultivation of the country is so Important an object, and so much de- 
pendent upon trade nml commerce, and both eo cornice ted with the possession 
of Charleston, that the whole body of the people arc deeply Interested in the 
measure; and the expense that would effect thisj would bear but a very small 
prop on ion 10 the advantages which wouJd result from It* 

m It has been said by some good judges of military operations, that Charleston 
could never be recovered but by a naval cooperation. Tins opinion is founded 
upon the facility with which the enemy may re-snforce It But that may be- 
more i nc on vem'en 1 1 h an a n e vacuat ion. 

$1 cannot pretend to pronounce* positively, that the enemy may be compel- 
led to evacuate Charleston, without a naval co-operation, even nidi a foice us 
large i\s I should riiink proper to ask for the occasion ; bin the probability is so 
inviting that 1 think the measure highly warrants the ex. peri men t; ami more 
especially, as a naval co-opt- ration l& so precarious, and our future securitv, as 
well as present advantage so connected with the issue of it, If wc can drive 
the enemy from our sea-pnrt towns, without a naval co-opemdou, it will be a 
g-vat point gained, not only in the present case, but will preveEt future inva- 
sion*. And if wc foil in this experiment, It will only let us know bow far we 
are dependent upon our 0{m, And after all. the force necessary for the fc*pg- 
tftatati should If faii, will give greater security to the country, and more repose 
to the militia; now become so necessary for the happiness of the community* 
as well from die ravugeA of the enemy, as the long interruption of all kinds of 
business. 



<:n.\f\ *' The nnmml strength oi" the country, in point of numbers, appears to me 



XV j 



10 consist much more hi llic blacks than hi the whites.* Could ihry be 
iucim'por&ied, eh if 1 employed for its defence, it would afford you double 
&con: l iiv, That thev would make sood soldier*. J have not the least doubt: 
and I am pemiaded. the state hoi it not in its power to give sufficient re-en- 
forccmeiH^ whkntit incorporating ihcm, either lo secure the country, if the 
enemy mean tta act vigorously upon an offensive plan, or funiteh a force suffi- 
cient to dispossess thein of Charleston, should if be defensive. 

i: The number of white? in this state U too small, and the state of y nut" 
fin ances too low, to attempt to ratec a force in any other way. Should the 
measure be adopted, It may prove a good means of pre renting the enemy from 
further attempts upon this country* when they And they have not only the 
whites, but the blacks also, to contend whh ; and I believe it is generally 
agreed, that if the natural strength of this country could have been employed in 
its defence, (he enemy would have found it Hide less than impracticable io have 
Gjot footing here, much more to have overrun the country : by which ihc In- 
habitants hare suffered hifinhcly greater loss than would have been sufficient to 
have given you perfect security. And 1 am peruaded, the incorporation of a 
nart of the negroes would rather tend to secure the fidelity of other?, than excite 
discontent, mutiny, and desertion among them. The force I would ask for this 
purpose, in addition to what wc have, and what may probably join us from 
the northward, or from the mi I i da of this state* would be four teamen is, two 
upon the continental, and two upon the state establishment ; A corps of 
pioneers, ami a corps of artificers each to consist of about eighty men. The 
two last may be either on a temporary or permanent establishment, as may be 
most agreeable to the state. The others should have their freedom, and be 
doihcd and seated, in all respects, as other soldiers, without which tbey will 
be unfit fur the duties expected from them. 

" If the measure is thought eligible, the sooner it Is adopted the better, and 
measures taken for arming, clothing, and equipping the men. And it shall be 
my endeavour ro employ them most for thi j honour mid interest oC the state. 
I shall wish to know the sentiments of vonr execllcncv. atid council, as early as 
possible, as other measures, connected with your decision, must be immediately 
token in consequence thereof/' 

Those who can enter into die feelings and opinions of the citizens of those 
states which tolerate slavery, will be not a Ifrde startled at the proposition sub- 



Appends. E, 



major general gkeeke. r 



a* 



mitted jo the governor and council, In this letter. Astionsi, deep-seated feeling cn\r 

J ■-■■ ■ u , . 

nurtured from earliest Infancy T decide*, with instinctive prompt!!* 1 -**, ngiiinui a ^^J^ 
mrasutT of 50 thrattcuiJi* an aspect, ngsdhsq offensive to jfeal republican pridr, 
which ulsdaiufc to commit the cfofenccof the country to servile hand* ; oi k ?liare 
wit! i a colour, to which bha idea of inihriorhy is inseparably connected, the pro- 
fession, of artns; and tbnt approximation of couclition which must c.stst between 
the regular soldier and hie militia man. 

But, the governor ami council viewed the subject under the influence ofteta 
feeling. It seems, the proposition had formerly been under consideration iit 
the suite legislature ; and as the niccLing of that board was now at hand, it stfiu 
resoh skI to submit it to ihc.lv decision. 

There is a sovereign who, at this rime, draws his soldiery from the fame 
class of" people, and finds a facility iu forming and disci plim'ng au army, which 
no other power eiyoys, Xor, doe* hi* immense mil I tary force, formed from 
tliat class of Mil subjects, excite the least apprehension* : "for. the soldiers will 
is subdued to that of his officer; and his Improved condition, takes away thti 
habit of identifying himself with the class froui which he 1ms been separated k 
JMLlktiry men know, what mere machines men become under discipline; and 
bclit-ve. that any men who may be made obedient, may be made soldiers : and 
that, increasing their numbers, increases tug means of their own subjection and 
government. 

It Is now probable, that the idea of forming a military force by a draft from 
the slaves, had been suggested to General Greene, by a recent acquaintance 
with the habits, character, and feelings of that elnss of people, h could not 
escape his eye, that there w as no sense of hostility easting between the mas- 
ter and slave j but, rather something of the clannish or patriarchal feelings 
known to exUt ; between the inhabitants of a vilJage and their chief, He had 
remarked the joy exunaised by the slaves, on then- deliverance from the ty- 
ranny of the cnemy ; and the return of a protector in die person of their mas- 
ter. And tt was obvious, thai it the state could give a slave, for the services 
of a 3 nan as a soldier fur ten months, as had been the ra*c In raising some of 
Its troops, It wo will l)c great gain to convert the same slave into a soldier Ibr 
the war j LO be paid only by his freedom t after having served with fidelity. 
But, the legislature, when \t met, thought the experiment a dangerous one, 
and the project was relinquished. They adopted, however, the alternative of 
raising soldiers on the bJ^ck popukiicm, by giving a slave for a. soldier, Par^ 
ties were sent, to collect slaves from the plantations or the loyalists, and rcn- 
doEVOLis^ established in vain, in various places in the interior country. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ctun. A stronger vindication of the correctness of the opinion, iliac it was time 



xvi 



the state slip u Id cast about h for the means of defending itself, could not have 
beeo desired, ihan was furnished when it was thought necessary to appeal to 
oiher quarters for protection and defence ; rtnd it received a strong practical 
illustration from the circum stances attending the advance of the re-en force* 
me i] is under .ft. Clair. Ever since the month of March, lie had been under 
orders to re -enforce the southern army; thot he was halted on his march to 
aid in the defence of Virginia* proved the facility with which re- enforcements 
might be intercepted i and when again set la motion for his pkec of destina- 
tion, the time he consumed was more dian iuo months, in marching frem 
York Town 10 he ad -quarters, Nor, was lie chargeable with any unnecessary 
rfelnyj on the connary, lie was charged with proceeding two rapidly- and so 
much was his strength impaired, when he reached the Hound -0, that his 
force but little exceeded the one half of the numbers that crossed the Poto- 
mac* 

Colonel liar mar, afterwards Genera] Harmar, of Pennsylvania, kept a 
journal of diis march, as he dJcl of all the material ineideuEs of the whole 
time that line was in service ; and on the 9th of December* 17$ I, he minutes 
down — u we march too rapidly ; at this rate, we shall bring but a small re-en- 
force men t to General Green c. :) 

Ic was not until die 4th of January following, that St. Clair formed a junc- 
tion with Greene, The genural had, four days before! d ism Used the Virginia 
ilne-s with Iris warmest acknowledgments for their active and patient services* 
Only about sixty > from that state, now remained, and they had but one uiontb 
longer to sorvc- 

Tlie very Qgst ohjectof General Greened attention, after being re-enforced s 
was the state of Georgia, The enemy, after the fall of Augusta, had made no 
effort 10 regain his standing in the interior nf iliac state. Along the sea- coast, 
the communication with St. Augustine was kc-pc open ; but s thti only gar- 
risoned posts besides Savannah, were at Ebeneacraud Qgeeehee, each twenty- 
five luiJesfrom Savannah^ the former west, the other south. The persecutions 
of General Twiggs and Colonel Jackson, soon drove them from these post* j 
but, still die country was much harassed by tory-partles from Florida, and 
often alarmed by the movements of the savages, Savanaah was the centre 
nf British commimi nation with these unhappy people ; and they constantly 
icganteri, with *ul!en vmdiuiiveness, (he part)- who strove to cut off (heir 
imercmirae with that, place* 

Five Hav* affyjr the arrival of General St. Clatr, General Wayne was de- 
tached rath die 3d regimen t of dragoons, under Colonel White, (who had 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 2?? 

joined the army,) and a detachment of artillery, to place himself at the head of cba?. 
the force? then in arms m Georgia. Orders had been* some time before, issued ^JS 
to General Sampler, to detach Colonel Hampton's cavalry to the support of 
General Twiggs, and that corps was also placed at the disposal of General 
Wayne* In the Instructions under which General Wayne acted. Genera! 
Greene a ay s— (i The peculiar situation of Georgia, and the great IKjfejfngs of 
the good people of thai state, and their mi common exertions to recover Their 
liberties, induce me to embrace the earliest opportunity to give them more 
effectual support, than has been hitherto hi my power." And particularly 
mjoms aim, ;i to invite all the people to join him, when he should get into the 
low country; mid to pive protection and security to all such as should engage 
in service under his command. Try/' says he, " by every means in vour 
power, to soften the magnify and dreadful resent men is subsisting between 
whig and mry; and put a stop, as much as possible, to that cruel custom of 
putting men to death, after they surrender themselves prisoners. The prac- 
tice of plundering, you will endeavour to check as much as possible; and 
point out to the militia, the r u inous consequences of the poliew Let vour 
discipline be a* regular and as rigid, as the nature and constitution of Win 
troops will admit, I am sensible, there will many riimeulties attend your 
command ; but, the high opinion I have of your ebilities, zeal, resources 4 hi id 
enterprise, as well as perseverance, give mc the most flattering expectations 
that vuli will find means to surmount them all> and do honour to vout'seff, as 
wcli as essential service to your country : " kt 1 . 

In addition to the fences under his immediate command . General Barnwell * 
who, at this rime, commanded in that part of South Carolina, which ky aton* 
die lower pa it of Savannah River, received instructions to co- operate \\ idi 
General Wayne^ and render him all tlie aid in his power. A detachment of 
infantry, thca expected under Major Jloore, was also ordered to be dis- 
patched to Wayne's aid, as soon as it should arrive. Ac present, diminished 



* Governor nutledfrpj con airsfdti£ tint pario/ Marlon*! command. \vW\ah luy from CbrlsrtMj to 
Jkvumiuli Rtefftj tou i-ulmk- frtftt tfttfetft »«n<; of operations, bad dfifcrmJLji-d to conumZ a &$ 
1jrl E ad^ in that quails Ilhlimj, Marion ft$J flunfiH^L that region in CtoieJ ttsrd&n ; ftj id ,. w 
m IIWICS mn more tity Bttfefflfttt, Sfaftfav 2lit}B% #«$1 5fo Atti i3crjiwd), &«, fafe 
in grade as a ntilitia officflr. a mere proper person ibriiie ftpjwistnient ctf brighter th-n H&rtlgn 
ami appoint*! trim to Hie comtuwd. The .iSicm* and men toak uuh %fct st UftfWfi b-W 
iiipercerlwl, Hut they would sat Urn out under Gfotfjj ttamwet], so Bb» iieciiuld <ktf*Jlta fc*3 
m* finally obl^d ui oggfc Harden had towdWt^ AttWtt yy hk cojiunkslon on beit* *■' '■£'> 
Jttifol, emci uic ;#ubli<; lost fe services. 



V'J 
- J ■ I 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 



hup, eh hi i re- enforcements Had been on their Wfcrch. after il Ism is sin a; tlie Virginia 

XVI ^ i" 

troops the -gftncral found hiimidf ac the head of wo ilw inf.mtry, to admit. of 
dccachin^ any ; especially. a> Itfl had every reason to expect, that aa goon m 
tlenoral Leslie -hould be re-enforced, "he would resent the mauh of con- 
vening the leg! stature, to $fa and deliberate within bearing of Wa revdllcc. ;? 

Tto a^mbty of" tho scttu* Wftl now about meeiing in the village of Iftfife- 
-011 borough, li wag originally r*-olveJ, by ihc governor and council, to ©fcjti? 
vene it at Camden: bin, Llcncral Greene, after his excursion in Dnrchrstci\ 
bad, with an escort of Caft^JTi ifcW&vUti'fcd the eomury between the 
f.dlsto and Ashky. and Lund it fj»»nei^f JuM^KR inilmwy advantages, to 
admit of hi* covering J nek.*on borough from danger and insuh. He had, 
therefore, warn sly proved t]ie govfl*ftSt and council to convene the legislature 
uL that place, ^ well to confirm the evidence o\' a complete recovery of Hit: 
simc, as to nlaecthcm In security, from any sudden attempt from the loyafieis 
of the £aluihiur Deep Rivera; mochas Utid been made on Governor Burke, 
mid was afterwards* rep eat ed on the Georgia legislature. 

The legislature ww. accordingly, convene! by proclamation at Jacksoubo- 
kjm#, on the Hhh January. 173$ and civil government fully re-established: 
ufcer a suspension uf two i oacfc 

The army, in tho mean mne, crossed the Edi^to, and on the itich. took pm 
at [he plantation of Colonel S Lining, six mile* in advance of J a cks on bo- 
rough j on the road leading to Charleston, still drawing closer to the hitter 
place, ami taking the poslrion hi?st calculated to give- protection to the scat of 
LTOvernmenc, Hut, before ih&'tajjrfcft&£l cuuhl be placed fa perfect security 
from insult, there was one measure uceessai'v to be lakcn a^alu^t a party of 
ths enemy otfcgptas&g a p^t too neat tu Jackaunborongh. and commn- 
n testing w ith it both by land and water, 

This was on Joluvs Island, one of the Inner chain of ialkudr which stretch 
alfe$g the coa^t fro a] Charleston to Savannah, .separated from the mam by 
marshi-* in id creeks, and from each oiher by the estuaries of Hie rivers*, 
u^ueraily drsI^r.Eitod by the epithet of sounds, m inlets. Except: j ig Charleston 
"Nevk, ibc enemy had retired from die main, but &£fl occupied James and Jolnfs 
Islands-, and guarded the points at which they v,era accessible, by galleys, well 
manned, and earrviug heavv in tin. 

On John's Island, which is e.\ tensive, secure, and fertile, a number of cattle- 
had been collected for Ihe use of ike British army, and it was. cav^red by a rt> 
^peetable tlutuehment under Colonel Craig. I-Yom this place die distance, by 
land, trout its western extremity to Jackson borough b not beyond striking dls- 
'-Alice ; and by th'j aid ofthcij 1 gullies, that place might, b a ride, be approaches 



MAJOTL GENERAL GREENE. 2? 

by the enemy, so as to be struck fit with effect: while the commiiniraiion with cmp. 
Charleston, bv James* [fkuul, mti&.fc easy to throw it -en for cements upon 
John 7 * Inland unpcrecLYed, 

To drive the enemy frogi this post w% therefore- an object ef some interest. 
and General (Jrefenc gave It particularly hi charge to ilau commandu^ of hi& 
detachment* to make this a subject of early attention, It was soon ascertained, 
noi only thai the island vsm accessible, but that tholMiish commander. rfcJyiilg 
on he? gallics, was quite unapprehensive of an attack. 

There was one point between the Stono'aud Ldisto, at which the i si and 
was formerly connected 10 the high land, by a piece of hard-marsh. To com- 
plete the inland commu nidation bcuveen Charleston and the the if.disto. by 
tvav ofthcStono. this marsh had been cut through, and the canal is known by 
the epithet of New-CuL At low water this place is ibrdablcj and to guard \\m 
ps&s x two Eft] lies had been moored; at convenient distance^ but, nee e ssarily , 
somewhat remote, in order to prevent their being exposed by grounding. 

Launms was iniimtitcK' acquainted with the country; and he and Lee had 
made alt (he necessary inquiries before the army moved iVoin the Romid-O. 
And these two enterprising young commanders, now solicited the permission of 
:he general to en tor upon the undertaking of passing by night, between the 
gallics, and surprising the British detachment under Craig, 

The attempt was readily sanctioned: and the night of the 15th fixed on for 
its execution. The main army, by concert, moved on the 12th, on the route 
to Wallace's Bridge, to draw the attention of the enemv from the rual point of 
attack, while the two light detachments, under command of Laurens, cr owing 
the country from Ashley riven headed the north branch of the Stotio, on the 
night of the 13th. and advanced to New-Cut, which is at the head of the south 
branch. The main army, which bad halted under feigned orders, to encamp 
for the main* and was intended to cover and support its detachment, wus put 
in motion soon after dark, and the general 9 in person, reached the Cm before 
the hour of low- water, at which alone the ford was passable. Here lie 
found liii* attacking party in a strange* state of embarrassment. The dctach- 
m®ffl of Lee and Laurens, formed each a sepcrate column on tilt march : the 
former : led by Colonel Lee in person, the latter j by Major Kami Eton. 

Wc quote the official communication of General (jicene, to correct the error 
of Colonel Lee* m stating Laurens to have been second in command.* A cor- 



* Lse'9 Memoirs., vd- S- p; 159s - 



mi MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

cfiap. \$&im essential to exculpate liim from misconduct, in absenting himself from 
hi? own column- 

Lee's column was in advance* and Laurens accompanying 11 in person. 
Hamilton's har! not moved from the ground precisely at The time that the first 
enh .mi 11 wfcfi pin in motion: hui no mistake was apprehended, us he whs fur- 
nished with a pit id e. Before reaching the point, however, vvhere the: path 
'which Ind to tire ford turned off from the road ihcy were upon, Hamilton 7 .* 
guide deserted him: die silence necessary to be observed, prevented tha Hef.-rli- 
menu from communicating bv £i£ind?; and Hamilton saw now no resource 
but fattening on. iu the hope to overtake the fir*( column. In his haste lie 
passed the road to die ford : and pushing on with redoubled speed, as the hour 
of low-water approached, he so increased kti distance from the i.rst column, 
that messengers dispatched in advance* returned in despair of finding Mas, and 
dioac sent hack to hurry him on, encountered the main body in its advance* 
Thus the second column win complete ]v lost, am. in its an x 3 cry 5 as usually 
happens, became still more bewildered, and beyond the reach of recall, by an 
attempt to reach the ford by a short route across the fields* 

Thus the dine for executing the enterprise passed by* Colonel Lee, who 
had crossed over to the isJand. was necessarily recalled before the height of the 
lide should cm off his re treat- And an opportunity was lost of striking a cer- 
tain and hu mi liaiing blow at a party of near five hundred of the enemy. 

But the object could not be relinquished ; and General Greene resolved upon 
forcing his passage into the Hand. A boat was immediately ordered ilom 
Erlisto on wagons; and while the artillery drove their gallie* from a station where 
they could annoy the Americans, Colonel Laurens passed over at the Cut, and 
penetrated to Craig^s encampment. But the alarm occasioned by the narrow 
escape of the mnniittg. had convinced the enemy of the insecurity of his situa- 
tion: and Co-Jwid Laurens found the island abandoned by all but a few strag- 
glers, who were made prisoners. The cattle also, had been driven across the 
river, or dispersed in the woods, But the main object had been effected with- 
out loss; and thefuemy had retreated so precipitately that the schooner, which 
contained Thnir bag«ft£e and one hundred invalids, was very near falling into 
LfturcnV hands. 

General Greene, in Ins official communication,* observes—*' Had our 
party crossed the tot night, the enterprise would have been completely sue* 
eessfuh The enemy had between ibur to five hundred men on the island .«*- 

# 23d January 



AJAJOK GENERA J- GREEN K, m 

The failure was not a little mortifying to mc, but much more so to Laurens chap. 
atif] t*$8 ; had It succeeded, It won Id have been both important and splendid/' 

It iv$S not until John's Island was cleared of the enemy, and in possession, 
or under control of the American detachments, that General Greene esta- 
blished himself in his now encampment ai Colonel Skirving '5. 

This event properly concludes the campaign of 178J. The moderate cli- 
mate of this country, makes winter as proper fur military operation? at sum* 
mcr, and* in some respects, more so* Campaigns cannot, therefore, be pro* 
perly lEividcd by seasons; but, as they really are, where seasons produces 
inaction, hy cessation from military operations, whether produced by the 
fail urc uraEtaimiientaf their u hi mate object* In the present case, the most 
brilliant success had attended the efforts of the southern commander. Three 
sratf:= had been delivered from an hostile vokc, and he now rested from his 
labours, in order to support them hi the organization of their civi] govern- 
ments- Before him, was the enemy occupying little more ''than ground 
sufficient for their encampment ;*' but, behind him. was a vast region, again 
illumined by the snowline of freedom, and covered by the shield of civil gov- 
ernment; swarming with multitudes revisiting their desolated homes, and 
bl easing the gen i as that hnd brought them tranquillity, though it were only to 
weep over the tombs of their fallen friends. It was an hour of triumph to the 
pride of the soldier, but one of luxury to Ehc man and the patriot. 

A stronger prouf could not have been required of the terror whh which 
he had inspired, or t lie impotence to which he had reduced the enemy, than 
compelling him to retire with a much suptrlor army within his fastnesses and 
leave the functionaries of the state, lo perform all their offices in =ectirky, 
within less than thirty miles of the hostile lines. 



V" 



?^l. n W 



282 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Jacksonhorough Assembly, Cinit Government re-established hi South OaroHna 
and Georgia. Votes of than fa mi mmpemsation* Campaign, hi Georgia. 
Savannah evacuated* General Pkkens. G&nercl '$tm®$& rejig ■«.*, and Gene- 
ral Henderson succeeds him. Gm-efal Marion. Skirmuhts in Si, Thomas\ 
Deputes ■between Mayhem and Horry* Surprise ofCoIond.\PDou;JJ.- Affair 
&zM?&* Tad mails* Virginia — Xorth Carolina — South Carolina — tkdr r^ec- 
tint Measures towards the general g&vcrwment and the sunt hern army. Dis- 
tresses of the army. John Banks* Phi against General Greene. Cohnol Let 
retires* RfmmtstrmiCfi of the Pennsylvania naptahs and lieutenants* Captuin 
Gmm* Colonel J. Laurens, General Leslie prepares $ stiz£ provisions* 
General GisPs brigade formed* Disputes -milk the k§im officer* . Thehravr- 
rewarded 



xvii -^-I'lE Jacksonbovough assembly, as k is ami ni only called t convened and 
formed a quorum on the day to whtek h $m summoned to men, to wit, the- 
ISth of January, As the governor ■ I proelamai ion produced all persona from 
voting, and from being elected, who had taken protection, it will readily be 
conjectured, of what material* this legislative body was composed* It was 
not strictly an assembly of armed barons, but there were very tew, if any, 
whose swords had not been sin to their thighs in ibe common cause. All 
had suffered , ajid many of them very severely. But, it was highly ditfm- 
gulshed both in merit and talent, and exempting in one measure, by wisdom 

and moderation. This was the celebrated act for confiscating or amercing 

* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. mi 

(he estates of some of the most obnoxious among the loyalist*, and banishing mufy 
a few others; a measure more exceptionable In policy than in morals, and 
Which created much trouble and expense to the state, and produced but very 
little profit. Fetj there are two considerations which have not had their due 
weight, in estimating the merits of the measure. By a proclamation of Gov- 
ernor Rut! edge's! the door had been, for some time, open to the return of a 
great number of these unfortunate people, and it was ivcII known j that the 
protection nf General Greene, had been liberally extended to all who mani- 
fested repentance, and a desire to he re-nstablishcd in nV good gram of their 
fellow citizens. Many there were who were excepted from the govern or's par- 
don: on account of certain acts ot persecution % or rancorous hostility j which 
■were held unpardonable. 

Bur. there was another, and probably more emcaciouj cause, for adopiing 
tliis measure* The state was wholly destitute of fundi?, and the whig popula- 
tion so stripped and impoverished, as to pui it out nf die power of govern- 
mem to raise any immediate resource!;, either by loan or taxation. The es- 
tates of the tayctl^is were, therefore, seized upon, as the means of establishm 






IT- 



a capital to but id a present credit upon- From the liberality with which 
numbers were afterwards released: it is not improbable, thai many supported 
the measure, rather as a urgent expedient, than a policy to be adhered to. 

In the masterly speech which the governor delivered un the opening of the 

assembly - particular notice whs taken of the services of General Greene. 

After taking a review of the previous it ate of the coumn , nf its suiferhiss and 
its struggles, .and the many bloody scenes it had witnessed, he goes' on to 
observe — '* I can now congratulate you, and J do so cordially, in the pleashi 
change of affairs which, under the blessings of God, the wisdom.. prudence 
address and bravery of the great and gallant General Greene, and the intre- 
pidity of tiic officers and men under hi? command, has been happily effected 

a general, who 13 justly emitted, from his many signal services, to honourable 
and si ] 131 ilar marks of our approbation ftnd gratitude, His successes have heeu 
more rapid and complete, than the most sanguine could have expected. The 
enemy compelled to surrender, or evacuate every post which they held in the 
country, frequently defeated and driven from place to place, are obliged to 
seek refuse under the walls of Charleston, and on islands In its tfltxfcuyv Wo 
have now full and absolute possession of every part of the state: and the 
legislative, judicial, mid executive powers, are in the free exercise of their res- 
pective authorities/' 

Both senate and house of representatives responded to the governor's speech^ 
*vith the warmest expressions of gratitude and praise. The .former further 



iS4 MAJOR GENERAL GREENti, 

GtjM&t voted 10 General G re erne their thanks, in th-o most fluttering language, which 
were communicated through Mi- John LcwU Gcrvais, their presidents In the 
following terms:— "The senate of South Carolina* in general assembly met. 
impressed with a high sense: of the emtnem sen ice* yon have rendered to this 
state, have unanimously voted yon their thank*;, in behalf of their constituent, 
ibr The distinguished zeal and generalship uhich you have displayed on every 
occasion, particularly Uttrfttg the lust campaign. 

11 The senate, sir, are «C nsiblc that a choice of difficulties only presented , 
when you took the command of this department, with the disadvantage of ft 
comparatively feeble army. And thai 10 your superior military genius, and 
enterprising spirit, are 10 be attributed the NM^gj which we now enjoy in the 
e\cm-3c of our iVce constitution* and the recovery of the property of our 
eitte'en^ I am happy, sir, that it falls to my lor to- transmit you this public 
testimony of their applause. I embrace it with ardour, from n sense that it U a 
trijnUft so justly due to yon, and as it afford* me an opportunity of assuring you, 
personally, of the great respect and attachment with which T have the honour 
tobe, !? kc. 

But the house of representatives gave a more substantial proof of its zeal and 
gratitude, by originating a bill. - for vesting in General Nat hanael Greene, in 
consideration oi~hi* important services, the sum often thousand guineas." A 
gram viliich, in the sequel* was worth to the general a still greater gum; for the 
states of Georgia and North Carolina, resolved not to he outdone in expressions 
of gratitude, voted to him, the former five thousand guineas, and the latter, 
twentv-fotir ihoupand acres of lunch 

Never did relief come more opportunely, ibr at this moment General Grecm: 
was, probably* not worth a cent in the world, In common with the office r* 
in the southern department, Jh j had been obliged tn maintain those appearance? 
in person and style of living, which bis hi^h station rendered iml^pensabfe to 
the euppori of his respect ability and authority; and in common with them, he- 
had dramed his private resources icj the dreg??. 

Let not this picture he thought exaggerated ; the fnTlnvrins: unaffected state- 
ment of facts, in alerter of the l-*fh December, which was never intended to be 
made public, will shaw, that, ai Eeasst, the fluid* of the public ntiver could have 
contributed ro hi* private relief. It was hi answer ro one from Colonel Horry. 
communicating the disc omenta of his soldier* at the privaitons to which thrj 
were subjected. il Your soldier*," say s he, fi have much less patience than 
ours. Our horse have neither cloak & nor Ihnkets, nor have our troops receiv- 
ed a shilling of pay since they came into this country : nor is there a prospect 
of any T and yet they do not complain. However, this is no bar to the |u$tiee 



JV1AJ0R GENERAL GREENE, £$ 

of your peopled claim j and J wish It was in my power to assist you. But die cjtap 
public have not furnished mc with a shilling of money, for chis depart ment> since 
I have had the command here, except paper, of which I could make no use. 
We took a couple of boats at Aitgittfa, which were wld, and the pmditct is all fftm 
had for special mvfcen, and matter* of intelligence* My situation has been 
very distressing, and is so still, but I hope, if the oltioers stand by me with thr 
same virtuous attachment they have done, we shall get through our difficulties 
hi time, and J shall lake a pddc and pleasure io doing justice to your services. 

11 1 have engaged Mr. P , of Georgetown, to get me some blankets, 

about d lie succeed, you shall have part All kinds of clothing we are in want 
of, and in the greatest distress on that account. Near one half of our soldiers 
have not a shoe to their foot, and not a blanket to ten men through the] inc." 

This, reader, was in the middle of December. 

But, wheo .was man ever destined to partake of any sublunary enjoyment, 
without alloy, it is with officers, in a dim in i shed degree, as it is with soldiers. 
While their commander takes his full share of sufferings and privations along 
with them, they will manifest a disposition to lighten his burthens : but when 
all have claims, (and we are all equally disposed to put a false estimate on our 
own services) to compensate, much more, to reward one, and not even rendu- 
common justice to die rest, cannot fail to produce discontents, Shame or pridtr 
may suppress them, but they will be privately vented in expressions of discon- 
tent, or petulant attacks. In heart, it is believed that ^vB\y officer rejoiced that 
General Greene had been rescued from poverty ; but tiie dfrsions ofcon^raiu- 
Jation vim closely followed by bitter complaints at the neglect and injustice 
i hat others had sustained. Discontents are contagious in an army. 

In the correspondence between Gcneial Greene and General Wayne, ou the 
mutinous symptoms which soon after were exhibited in this army, the laller 
BU&fcs this excellent practical remark: <: 1 am exceedingly unhappy at the- 
couduct of thel J ennsylvauians: a prompt punishment will have a happy elftcL. 
The thoughtless conduct of some of our officer* at thia post, by spcakiu^ ton 
freely before their servants, on account of the deficiency of pay, clothing" ^ Ci 
and adopting an idea that more attention was paid to one part of the American 
army than to another, had like to be productive of some bad consequences: 
which 1 put a stop to by admonishing those officers, very seriously and point- 
edly, in nm the subject. It is possible that some such imprudencics mav have 
taken ptece among some officers belonging to die respective corps with 
you." 

Nor was it very long after these grants were made to General Greene, before 
repovis got into circulation as folac and calumnious as those which had once 






^g' Major general greene,, 

**]&£' a^cted his moral character whilst in the rjuarter masier general's depart- 
ment It was said that he had intrigued with the legislatures to obtain those? 
grants, and that he had combined with a mercantile house, under the firm of 
Hunter, Banks k Co. to participate in a contract for the supply of the troops 
and even io practice upoji rhe necessities of his companions in anus. 

On the second subject, we shall have occasion to descant in due time; the 
futility of the first is almost too ^reat to need refutation* 

What were the means of intrigue, at that time, in his power? what was rhe 
time given him to practice those means: And who were the characters to be 
made the dupes of his intrigues r 

A more pure j enlightened, and high-minded race of men, probably, never 
were brought together in the leg! slat urea of the three states, than those who 
were convened at this time; every diing combined to draw together assemblies 
of the very first order of men, in the respective states; men who could neither 
be made the instrument* nor dupes of intrigue. And what was he to offer for 
services conferred, nho had nothing but lib sword and Ins virtues to command 
devotion to his interests ? It is not dius that intrigues are conducted. Or what 
was the time allowed him for maturing hi* plans r Not a week elapsed after 
organizing the South Carolina legislature- before the grant was complete? and 
the odiers followed as soon as the first was heard of At least, from the legisla- 
tures of Georgia and North Carolina, his simation was too remote to admit of 
much skill and management in obtaining these votes. The truth U } that a more 
spontaneous offering never was laid upon the altur of merit. The causes of it 
were perfectly well understood at the time, and were highly Uonuu ruble to the 
minds and hearts of the men who composed the several legislative bodies whick 
conferred those grants, 

it was impossible that the *tate of Greene's finances could be unknown In 
die southern states. AH America knew that he had been transferred frcjm the 
forge to die command of the army; and that at the commencement of the revo- 
lution his estate was very moderate. Experience taught every one in public 
life- that the part he had acted was but ill calculated to improve his fortunes 
The idle reports circulated whilst he was in the quarter masters department- 
were now correctly estimated ; and, above all, many of the members had had 
the most ample opportunities of making their own observations on hi* habits of 
life- Povertv will be detected bv a skilful eve, even under the glare of affected 
profusion; but the simple, unaffected habits of the southern commander were 
not calculated, and never intended, to disguise the truth. What mr camp 
afforded was to be found in his tent, and little more. Wine was seldom pre- 
sented In it. and never . when wanted for the use of the hospital- Hoe-cake*. 



MAJOH GENERAL GREENE, 2S7 

(not always improved by butter) and fresh beef, were often the only diet lie chap, 
could fornix hi the (^fi^ of drat hospitnlity which his quarters, necessarily, 
muw tdfaed, But all was offered with an air of cheerful ness, and never intro- 
duced with an apology-. 

Some Time before the commencement of the year ITS 3, confess had it 
under consideration, to substitute a secretary at war for the boards ami com- 
mittees which had hitherto administered the duties of audi an office. The 
public eye was immediately cast upon General Greene to fill the plare, and a 
letter from the late Govcmeur Morris, then a member of congress, announced 
to him the general wish, that he would accept the office. He resolved to de- 
cline it, "I am tao much," Bays lie* " a gi ranger to the nature and duties of 
the office, to wish the appointment if there were no other objections- Eur, 
when I consider the constitution of the United States, the feeble powers of 
congress, the difficulty of combining our force, the loca] policy of the state?, 
the want of vigour, prudence and zeal, among military men, for the public 
good, in preference to their own pleasures or promotions, I can sec many 
other objections- J confess, on r affairs hit her ro seem to have been too much 
tinder the direction of chance* and to have acquired too little consistency and 
method, to Jfa upon any general plan for their order and direction. Even the 
powers of congress are undefined, and die intervention of the states unlimited. 
\\\m is to he expected from a delegated power, by one, subject to the control 
of thu other f I cannot we] I form an idea of national policy, when the con* 
sdtueiu parts claim absolute and independent sovereignly/ It is true, Uic*c 
arc qualified by the confederation* but, in a way, that leaves die seeds of much 
couiusiuu ; sufficient, in my opinion, to counteract the best plan in the world ■ 
and in a way, that will leave the secretary responsible, without having it in his 
power to avoid the evil. 

i( Something of this sort happened to me this campaign, and I mentioned 
the matter ct> congress. Troops that were destined for am purpose were, by 
the state, directed to another** It embarrassed and distressed me exceed- 
ingly for a rime; and though we did uotmer* with a capital misfortune, Mfe 
lodt many ad vantages. 

tl You think J am fond of an army and a busy scone j you mistake my 
feelings; 1 am truly domestic. The more 1 am in an army, and the more J 
qui accfunmtcd with human nature, the less Ibnd I am of political lift. At 
this time, thurc Is no retreaung from it without evident marks of disgrace, i 



'* Allodia* to tlrt remanding of (Jic Virginia militia, 



^JS MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

ciiap am hut too sensible for my own happine**, of ihe fiChlfsm of fortune ; nor 
have I any confidence in my own, having felt ma many adverse strokes to 
think myself one of iicr children. But, to retire from the $&&$ Uro » de- 
partment of greater responsibility, sttbject to more expense, and exposed to 
equal, it not greater misfortune, will be neither wise am- prudent. 

**'*£jB tell you ilia trail], tny dear sir, I titu powt and. I wish not to climb to & 
xiaifaufivm which 1 ffl$ h? cam hmdbng in a nivmtinti tmd bet, ttittwu: tht 
memis of support. Emhwict altWM Ugm nnry: mid it w more diftkxrft ta 
$$gbft Otiffatcm m highphxc^ than w $$r& & i&ttfc 

11 1 have a srowma'fairuiy, and bu=h duty and inclination lead me to wish 
to provide S& "them : and 1 am persuaded; any appointment under government 
will afford nothing more than a decent support, if that, m an office where k 
will lead to a connection both foreign and domcsnCj civil and military. 

" 1 have the highest opinion of Mr. Morris minister oi" finance; and had I 
the least inclination, to enter the department you propose, a connection vitih 
htm, would be a strong tnotivci My acquaintance with hi in Is sin a) I ; T venc- 
mte hH char actor ; and the more so. tor his engaging m so difficult an office, 
under such unfavourable appearances. \Vas"l the fifteenth part as in depen- 
dant as he U, J should have fewer objections to what you propose* as a failure 
would only affect my reputation, and not my living. Not that I think my 
present employment more lucrative, but less expensive, and perhaps upon the 
whole, less hazardous." 

' This letter, ii is confidently believed, furnished ah the ground that ever 
existed for the charge of intrigue. If it was communicated by Mfe Morris to 
his friends in Philadelphia, it was obviously uiihout a view to soliciting ilie 
favours that were heaped upon General Greene ; and* at least, was both writ- 
ten and communicated without any design on Ills pari, It was, however, 
well calculated™ work upon sensible and reflecting minds, to make a liberal 
effort for his relief. Independent of the general calls of gratitude, and a 
desire to promote his happiness, it naturally occurred to the liberal pairioi, thai 
it were a shame if such a man should be driven by poverty > from the course 
of life lu which he was calcinated to be so eminently useful ; and there can be 
little doubt, that in honourable rivalry, each of the states which made those 
grants, was anxious to make his talents and w orth the property of tlie southern 
country. Re certainly considered It so, and felt himself In honour bound to 
arrange his plans of life accordingly ; at leasr, so far as not to withdraw the 
fortune conferred upon him* 

The American army, during the year 11 B% was so circumscribed in itr 
operation^ as to extort from the general, a declaration at the close of it, ♦'thav 



* - MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, " ' 2B[> 

the campaign of that year had been as dull and hslpid, as that of the pre- chaf. 
ceding was critical and interesting," XVrc ' 

To cover the country and support his detachments, were the sole objects 
of the main ai'my, while those of the enemy were restricted to occasional 
strokes at die American detachments, and efforts to collect subsistence at the 
point of the bayonet. But, in Georgia, a very different scene had been exhi- 
bited ; and a degree of vigour and enterprise ani mated the milltarv move- 
ments in the neighbourhood of Savannah, which added not a little to the 
chagrlnc experienced by the officers of the main army at their own in- 
activity. 

"Wayne reached the banks of Savannah, at the Sifter's Ferry, about thirty 
miles above the town, on the 16th ; and with singular audacity, at the heat! of 
about one hundred cavalry, crossed the river in amal! canoes, swimmh^ 1 his 
horses by their side* His artillery he was compelled to leave in his rear, as 

he had no Infantry to support it, and no boat capable of transporting it. 

General Greene knew well the arduous enterprise that he u-as confidiii" to 
this commander; but, he also knew, that he posseted courage, imdligencc, 
and resources, to effect whatever could be effected with such slender means. 
It would, perhaps , have been a misfortune to Wayne, to have possessed a 
force sufficient to cope with his adversary in battle, for his ardent character 
would have impelled hhn forward top much; it may hare rendered him incau- 
tious, or hurried him into acts of temerity. 

The British General Clarke, at this time, commanded m Georgia, and had 
under him r the celebrated Browne, Ingram and Douglas, colonels who had 
distinguished themselves on various occasit>ns 3 leas by their humauhv than 
Lheir courage and loyalty. General Wright whs also still recognised as the 
royal go vet' nor and civil representative of his sovereign, 

The British force has never been precisely Ascertained ; General Greene at 
the time of detaching Wayne, estimated It at seven hundred. But, subsffjuem 
information would seem to make it much larger. After being very much 
thinned by desertion, and the separation of Browne and his loyally *m<; 5 n* 
dlans, it was asserted, that the number of effective men embarked, wiv?n the 
town was evacuated, amounted u> one thousand. There is among the gl^i of 
i his day, an Intercepted letter, which contains the folluwiiig paragraph «*U* 
J! We are e.uoped up within the town of Savannah by uuuut rhree..hu.:'i\';l 
rebels, while wc can muster two thousand live iummed men lit for uui\v s 



—■i. — — ■ - • 



8 BvfllEiJld 



2B0 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cmr. The writer must, unquestionably, have included the inhabitants in this esri- 
m«it, In whom, in the hour of tortile, f he enemy would have been vtttg unwise 
10 eon tide, for the hearts of many were not with them* General Wntne, 
alter all the information he could collect estimated their force atone thousand 
one hundred men. In this number, however, was iududed, a body of Hes- 
sians, and fi number of loyalUt?, in whose fidelity, icappears, the commanding 
general reposed very little confidence. Indeed, it was said, that such was the 
anxiety of the Hessians to desert, ibat they could not be trusted on guard 
duty. Numbers did escape, and Ibe frequent executions of these unhappy 
men, widen took place from time to nine, proved how many were intercepted 
In a like ru tempt. Jackson and Habersham, Jt appears, had been secretly 
negociating with them for some time ; and on die approach of Wayne, it was 
only by fitting the adjacent woods with Indians, negroes, and loyalists, that: 
the whole could be restrained from the attempt, The settlement of their coun- 
trymen at Ebenezer, was the exciting cause. Wayne's Instructions about 
detaching the loyalists, were also soon put to trial, and attended with great 
success. His reel a hned soldiers soon couiUurmd a respectable part of his 
force, until acts of treachery, covered under the pretext of desertion, com* 
peiled him to receive them, \\ ith caution^ into his ranks. 

A V lien Wayne first dossed the Savannah River, Colonel Browne* with a 
respectable body of loyalists, was encamped at Mulberry Grove, and the place 
adjoining — afterwards the respective residences of Greene and Wayne; and 
the ground with which their services were rewarded by the state, was literally 
that first won in the state by ** their sword and their spear, !J 

Upon the first appearance of the American party, Browne began to retire ; 
hut, earned with him, or destroyed ail the grain and forage upon that river 
and the Ogeechee. By the aid of flats or boats, large quantities of both were 
deposited at Governor Wright's plantation, under the guns of Savannah, and 
on the north side of the liver, on Hutchinson's Island, direcily opposite the 
town. This was intended for the subsistence of the garrison ; and the des- 
truction of it* of course, presented the first object of enterprise 

In a few days> all the forces which had been ordered to join him, assembled 
under Wayne's command ; but, he bad the mortification to fnid, that it was 
wholly insufficient to face the enemy in the field. Jackson's eorps had been 
rut down by the am all -pox and some severe skirmisher to about forty horse 
and as many Infantry, Hampton could noi muster one hundred men, and 
their term of service would expire In a fortnight. And the Georgia militia 
could not venture from the populous districts, for the country was, at this time, 
swarming with Indians. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREE.NE. m 

A very general movement among these unhappy people at this time, was chap 
one of the principal causes which induced General Greene to detach Wayne 
on this service- They hud been invited down to Savannah, under the? Influ- 
ence of Browne and the British udders, for the purpose of receiving their 
present*, and no doubt, to receive the further instructions of those \\ ho had 
hitherto guided them. Augusta was the post to which they had annually re- 
sorted for these purposes; but, that being) at this time, in the hands of the 
American?, they were required to repair to Savannah, under assurances, [hat 
they had nothing to apprehend, if they would descend to the sea- coast, bv the 
south side of the Ahamaha, and approach (lie town from the south. Trusting 
to these representations, parties of the Choc-taws, Chick a saws, and Creeks 
some armed, and other* unarmed, were T at this time, on the rout for Savannah, 
accompanied by many traders* with their horse-packs ol" deerskins. 

Upon the approach of the Americans, Browne, who knew the consequence? 
of leaving ground tor the savages to think tbctu selves deceived relative to the 
point of security f and the traders who dreaded the lo=s of their merchandise, 
adopted various means to apprize them of their danger, or rescue them from 
it. The principal expedient was, to dispatch boats to the mouth of the Alta- 
maha, and transport them by the inland passage to Savannah, But* before 
these boats could arrive, or intelligence be conveyed to them generally, (for 
they did not all pursue the same route) some of them had advanced no far, 
that they fell lino the hands of Wayne's parties* Many of them were conveyed 
by water, in safety, into ihe town, and armed and pnraded for service To 
involve the whole of them in the necessity of being thus employed, was, no 
doubt* among the motives for convening them at Savannah. Had die deli- 
very of the presents been the object) the goods which compose them, con Id 
have beet i conveyed either Co the A hum a ha, Sunbciry, or the St* ^Mary's, for 
that purpose. We shpilt have occasion to exhibit some of the horrors Hindi 
result from the employment of this description of troops* They exhibit a 
dreadful picture of the state of society at this unhappy period. 

Had Wayne been seconded by the men mirier lib command, the Indians who 
wera captured, would hare been kindly treated, and returned in meiy to their 
friends. The first party made prisoners consisted of twenty-four, but It ap- 
pearing, from every circumstance, that they were a peace party, and know lug 
the straggling, irregular manner in which such parties travel, when uu appre- 
hensive of danger, Wayne was desirous of halting and collecting the whole, 
before- th oy w ere dism issc d f a n d t u rn o d back from t h eir j o i in le v. For t h i s ( i u r* 
pose he detached Major Habersham, with a command of mounted militia, 
under Capiahi Carr, and another of the South Carolina cavalry. The major* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

cm p. report of the occurrences on this expedition, furnishes a detail of events, curious 
and not uuiustruciivc. I3c hud not proceeded far when he began to fail hi 
with email pur Lies or the Indian?, and pergonal tug the Colonel Browne, viith 
whose name they were so w?l! acquaiuteri, the Indians made no difficulty 
about fulling i mollis line of march, and *ubmmmg to his orders. Bur such was 
the rage fur vengeance, at that time, existing between the Indians and the wliites, 
flint all Ins vigilance could not protect these unhappy people from the brutal ity 
of some of his command. Feigning that the bad roads would injure their 
horses, bat really in order to extricate themselves from military restraint, his 
mounted niillua, headed by a lieutenant, abandoned their corn m and er, and 
after indulging their thirst for Indian blood, in more than one Instancy broke 
into the Scots seuleiuent^in the neighbourhood of Sunbury, eallcd St. Andrew?, 
plundered it, and massacred eleven persons, reputed loyalists. 

The Inditmi, coming to a knowlege- that sever aJ of their friends, and even 
^o me of their own party, when mil of view, had been thus treated, stole away 
in the night, and made their escape, And the time of service of the South 
Carolina cavalry being expired, notwithstanding all the iu treaties of Major 
Moore, their commander, they insisted on returning. Habersham was com- 
pelled to submit, and returned to camp with six officer! and two men, unjustly 
charged with the enormities perpetrated by hi i mutinous troops. 

Thus were all Wayne's good intentions baffled, both as to reclaiming the In- 
dians and the loyalists; nor was either the civil or the military arm strong 
enough, at the time, to reach the offenders. 

Let us now view the counterpart of this disgusting picture. We will extract 
it from a letter of General Wayne's, in his own language. ■" inclosed are 
copses of some intercepted letters, which, together with the accounts given by 
ihe person upon whom they were found, amounts to a certainty f that every 
means is attempted to draw down ihe Creeks, and other IndiEin** The Choc- 
taws, have already commenced hostilities.* One of our dragoon a was killed 
and scalped by them three days since, under the eye and conn tc nance of the 
British officers and troops, who were out in force, but retreated with precipita- 
tion. "We have since taken a Chickasaw chief, and expect that the party he 
commanded are by this time killed or prisoners, However* we shall hold him r 
iv ho, with the first British officer that fells into our hands, will eventually be 
sacrificed to the manes of that brave, unfortunate dragoon. 



* M*Kli3fth,l73l. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 29S 

" Would you believe it possible, that a British governor, attended by British chap. 
officers, would be so lost to every feeling of humanity, as to parade the streets ' 
of Savannah with the scalp, giving out ro the citizens, that It was taken from 
the head of Major Habersham, and then entertained the savages with a ball, 
See. on the occasion. Nor did their luti-banty rest here ;— the body was ordered 
to renin in un buried, mangled and disfigured in so horrid a manner, as 10 beg- 
gar all description. The Ethlopcans, more humanized, deposited it in the 
ground; for which crime a reward of five guineas is offered for the discovery 
of the person or persons concerned in the violation of the savage mandate, 

i[ I shall not rem mistrate— that must be made the act of the enemy; and 
w"hsn 1 find them disposed to make war upon generous principles, I will meet 
Them on that ground/* 

It is im possible to doubt the facts averted in this letter, when accompanied 
by the terrible resolution formed upon those facts \ a resolution from which, 
however, it is known that Wayne relented. But his men never did. 

Such are the results of associating with a people, whose natural manners 
and habits of warfare must be thus flattered to retain their friendship. 
The tale would he suspected of being mingled up with circumstances too 
horrible for credulity; but it is too true, that the same scenes had been 
"before acted over at Augusta, under the eye of the same Colonel Browne \ 
to which nray be added> that General Wright, whnse presence is said 
to have graced this exhibition, has always had the reputation of having 
been the prime Instigator of the war of the savages j and Is known, from 
his long agency in rheir affairs, to have been familiarly acquainted with 
the means of fixing their wavering fidelity. In this instance, some extra- 
ordinary sacrifice was necessary to still the disgust produced by the opin- 
ion, that they had been imposed upon, by the assurances made to them, that 
this country wasatill in the hands of the king^ subjects, 

Notwithstanding the reduced state in which he was left by the desertion of 
his militia and the retirement of the South Carolina ten months men, Wayne 
never remained, for a moment, Inactive. Indeed, his safety depended" on 
keeping his little fni re continually in motion* The superiority of his adversary 
was lost in the futUJry of aiming a blow at any particular spot, as he never rested 
long enough in one place for the bin iv to descend upon him. In all his move- 
ments he was ably seenmtad by Colonel Jackaou, Major Mudie, and several 
other officers, whose enthusiasm equalled his own, and whose desire lb r glory 
suffered uo opportunity to escape them. 

The enemy had now given up the field, and retired within the trenches of 
Savannah. Ha wag opened a correspondence with General Barnwell, it was 



jf) MAJOR GENERAL OBF-KNil. 

vnsv. resolved to make simultaneous attempts to burn the forage and grain collected 
m Wright's, and on Hutch hi soirs Island. The time appointed was between 
twelve and two iu the night of the 24th of February; ami it was arranged, 
that the party under Wayne should advance and occupy the attention of the 
enemy, whilst General Bam well, eroding from die north side of the river hi 
canoe's, should perform his part of the undertaking. By some misfortune 
General Barnwell was betrayed, or discovered ; and being fired upon, a* he 
advanced, retreated without ctfcctmg his part of the enterprise. Wayne, upon 
hearing the firing advanced, in order to draw oft the attention of the enemy to 
himself, and cumplerely succeeded to effecting his part of the undertaking. 
Colonel While, who commanded the regular cavalry in person, covered the 
advance of Major Moore, with the few miliria and infantry bdongins to the 
detachment, and drew the attention of the enemy to the north side of the town, 
whilst Colonel Jackson, moving up to the magazines at Wright's, which lay 
within half a mile of the enemy's redoubts, and directly under their guns, suc- 
ceeded In consuming both grain and forage. 

The good effects of this enterprise were soon experienced in the reduced 
*tate of the enemy's cavalry, and the preparations which, not long after, com- 
menced for an evacuation. Had General Barnwell succeeded in his part of 
the undertaking the effects would have been witnessed at an earlier day, and 
have been very decisive. 

Hitherto it had been among Wayne's most serious embarrassments, that the 
promised aid from General Barnwell's brigade, had not afforded him any 
relief; if not even, 5 ' as he observes, " a sergeants guard, to keep a look out at 
Purysburgli. 1 ' (a place above him on the riven) It was at this time that the 
opposition to General Barnwell's command, and discontent at his appointment, 
ran highest. — at his promotion, to the prejudice ^ the superior rank, and, as 
it was f bought, superior claims of Colonel Harden. Very soon after this, it 
was, dial General Barnwell resigned his commission; and before hi* successor 
could brhi£ ihe brigade into order, thr enemy had evacuated Savaunahi 

Tints was Wayne, with a very superior force before him, and a gathering 
doud of savages behind him, left without any support but Colonel White's 
horse, Colonel Jackson's corps, and a few thin and fluctuating commands of 
mil Ilia; together- with his mips of re el aimed citizens, most of whom adhered 
firmly to their new- engagements, to serve to the term in at ion of the wan In 
feet, the camp was now then only pl&ec-of security. 

But vigilance, activity, and bravery, supplied the place of numbers; and the 
enemy could neither venture with safety from his strong hoM, nor the savages 
approach by any avenue, and find it unguarded. At length to use their own 



major general greene. 29, 

figure, « finding every path shut and bloody," they began to steal awav to their chap. 
nation, by obscure mutes: or trust-! to their sagacity in traversing "trackless J™ 
dtfcarls, But the persevering approach of some strong war parties of the 
Creek*, still gave just cause of apprehension to the coimuander, and obliged 
him to watch their movements with attention, whilst he urged Greene to &n> 
port him by a detactuu; $J "f two hundred regular Infanu-y. 

To the necessity which his situation forced upon him, often to detach mm 
in pursuit of the Indian* and tories, in order to strike them without pert tmdn* 
them ro concentrate their forces, he was, unavoidably, exposed to some io*o 
and in one instance, in which a party commanded by .Major Moore hud p^Cd 
the Altttmaba, hi the ardour of pursuit, that gallant soldier ftl] in an attark'on 
a superior party, icavhis behind him the reputation of "a brave h*dtaU« 
and worriiv 0&*r*» J^cjou*, 

Genial Greene fell the justice fcf the demand of Wavnc for a detachment 
of infantry ; but, to gram it, was utterly out of hi* power, untli the arrival of 
Captain Posey with a Virginia detachment of about one hundred and ufrvmen 
On the 1st of April, this officer formed a junction with Wayne, brm a W u » 
with him the piece of artillery hitherto remaining be vend 'the rivd T| JU a 
re-enforced, he no longer feared the approach of the enemy, and gfosriv 
watched \w mmmtm fer an opportunity to attack. Yet, ids fa fJ > ^ 
after this occasion, m$_ fur from being formidable for numbers. The \ im ]l 
pox and ei long mar<h t had reduced Poser's command considerably below two 
hundred ; but, they were all old saidier*, wh* hnd.pas«ed. through suer^Iv* 
enlistment* from the commencement of the war, and through the ordeal of 
the Cha rlestou j i rlso n -sb i] is. 

It was not long, before an opportunity presented itself, of testing the valour 
of his troops., by a vrvy trying adventure- 

A strong part)' of Cre.vk* and Chocmws, had met Imvond the AJtumaha 
and an arrangement had been made far their reaching the tteeechee ur [\m< 
ris' Bridge, seven miles from Savannah, by a specified "da v. TCavuc L du-n" 
at Ebcnczer : and Browne, at the head of a strong decaduneiVnWj" un ' 
Ggwcuee, to convoy these Indians into Savannah, h happened, from a mm 
characteristic of national manners, that the Indians did not arrive Thet ■ 
nations had quarrelled in a great ball-play, and had parted to mum tome 
with threats that portended war. ■ 

Colons Jackson was reconnoitring towards Ogeechec, on the *U: of 
May, and communicated to General Greene the intelligence^ that Browne had 
advanced to the O-eechee, at the head of about fifteen hundred men indud 
ing ^ -hole of ti« Britbh cavalry. Mp* army was S2&% 



236 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 

chap, motion, and moved down to within six miles of Savannah, on the road lead- 
Z*Ljln$ north westward from that place, when intelligence was received from 
Jfiti&flfo, tliai Colonel Browne was on the return by the Ogeechce road, and 
intended that night to reach Savannah. 

There was now but one alternative, either to relinquish the enterprise, or 
cross the angle formed by the two roads, and throw himself into the face of 
the enemv. Notwithstanding the country was covered with woods and 
swamps scarcely passable, such was the ardor expressed by his troops, that he 
resolved on the darius enterprise of. throwing himself between die whole 
enemy's force, that h/Savannah, and that under Browne, at the distance of 
only lour miles from the former. The enterprise was so bold, that the. hazard 
of it must have rendered u improbable in the eyes of General Clarke [ or by 
taking the one leg; of the angle, while his enemy passed on an hypotbenuse, 
embarrassed by thick woods and swamps, he must have succeeded hi placing 
him in actuation, in which Wayne's infantry must have been sacrificed. His 
artillery had necessarily been left behind. 

B in fortune signally "favoured the American commander, Bis ad vancc, con- 
sul of a troop of "horse, under Captain Hughes and Lieutenant Boycr, and 
the light company of the Vusmla infantry, under Captain Parker, not one 
third of his force, reached jhe toad about twelve o'clock at nigh* just as the 
front of Browned column, moving in dotf order, came in view. The order 
to charge was immediately given, and such was the panic with which the 
British armv was afmctcd, that the whole broke before one fifth tA their num- 
ber, and fled with such precipitation, that Wayne's mam body could not get up 
111 time to sake any part in the action* 

The enemy dispersed In the thickets, and the darkness of the night saved 
diem or Wayne, from uner destruction. Colonel Douglas, and about lorn- 
men, were killed, wounded or made prisoners ; and a valuable accession of 
dragoon horses and fire arms, fell into the American hands, with the loss ut 
"five men killed and two wounded. 

The American army ivlreshed themselves, and marched in view ot the 
British lines early the "ensuing mom Ing | but, the enemy not accepting the 
challenge,, it resumed its nation at Ebeuczer, 

It is not easy to conjecture, from what source Colonel Lee lias drawn Ills 
narrative of this affair , but, it Is obviously related without reference to the 
official account. He represents it as having occurred in the day, and Wayne, 
as having been in the rear, with the main body, too far to have partaken of the 
honours of the decisive charge, Such an attempt by day, so near to Savon- 
nab, tt is obvious, would have been nothing short of madness: and the erroi' 



MAJOR GENERAL GtfKENL. 






deprive Wayne of Ills only vindication, (Independent of juccl-s*; which can- {flap 
not ho better expressed than in his own kniguagc— " I was properh impressed '^ 
with the difficulty attending a night inarch over such ground, asVcll as the 
delicacy of a manoeuvre which placed me between the "whole of fe c:ietiiv^ 
force in Georgia ; but, when I came ft) reflect upon the experience and sstf- 
iantry of the officer.*, and the steady bravery of the troops, They wtre directed 
to arfi?a3jfi« from a conviction that the success of a liocturuaJ attack depended 
more upon prowess than numbers. At twche o'clock at nipht, our van arrived 
at the Ggeechec road, four miles south-west of Savannah, when the enemi 
also appeared advancing in close and good order. Notwithstanding this cfe* 
cuai*tanc.e, and the g&p disparity of numbers* (our rear being yet 3 at a con- 
siderable distance) as success depended on the moment, I ordered the van- 
guard to charge, whii'h was obeyed wki such vivacity, as to linmediateK 
terminate In cue total dc-frat and dispersion of edl the British cavah-v, a large 
body of infantry packed tVoin the ?th rceimeni." k?< kc. 

From the same source, it appears also' that Colonel White was, at die tfltfe 
jn person with the vanguard, and actually led the charge. 

Not long after this brilliant little affair, the Georgia legislature moved down 
to Ebenezer. This m*m had been suggested" by a recent occurrence, 
which strongly proved the prudence of General Greene- in pressing the meet- 
ing of the South Carolina legislature, under die immediate protection of his 
army. The deranged state of the militia, on the South Carolina life of the 
Savannah, left but few obstacles to a free communication with An*u*ia bv 
that m$& fift eda^ acquired by U'N'ei] and Fanning in capturing The gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, sugge&icd the practicability of the sanfe attempt 
upon the Georgia legislature. Fanning was then present In Savannahs and 
the attempt was actually made. By sonic fortunate accident, the attempt 
failed of success; but. cLy actual culture of some prisoners of distinction, 
prove* how near it wa= $$ have terminated otherwise. 

Soon after, the legislature extendi ic= liberality :o Wayne, Qi u - t i| &5 
Greene ; and pursuing the idea of attaching them to "the soil, ordered the- Mul- 
berry Grove, and the adjoin] 5 place, as has been bsfurc su -rested, to be put- 
chased and conveyed to them. 

A law also was passed, offering two hundred acres of land to every Rmhh 
efeserter: and ihe Governor's proclamation having been indu at Ho us.]/ circulat- 
ed in the town, produced such a spirit of disaffection in the soldiers, and 
such a distrust of them in the officers, that thsy no more ventured to take the 
field, 

vol. «■ 3a 



25tt MAJOR. GENERAL GREENE, 

cfur, Another event furnished just ground, or a plausible pretext fortius state of 
inactivity* 

The people of England had become heartily sired of the war. The brilliant 
events of the campaign of 17131. had opened their eyes to a just sense of die 
progress of dimr armies towards conquest ; and policy suggested, that the beat 
use they could make of their la id splendid naval victories, would be, to nego- 
tiate a peace 

An attempt had been made, to detach the United Stares from the alliance, 
through the agency of Sir Gny Carlsion ; bur. the magnanimous vote of con- 
grms, on that oeeusiom put down every hope of involving the states in dis- 
honour, and thus placing ibem at the mercy of their enemies, by depriving 
them, for ever, of foreign support. And nothing remained, but to petition 
the kins; to put an end to the war* 

On the STtfl of February, 1782, a resolve, to that effect, was adopted by 
the British parliament, and forthwith transmitted to the British commanders in 
America, Propositions, for a cessation of hostilities were : thereupon, about 
the same time, tendered to Washington. Greene, and Wayne, and by the 
latter, of course, transmitted to his commanding officer ; but, not without a 
characteristic wish, that instead of It, a force could be famished him, to take 
possesion of Savannah, " uiA tffl&ftr 

The pfupnriiioni for a cessation of hostilities were, of course, referred to 
congress* Whedier they were made in good faith, or only to lull Wayne into 
=ccurity during the negotiation, cannot now be determined upon. Thai a 
deadly attack upon him, by a large party of Indians, was then in forward- 
ness, is door I y ascertained. 

Rumours silil prevailed, of die approach of a strong war- party of the 
Creaks, headed by their celebrated chief Em Utasego. The Indians, who had 
been made prisoners with the interpreter Cornel, had been dismissed wUh a 
friendly talk; Dud something in nature of a reward, for future services, held 
out to Cornel* The hope was entertained, that ibis act would he productive 
af a general pacific temper ; and the long delay of t tie approach of E mis- 
rasego, was well calculated to put Wayne oft his guard* 

The prrcumioru against a civilized enemy, aft known to bo wholly ina- 
dequate, to security in savage warfare. Am] the experience, sagacity, and 
daring character c?f the Indian chief, was probably directed, at this time, by 
the skill and prudence of Colonel Browne. Between them, k Is certain, that 
they succeed ed, in the month of June, in stealing upon Wayne's midnight 
repose. He was encamped at Gibbon's, on the Ogecchee road, on the nig lit 
of the £ltru and every avenue by which It was probable that tilts human foot 



MAJOR GENERAL GSEE&& S&B 



XVLlV 



could approach, ivm duly guarded. Bui s the near epfsioatit oi' h Wk&j& (g^ 
enemy, wiw wholly unsuspected. The wily Indian had stolen pQ3t the Ame- 
rican Colonel Clarke, who was on the look out for him to the wga, and ty 

every spy and patrol who watched his up proa eh hi other quarters. Yet the 
position which Wayne occupied was expressly taken to intercept tin? enemy. 

Those who avc imacquaintrd with Indian habits, can form no ilea of the 
persevering patience with which they steal on the security of uu enemy. 
Their attack is always by surprise, midv.r cover of am bush . or ihe night: and 
by crouching and creeping where there is the least danger of discovery, thci 
often succeed in en tor] irises which the whites would not a i tempt 

By practising all then' arts,— avoiding every road aut! frequented place, — 
mot-ins: only by night, — making no lire*, but aubshniuE altogether ou their 
parched meal, they lin) succeeded in gaining the rear of Waving encamping:. 
IVituout die lease noise the centinel was dispatched with the tom-b.rg: and 
shai ycEl which, when first heard, often strikes terror imo the bravc-su was the 
first notice given of their approach. A close fire succeeded 11: and rife tear 
guard awaking, finding the me my close upon them, reu-cartd, and formed 
under cover of the houses, This left the artillery in the power of the enemy ; 
and tli sir exultation at possessing themselves of tlus } the great object of an In- 
dians fears, probably saved Wayne the loss of many a brave solojer. Had 
ihey pressed on, and prevented the infantry from rally Ing, they nuist have 
been in tie midst of die main body before it could form; as its distance was 
but a f?nv hundred yank from the point of attack. But, whilst engaged in an 
awkward effort to turn tit is weapon upon their enemi^. Wayne was on horse- 
hack, his infantry formed, and the irresistible bayonet was among them. 

They soon fled in confusion, leaving thdr chief, his white guides^ and seven- 
teen of his warrior* dead 031 the spot. As an Indian will halt in tlie midst of a 
flight of bullets, unmindful of the greater dungcrs f to take a scalp, those &t 
Wuvne'.s men. who had fallen in the unset, had been subjected 10 tbis fcte 
barons usage. The consequence was s that no prisoners were taken; ali v^hom 
rji broad-sword or bayonet could reach in the pursuit, were Indiscriiuhaiely 
tacrine ed to the indignation of the soldiers 

Wayne bad twelve men killed atid wounded, and hi* own horse was $tm 
under him, The number of the enemy ascertained to have fallen, was about 
thirty. Jiat the number of dead found 011 such occasion $ is for from deter- 
mining the number of [heir slam* As it was among some ancient imdwis, 
every Indian warrior has his friend, and infamy follows him who Will not risk 
hi* life to bear orT [be body of a fallen Mend. To have been scalped hi this 
'vorld thev deem disgraceful In the nest: It is the mark which the victor pun 



$M MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cuvs. a$ the vanquished. The savages who sacked Troy, triumphed also over the 
-^bodies of their enemies; ihey wounded the hearts of [he living, by indignities 
? how 11 to die dun di 

The surprise of Wayne rather increased diau diminished his military reputR- 
rioiii It was the rnply of Genera] Grecne s iti answer to his communication 
respecting it, that " nothing require?? greater fortitude, or more discipline, than 
ro stand £rm in a night attack." Those who knew the difficulty of guarding 
against such an Gvem s frum sj&tl an enemy, were ready to excuse it; and thtr 
f&mmm of bis troops; their discipline and valour j Rod ins own promptness and 
coolness it] recovering them from their surprise, commanded the admiration 
of all. 

This was the last military occurrence of the revolutionary war in Georgia 
in July the enemy evacuated Savannah j and It became, once more, the Mat of 
government. 

The Bridsli garrison was transferred to Charleston j and the accession of 
stream El i which II was like'y to carry wiih it, produced a pressing order, from 
fa en em] Greene-, fen 1 Wayne's troops to- march to: ha support of the main army. 
Colonel Browne* with his loyalist, and much of their plunder, moved along 
the islands into Florida^ and dig *tate was once more suffered to breathe from 
us suffering atk-r being four years ravaged by an unrelenting eueniv. 1 15 
Bering were* comparatively, greater than those of any state lu the union j far* 
ihe animosity between the whig and tory bore an unrelenting, unsparing cha- 
racter, that greatly aggravated the sufferings inflicted by its inhabitants upon 
each other. 

Wayne acquired a very brilliant reputation from the boldness and activhv 
of his measures in Georgia; aud among those who were acquainted with the 
difficulties he had 10 encounter, his reputation stood stih higher. lie never had 
above four hundred men, at one tlme^ lathe field, aud often not half that num- 
ber. These he had to subsist at the point of the sword. Pay they had none, 
not even their bounty; aud so miserably were they clothed and provided, as 
to be always murmuring, sometimes mutinous. Eia spirits appear never 10 
have flagged for a moment .; and even his distresses are always dwelt unok 
with the d?gf.$Z air of one perfectly at his ease. Yet we read accounts of the 
nakedness of his men, offensive even to decency, and only wonder how men so 
destitute could be kept in spirits for action, The constant stale of activity in 
which they were kept, was probably among me chief causes of iheir patient 
submission* They had not tof to brood over their suffering?- or form com- 
Mnatioirs. 



3iajor mses&h greens jo 

The successes of Gent? ml Greened detachments, upc rating on his ld''t s were chap 
fey i jo oieuns a j brilJiantj or as uniform, as those of that which had so much ,! 
dl^'inu'msiied Itself on his right. A variety of unfortunate incidents, which 
jany uU be traced to positive want of st rcugih, combined 10 subject Marion's 
command to some vexatious reverses* and to expose the country, from the 
Ed mo to tiUe Baa ten-, to frequent ravages and alarms. 

It will be recollected, that when General Sumptcr moved down to Orange* 
burgh, in November, i-TOl , hfe ad van red parlies fell In with a body of ]uyul:*is* 
commanded by General Cunningham, from winch they sustained a rt-pul5c- s 
and so oici loss* It appears, that General Cunningham was then engage! m 
organizing an expedition against the interior settlements of the state, and had 
ortiy halted in the neighbourhood of Qrengcburgh, to increase his foruu. from 
the iiLLinerous loyal !*** Li that vieinity. 

Brio g joined by ik-zekiah W:11>ji$ and one Lawrence, both enter pricing 
leader, General Cunningham detached a party of about three hundred men, 
well mounted, to ascend the Saiuda, under the command of WUlam Cunning* 
bam, familiarly known by the epithet of murdering Bill Cunningham. This 
movement; it appeared afterwards, was made in concert with the Chrrokcc 
Indiai*:*. who were once tnore sacrificed, without remorse* to the enrmy** 
Yiewa ; and was connected in the general movement which gave Wayne so much 
occupation, soon after, in Georgia. 

The movements of this party were rapid, and lasted but a few weeks .; hut r 
then - bit >ody tracks conld , Jong after, b? traced. They Jhevslly left the conn- 
try, through which they passed, in tears. The barbarities practised upon the 
parties of Turner and Hazle, have often been related. We shall content our- 
selves with observing that the narrative is supported by the authority of 
Colonel Le Roy H pun mood,* and Is stripped of sonic of its most atrocious 
circumstances, There Is, however, one parr of their exploits which ft£vB$ has 
been related, and wliidi f£g& upon the credibility of General Pick™*. In 
;beir passage up> they intercepted a convey of wagons d:*patcheci by Pickens 
to the army 1 the whole guard was captured without opposition, zv*d bodi 
the guard and *ho wagoners felirituted themselves on being made p^mtkf^f 
for tiiev looked lor a different fate from sueb hands. The total wanr $f am- 
inunhimi in rhe country, put front of the power of the uhlgs, to present any 
apposition to Williams and Cunningham^ ravages, until a Mappjy of rmoyt 
fen pounds of powder* from the governor of Georgia, enabled Colonels 



•iJicetniw £, 17fi2. 



gqg MAJUll GENERAL GItEliNX 

chap, Hammond tijul Puma to take the field against Them, Picket* was then absent 
' : ]iav!n° bcrn w!1$3 away to the lVonciers- to watch. tSje movements of the 
Indians, 

Tpon being punued by @*a whlga, the JayalUrs separated Into several par- 
ties, and uvVof them, uuckf Cunningham and William s 4 made good their way 
rjirousch t&8 wood*, passing teiWSB the posts of Orangeburg and Koand-0, 
iu safety to CimHcfiton. A third party, that which had charge of the pri- 
<.nner£. being fm- advanced upwards the mountains, and apprehensive of beta*. 
uu£ off if attempting to retreat pushed on and joined the Imlhm^ 

Two of rhe'imfortiitia-ie jH&Jflers t ya\:i[& of about sixteen, who were 
adopted into ttatlafi fainil:c==* and who, having accompanied them to Savmi 
unh, enlisted u3ih Colonel Browne, to escape the Indians, lived to rejoin their 
,'UmiHe«, and to relate the laic of their leas fommate companions They were. 
in the jnivELuvc of General Pi ekuns , "delivered up to the Indians, to be tor- 

mrcd. ,: * 

The moth firs of these up fortunate young men. (for their fa \ hers are rap- 
posed to have been among the victim*) threw them selves at the feet of 
General Leslie, in Charleston. 10 cbtain ilxeir dkeiiarae* Their names were 
:U ! .\rurty and $&$k 

TIims occurrence* took place at a time, when all the American con> 
minders were making the most signal efforts to reclaim and protect tiir 
loyalist*; and these, more than any other causes, produced that individual per- 
secution of the loyalists, wnich agitated the country long after the peace* 

No other military occurrence, of any importance, happened with relation 
to General Smnpter's command during the war. He continued to receive 
the submission mthz loyalists* and to incorporate with his command, such a* 
ho could arm : a±U to watch and repress their movements, wherever <v hostile 
spirit prevailed. His brigade was soon after reduced to two regiments, one 
of cavalry, under Colonel Wade Hampton, the other of infantry* under 
Colonel Middleton, 

In this measure, and in some others relative to his brigade., which wa? 
originally all enlisted as cavalry, the general conceived hhnsdf injured by 
Governor ftutledgc; under tvfeoSe instructions it was done } although by orders 
Immediately emanating from General Greene. How far the latter shared in 
the indignant feelings of General Sumpter, we are not aware j hut, the follow- 



? Letter "th September. 17*3, A brother of Gener&i ?kkfliw ! was among ume martys** 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. JUtf 

ing passage in a letter of the 4fh of January, 17S2 3 was ilie prelude to ggjp 
Ge a e ml S'.irri ptcr ? s reti ri ng finally frui 1 1 aejv ice. 

i[ In my laat, I took the liberty to request permission to withdraw front this 
place upon private business, Of rather, to prepare 10 attend the assembly. I 
hope in be indulged, and beg not to be honoured again with any of vour 
command*, until a proper inquiry can be made, whether I am worthy of 
thenn-' Fro -ii tnc answer to this letter, we Infer, thtu Greene was wholly 
unaware of having given umbrage to General Snmptcr t and that his allusion 
is altogether to matters of a civil nature. The persecution which it is known, 
General Sumpter rose triumphant over, at a sutaquent day, with relation 10 
the pay promised to his troops, had probnbly had its inception at thistime- 

Sotm after the Jackson borough assembly met, General Sumpter reined, 
and General Henderson was appointed to succeed him. 

Very soon after General Greene had taken post at Ronml-O; and extended 
his patties to the southward and eesiward. General Lfilifi began to fed the 
effects of being straitened in the extent of his forftgins ground. One conse- 
quence of drawing in his detachments, ami collecting the refugees, was a very 
great accumulation of horses within his lines; and one of the first disagreeable 
effect > of the present change of circumstances was, subjecting him to the neces- 
sity of putting two hundred of these useful animate to death. Strong parties 
were always kept on the alert by the enemy, to seise opportunities for collect- 
ing provision from the surrounding country; and posts were established at 
Haddrelfa and liobeuw to facilitate the movements of these panics. The 
situation of these postSj on the extreme end of tongues of land, from uhich 
rcfrcat was difficult to an attacking enemy, and to whieh re- enforcements 
could easily be conveyed bj water, secured them from attack. While gal- 
ley.^ anchored In the rivers at convenient distances, covered and commanded 
die access by water. 

When i lie arlarm was eselted in the American camp, on the r timet; ml ap- 
proach of strong re-em orcc-tucntSs Alarion was ordered to repair to head-miar- 
tcrs, with all the force he could draw afar htm. The L-utmnmid una pi'-jtuprlv 
obeyed; bur a detachment of mounted 1 man try was leu ro watch the niuiiuas 
of the enemv in the neighbourhood of Monk's Corner, 

For the purpose of destroying this party, and taking ad vantage of the absence 
of Ahirico, a detachment of about three hundred and fifty men, cava It- v and 
Infantry, were transported from Charleston, by water, to the north bank of the 
Wanrh> River* But the sudden return of Marion, upon the passing over of die 
storm i-iAt had seemed to threaten the American arm v. In a great meagre, 
disappointed the success of the enemy's enterprise. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 



o 



MJ! 



t []Ar. Marion's force scarcely equalled that of the enemy, but he resolved to ad- 
vance for the purpose of attacking them. Ill order, there fore* to detain them, 
while he advanced with his main body, lie dispatched Colonel Richardson 
and Striven, and a part of Mayhem's horse, with orders to throw themselves 
hi front of the enemy, and engage them until he could come up* 

The order was gallantly executed j and upon the appearance of the enemy** 
advance, near St. Thomas 1 Muster- house, they wgfq charged by Captain Smith, 
of Mayhem's cavalry, and their leader Captain Campbell, and several others, 
killed in the pursuit* But the pursuit was urged too far, and the pure hits 
charged and dispersed by Captain Coffin, at the head of his cavalry, This 
evens left Marion too weak to hazard an attack, and the enemy were content 
to pursue their march, without attempting to force him to it. He retired to 
Wambaw, and they marched up 10 Qumby Bridge, and having gathered some 
>tock, retired across Wappamw to HaddrelPs Point. 

1 1 Is cermiu, that in all the movements of the enemy, much importance wa.-: 
attached to die presence of Marion. Thk waa not only a tribute of respect to 
his. vigilance and courage* hut because that his presence only, coukl, at this 
f I me, keep In harmony the discordant materials which constituted his force. 
An irreconcilable dispute existed between Horry and Mayhem, on the subject 
of rank. 1 lorry had been much longer in service, and held a much higher 
^rade prior to their being apjx>inted by Greene to raise tjinir pre sen r corps, 
Horry contended, that his prior rank gave him prccedence s and Mayhem that 
his command ivns an independent command, in which he was subject to no 
one but the general, Fruitless attempts had been made, both by G re cue and 
Marion, to reconcile them; and to exercise absolute authority over thnm was 
dangerous to the service, as personal influence had very much to do hi organic* 
iii^ and keeping their corps together. 

[t was not bug before their dissension exposed the whole brigade to in in, 
and laid open the country to the enemy *s ravages. In tins affair Colonel May- 
hem was, unquestionably, hi fault. 

General Marion, Colonel Mayhem, and several of their officers, had been 
elected members to the Jackson borough assembly. The importance attached 
to the meeting of that body, and the delicacy of depriving it of Us members by 
military authority, rendered it impossible for General Greene to withhold his 
permission to them to be absent from their commands, for the purpose of taking 
their seats as representatives. The detachment then lay at Strawberry; but 
Marion, fearing the consequences of Ids absence, made arrangements for foiling 
back near the batiks of ttieSantce, that his command might be somewhat aloof 
rom the sadden movements of the enemy. 



r r 



MAJOR GENEKAL GR£I_\L 3$ 

Colonel Hurry, who as m&& officer, was kft'hi command when Afarloti u\w 
we in [o ,faeksunborou&li t &CCfcmSfoJjfJr nj tired to Wambair; but Jiay'umi sepa- 
rated liis corps from the brigade, and posting shem higher up die river, at re tided 
also ft e the meting of the legislature, positively refusing to be commanded bv 
Colonel Horry. 

Thisaci of Colon el May bears was duly reported to Greene and Marlon, and 
the most earnest discussion ensued, in which Mayhem insisted on his rights as a 
legionary corps; and Clarion requested, if ffljaB were Mayhem's right, that tire 
Utter should be withdrawn from his brigade T as he wished to have no one under 
aim wit a won !d dispute his oornnxmd^ On Mayhem's part the discussion 
\vb.a conducted with perfect respect, but in a manner which manifested that, 
pressing on hi in the superior command of Horry, would terminate m bis resig- 
nation- and the praba hie d U persion of 1 us corps. II is va 1 u e , as a cavalry ofS cer , 
wa a too well established noc to escke regret at the probable loss of bis services ; 
and Greene, who had established those two corps to create^ as he cypresses it. 
" a head to the militia of the brigade^ saw, with extreme anxiety, the au^urv 
of present and future ill* in a dispute maintained with such yivackv. 

The subject had, some mouths before, been brought to bis notice hy Colonel 
Horry: aud he had then, uu equivocally* declared In favour of his pretensions, 
Before leaving camp, the letter from Hurry had been submitted to Mayhem bv 
"Marion: and the latter had acted upon it in giving the command to tlorrv. 
But Mayhem requested and obtained a hearing from General Grct'iie., and 
re fused to submit until lie had himself received a personal answer upon the 
^ubjeot. 

The answer was, il you express a wish to have your corps on an independent 
footing* similar to thai of Lee's legion ; J have always considered.it exactly on 
that fooling. Lee acta independent of any one?a command, except the com- 
ma;i;lcr in chief] in the t\r$x instance, but always subject to the order of the 
ofese-jf he may be placed under. There can be no other independency bvrt 
this, aud never was* in any service* I would wish to grant you all the indul- 
gence hi my power, cou distent with the public safety. But our measures mu&t 
be so condacied as to be able to combine our forces; without which we tuav be 
ruiiied hi detachments. Where liberties- are granted independent of these prln- 
CEpie^j some P$ta$ an. I some corps may get reputation; but it will be at the 
expense of die public welfare. It would be a poor consolation to an officer, tea 
have acquired a ltiije extraordinary military fame, and laid the foundation of 
his country's rum by "t. You have exerted yourself whh a noble cruhusiasm 
in raising your corps; and 1 have only to recommend that you let the public 
good, and your private wishes walk hand in hand- and then 1 am persuaded 
vol- in 39 



306 MAJOR GENERAL GBEENE. 

c xvm ' y° u W ^ n0 * XVL5n a sfrgte indulgence incompatible with tlie principles I haye 
laid down.'* 

As Mayhem had also complained of the hard services to which his corps 
had been subjected, Gcneml Greene further observes: — " With regard to Gene- 
ral Marion's having made too free use of y our cavalry, you are to consider how 
extensive the country ii he has to guard, and how much lie depends upon your 
corps. This i vi 1 1 account for ihc hard service you have been put 10. The gene- 
ral is a good man, and when you consider his difficulties, ant] make just allow- 
ances, perhaps you will have little to complain of, but the hard necessity of the 
service. Our force ii small, and our dutv extensive. Let me imresU you to 
think properly on these matters, and to endeavour to accommodate yourself to 
the circumstances of our affairs; and 1 will again endeavour to impress the 
general with the necessity of giving you as much repose as possible. 

" General Marion has been very useful, and is very necessary ; and your 
corps can no where be as usefully employed as where you are." 

It does not appear, that this earnest appeal was productive of the desired 
effect; for, in a subsequent letter, addressed to General Marion) General 
Greene observes — " I will also write to Lieutenant Colonel Mayhem, de- 
cidedly, upon the dispute respecting his rank. I am sorry the colonel carries 
that matter to so disagreeable a length. Rank is not wEi.it constitutes the 
good officer, but good conduct. Substantial services give reputation, not 
captious disputes^ A captain may be more respectable than a general. Rank 
is nothing, unless accompanied with worthy actions." 

Fending these discussions, the most serious alarm was produced by intelli- 
gence from Charleston* A detachment of two hundred horse, Jive hundred 
Infantry, and two pieces of artillery, under the celebrated Cum it Rum ford, 
rhen Colonel Thomson had moved up the Cooper River* obviously, with 
designs upon Horry, The earliest information had been communicated 
by the numerous and vigil am confidants in Charleston ; and Greene had re- 
peatedly hinted to Marion, the necessity of his return to his command. The 
latter was equally desirous to place himself at the head of his brigades but 
urges, in his answers, the pressing necessity of Ids remaining, lest the assembly 
dioutd be broken : and promises to move off the moment the must ftressiue 
business k di posed of. 

When the ILiiisu detachment was actually In motion, Marion's depart we 
could no longer be delayed j and, accompanied by Colouvl Mayhem, by a 
tircuitous route, and a very rapid ride on the 24th February- he reached the 
ground on which Mayhem's regiment was encamped. Her- day were iit- 
formed, that the enemy was retiring; and while Mayhem paid a visit to fefe 



iUJGK GENERAL GilEnlMv 



OL 



own pJantf.don, Marion remained to rest and VfiSmh kinAci\\ bfifera ibey re- egyfc 
sumed their journey for ihe encampment of the brigade- In five hours after ^\ 
JJuiyheurs departure, an ex pi™ arrived with the alarming mreliis^u'.o. that 
the brigade had been surprised and (Sifted ; and Marion* placing himself as 
the head of Mayhem** raiment, hurried on towards Wainhaw^thc seme of 
ihe surprise! to collect the fugitives, find check iheh' pursuers. Arrived v, Ithhi 
the miles of the enemy, lie halted at the house of Mrs. Tydhnan, to refresh 
his men and horses; mid the latter ww uubutcd and feeding, when ihe whale 
of the enemy's cavalry made then 1 apnea ranee, 

Tt would seem, from the indecisive conduct of the British commander, that 
lie was no leas surprised at falling in with Ills enemy, than was Marion 
at his sudden appearance. Had the charge been ordered im mediate] v on 
coming in view, it was Colonel Mayhem's opinion, that the whole raiment 
must have been lost, as they had no retreat, but bv the nver and the Jane by 
which they had entered the plantation, and which the enemy had now the 
means of obtaining the full command of. Bui, the Jauer not ouly haltrd but 
.exhibited appearances of alarm; nud Marion, though not counting half their 
- numbers, resolved to issue by the lane and attack diem. The indecision of 
the enemy had furnished sufficient lime for the Americans to bit and mount 
their liors<» j and they moved to the extremity of the lane with a linn and 
promising countenance- Though the enemy greatly out-numbered them, ho 
was badly mounted j and the American cavalry, ai that time, feh a coniidenco 
in themselves, which prepared them to encounter auy practicable odd* in 
haute* 

But, the Americans were destined to lose* as General Marion observes in his 




-'icum. 
The from section was led by an officer of approved courage, who, in the 
very recent affair at St> Thomas 1 muster- house, had ^ually" distinguish^ 
;uW-]f Yet, ihe moment he reached the extremity of the fane, bedashed 
iiLto the woods on the right, and drew after him the whole regiment in h re- 
ttbvabk confusion. Marion himself, who was near die head of the column 
Wife borne away by the torrent, and narrowly escaped. Many of the men 
had to^uic their horses, and disembarrass themselves of swords and boots, to » 
pass a deep creek winch lay on their right. Fortunately, not many were ' 
killed or taken \ for inch was the state of alarm in the hostile ranks, that some 



SOS MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cH\r. urne appears to have elapsed, before they could persuade themselves that they 
had not only escaped destruction, but gained a bloodless victuiv, 

ft was too trm^ as had been reported, thai the brigade had beet) wholly 
dispersed the day before. Horry, labouring under severe mu imposition, bad 
left l he com mm id to Colonel M ; Donald , and retired across thf! -San tec River. 
Bi some mi accountable u e gleet of the patrol cs, vidette*. or pickets. Coffin, 
with the cavalry of t=ic enemy's detachment, had stolen upon them unex- 
pectedly, and the whole retreated precipitately. Many crossed the river bv 
swimming, and some, am oner whom was Lieutenant Stuyscr, of Horry's 
eavalrv. were drowned in the attempt. A considerable party, under command 
of C aj) coin Jame. c , took dtftytt the river-road f aud by lifting the Wumbaw 
bridge, arrested die progress of the enemy, and rallied at a short distance 
from their late encampment. The enemy made no prisoners, for they gave 
no quarter : the number of the slain was, by no means, equal to what 
might have been anticipated, for the thickets saved the infantry, and the Bri- 
tish cavalry had been too long pent up in Charleston, to be in the highest order. 
But, Major Benson and Mr. B rough ton, both very much esteemed and la- 
mentco\ were among the slain. 

Thus was Marion's force, fur the present, annihilated : and, although the 
loss of men was noc erear. vet the loss of horses and arms, and above all, of 
thai confidence which he had so successfully cherished in his men, were not 
easily to be surmounted. But, no sooner was his actual presence known, 
than his men gathered round him. M 1 Dona 3d collected about two hundred 
beyond the river ; Mayhem, sadly vexed and mortified, and not a little offended 
with his commander for marching without him, also gathered up hi a dis- 
persed corps ; and the greatest efforts were made once more, to regain the 
iract of co^uiry now in the undivided possession of the enemy* 

Butj the efiemj*B triumph was of short duration ; fearing for the result of 
the expedition against the brigade, General Greene, immediate!}' on hearing of 
the actual movements of the enemy, ordered Colonel Laurens to march to its 
relief; and, on the approach of a detachment on his rear, Colonel Thomson, 
after gathering some stock and provisions, retired to Cainhoy, where he was 
securely posted T and could retreat, or be re -enforced, In perfect safety. Lau- 
rens then returned beyond the Ashley. 

Some idea of the importance attached ro the success of this enterprise, per- 
haps we may say, of the habits of vain-boasting of some military com- 
manders, will be formed from the perusal of an extract from the gazettes of 
that pfeji 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. im 

M Vbings bear a better prospect than they did* Colonel Thorn sod has dc- chaf, 



feared Gen nml Marion in South Carolina, killed one hundred men, and 
Marion was drowned at tempting 10 escape," 

Captain John Caraway Smith, who hud ted the front section of Mayhem 1 * 
regiment on this occasion, and acted so unaccountably, thought proper lo 
resign the next day; and nnpu far opinion has attributed his conduct to one of 
those incomprehensible panics, which ancient poetry assigned to supernatural 
causes, Bur, Colonel Mayhem attributes his conduct to mi other cause. He 
says — "That Marion, (who was an infantry officer) gave the order to file off 
fiOtn the kmisc to the right, instead of giving it, to charge which induced his 
officers to believe, that they were to retreat > and not to fight ; and the previous 
dissatisfaction which General Greene had, in a great measure, succeeded in 
alliyhi^. was mt j hub irritated by ih'is day's occurrences, ft is but little 
satisfaction,'* says Colonel Mayhem. *■ to me, to keep up the regiment, when 
others can expend Its strength, without giving me die satisfaction of being 
present.* 5 

An event soon after occurred, which put an end both to the alter cati on , and 
to Mayhem's military career. 

After the late unfortunate occurrences, Marion found Horry's regiment so 
Crippled and deranged, that they were ordered to fall back to the Pec Dec, to 
recruit, and recover their confidence. Only sixty of Mayhem's horse could bo 
brought into the field ; and a? the time \hr another of Marion's military ava T 
tarns had arrived, ho could muster but forty militia-men — adherents, whom no 
toil, or danger, could sever from him. Thus reduced, he was compelled to 
retire beyond the Santee, until he could return, in force, to repossess the 
country from which he had been driven. The interval of his absence was too 
successfully improved by the enemy, in predatory incursions. The cattle had 
been previously^ driven across the Sautce ; but provisions and slaves, to a eon* 
siderablc amount, were carried off. 

Nor was it in General Greene's power, at tins time, io detach a force suffi- 
cient to cover that country. Recent occurrences had raised his anxiety for his 
own security ; disputes about rank and privilege had convulsed his own army, 
and the machinations of the enemy, joined to the real distresses of his soldiery 
threatened It with dissolution* 

It is a very remarkable fact, that in three if not four of the most southern 
states, the fust use or their restoration to the exercise of civil authority, was to 
pass laws which had nearly ruined the army that suffered so much in delivering 
them from the enemy. To charge these states with having legislated with that 
design j would be the height of folly and injustice; hut we relate fact?, and 



XVII. 



m major ge>t:hal greene. 

CtMPi white we admit the best of motives, venture to maintain that such was. the 
^1"^ direct tendency of the measures we allude to ; and their effects were severely 
felt. 

In the=e incisures Virginia* toolt the lead, by passing laws to suspend her 
specific gqntribm tans to the war, and subjecting any one to imprisonment, who 
should exercise the rismi of impressment under any other authority than an net. 
of the state tpnisfaturei at the mttt time a stop was put to the circulation of 
piper-moncw« a.uH die heads of departments were left without power to take, 
m- money to purchase, tlie supplies requisite for the southern army. 

Tlie causes of these mea^urc^ are to be found in a variety of recent occur- 
rences, in the progress of die war* 

In the undefined state of the powers of the general and particular govern - 
ments, the power of impressment had been asserted and practised by congress 
■o save the army from disarm tan, when lying at the Valley Forge. In various 
instances it had been practised by the commanders of the continental troops, 
when pressed by necessities which could nor otherwise he relieved. Precedent 
seemed to have established the opinion, that the right to exercise It existed \u 
the general government; and it had hitherto been submitted to without oppo- 
sition from the state government. 

But Virginia had recently \ch f in a more than ordinary degree, the incon- 
veniences which must always result, from the exercise of this, in common with 
every other arbitrary power* 

Her governor's had liberally sanctioned the exercise of the right of impress- 
ments\ magnanimously casting themselves upon the patriotism of the state, and 
resting for their justification upon the purity of their motives, and the neces- 
sities of the service. Scarcely had the ferment excited by Mr. Jefferson's im- 
pressment of horses subsided, when the advance of Philips, Arnold and Corn- 
wall is, drew into the state an army for its defence, for the subsistence of tvhich 
no resources had been provided* Without money, without magazines, and 
with very limited means of transportation, such was the rapidity and tin cer- 
tainty of La Fayette's movements, that to subsist his army without impress- 
ments was impossible. Governor Jefferson, and after him Governor Nclaon, 
liberally supported him in the exercise of the powers necessary to the very 
existence of his army; and wherever the army moved, ihe country, in its im- 
mediate track, felt severely the sacrifices it was called upon to make to the 
general welfare. Afterwards, when an army of fifteen thousand men was 



* Virginia war office January EJj IT'S? 



I 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENll". 511 

assembled before York Town, tim demands for contributions, oi* course, aceu- chap, 
unlisted on the state, and Govern or Nelson, duly estimating the importance of, 
the crisis, resolved to risk life, fortune* reputation, even' thing, rather than 
leave Virginia to be disgraced, and the army to suffer whilst prosecuting its 
present e riterprise* Th B con sequ en ce was, th a t the state rung wi th lb e cl amon rs 
against the arbitrary conduct of the governor; and although obliged, from ill 
health, to retire from service, he felt himself called upon to demand a public 
investigation ofhls conduct, as soon as the legislature met. That body did 
justice to his merits; but resolved to put to rest, for ever, all repetitious of the 
exercise of the power of impressment, either bv Its governors, or the United 
States, unless sanctioned by state laws. 

There was another motive which operated, at this tune, to induce the adop- 
tion of thb course of measures, k had been foretold to the minister of finance, 
that difficulties would arise among the states relative to the impartial distribu- 
tion of ids solid favours. He began now to experience this ineoit yemenee : 
per Imps he famished cause for it 

The sums required of the states this year, for the support of the war, were 
made payable in specie; but the financier exercised the power, still to permit 
the specific con m but ions wherever he thought proper. To subsist the northern 
-army, and the various naval and other establishments of the United States, 
contracts had been enternl imo, payable at the treasury of the Inked gft$e& 
and a military chest furnished ; whereas, the southern army, Mr. Morris pro- 
posed, to leave to be subsisted by the southern states. But General Greene was 
vested with very extrusive powers to draw their quotas to his aid, in any way 
he could negotiate with tbcro* Foreseeing that they could not afford him any 
present aid in money, Greene suggested the idea, that each state should become 
contractor wiih the army for such amounts as they had Lo contribute, and such 
articles as they could command. This arrangement had ail the appearance 
of fairness and justice, and had been successfully resorted to in Pennsylvania ; 
but It was thought, by Virginia, to operate injuriously on the southern states, 
inasmuch e$ iliey were supposed to be creditor states in the general account, 
and ought to share in the benefits of drawing money from Morris 1 supposed 
redundant treasury, and of that circulation which would take place in the pur- 
chase of provisions; and which, by reviving commerce, would enable those 
stares, not onh - 1 mhr jlirir quotas by ta.vcs, but supply many necessities, 
which the kml waui of a circulating medium then subjected them to* Some 
discussion* ;o<ik place bet wen Virginia and :he financier, which ended will; 
a determination to rfiscjiuliiue her sped'ic ■.contributions to mdutam her own 
nriificers and recruks by contract, and to do nothing more- 



012 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 

g*A& The following letter from Governor Ham son, presents a striking view of 



XV|! r 



the state of things in Virginia, for the year 1 7B2 : 



3ar 1 7B2 : 



ri ViaojsfA— w Council* — January %i$t 7 1782. 

" Your favour of the 27ih ultimo, by Captain Ragsdale, came to hand a 
few days agu j the subject of it is so extremely interesting, that the executive 
thought it necessary to forward it to congress, 

£! Youv situation is so truly critical, that it behoves every men, who is cither 
a friend to vou. or to America- to exert himself to extricate you out of vour 
di ft) cullies, I lind this disposition, from both those motives, most strongly in 
myself; and am happy to inform you, that every member of my council, 
seems impressed with the same sentiments ; but, what will ail that avail, where 
bo ill power and ability arc wanting. 3 Jfe art, at this tim^ the poorest t and 
nwst iwpotent f-xmiiiw, perhaps, lathe <icQiitt. The cicdh of the state is lost, 
and we have not a shilling in the treasury* The powers formerly given, to 
embody and march the militia out of the state, are no longer tout in ued to us ; 
nor can we impress what may be necessary for you, or even for ourselves ; 
and the lute invasion has nearly drained us of our stock of provisions and 
refreshments, of all kinds necessary for the army, As this is not an exagge- 
rated, tint a true state of our situation, I leave yon tojudge, whether any great 
depend an ce can, for the present, be placed on tins state* The Jit tie that is in 
my power, you may be assured of : and I think of immediately calling the 
assembly, to lay before them your letters, and press far their exertions. Those, 
1 am sure, you may expect^ but, our situation is such, that their best endea- 
vours will be but feeble efforts* It has long been matter of wonder and indig- 
nant surprise tome, i lift t congress, and its ministers, have not taken the mea- 
sures for supplying your army, that they have taken in every state to the 
northward of us; [hat is, by contract. With us, they depend On (his state 
for every thing, though they know it can only be obtained by force I and 
tvhen their wants are supplied, they even refuse to give us credit for what they 
have obtained ; but insist on our full quota of money being paid into their 
treasury- It is this kind of partial conduct that is the true cause of our distress, 
and that will, in the end, if not amended, be attended with ruin, both to you 
mid us. Colonel Carrington, I make no doubt, will fully inform you of the 
situation of the continental quarter master and commissary departments, 1 
shall, therefore, say nothing more on the subject, but only beg you to represent 
your situation fully to congress, and to insist, that the same mode be used foi 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, dli 

suppling yuu, tlmt they use for supplying: other armies, Should you sue- ni.jp. 
cecu\ it will give new life to every individual in this state, and will, 1 trust, 
place you in a much more flourishing condition than you ever yet have been, 
N We have determined to feed your u Hirers, and what few troops we have, 
by contract; if we succeed, some cattle may be spared when (hey are Jit to 
cat," &c. 

To pass from one system of supply to another, was the work of Time ; and 
(hiring iis progress, the various military depots, and the army Itself, were ex- 
posed to the most serious evil* — evils which were alleviated by the excellent 
dispositions of Governor Ham son and Colonel Day ice, and the personal influ- 
ence and energy of CoJum-1 CarHngton, but whirh still fell very heavily upon 
the army- It left ihem often to suffer for the want of ultima I -(bod ; fur which, 
much depended on the supplies to be drawn from Virginia ; while the revival 
of the dispute, whether she was to deliver her recruits naked or clothed, Jci\ 
them also to suffer for want of covering ; and did the most serious injury to 
the recruiting service — against which, no canse was found to operate so 
stronglys as* the rags, and bare, scotched shoulders of those who obtained their 
discharges from the army. & soldier will sooner submit to withholding his 
pay than his clothing. Nor does any cause operate mnrc pov\ erfully to destroy 
that tone of mind — that soldierly pride which must vxUt, to excite them in 
acts of fidelity, or valour. iVhat has the mercenary to light for? And what 
is to be expected of tile oillcer, who is deprived of the independable means of 
giving animation to the mass which he has consolidated by discipline f 

Nor is it only from conscious degradation and personal suffering, thai the 
want oi' comfortable clothing, and other privations, do injury to military 
service; the mind of the soldier is wrought up to ties pat r, by that against 
which <*tbe worm will turir* a senst* of injury, of injustice; against which hi* 
condition deprives him of a I] remedy, and for which, liif has u<j hupe for in- 
demnity — a feeling that deposes him to acts of pilfering or violent; and to 
*erk safety, and a change of condition, In the ranks of the enemy. All this 
was sensibly experienced, about this time, in the southern ami}'. 

To North Caroline j Central Greene next addressed himself; and the beuei* 
to pr^s his application to that state,, scut on hU commissary, .Major Forsyth, 
with full powers to make amusements with the proper aiuhoriticg, Jbr sup- 
plies 10 ttie amount of the quom of money required of that state. But, North 
Carolina, in common with Virginia, had fastened her eye upon Morris 1 ' hoarded 
treasures; and adopted the opinion, that in an arrangement altogcUtcr pros- 
pective, she ought to have credit for advances already made. She voied men, 
vol. ir. 40 



^14 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

tjirxp, ami coniinucd her specific taxes to support thecii until in service ; bm, no 
means were m \ opted to raise money for her quota ; $& quarter master 
general hud no means of trail sporting provision- and excepting sending a few 
ratth\ not king more was done in that state for the support of the army, 

Thus, was tJie subsistence of the southern army thrown al together upon 
South Carolina, (for Georgia could do nothing towards it ;) and for the last 
night cen months oi* the war, its subsistence w^as drawn altogether from the 
state of South Carolina. She did not adopt the proposal of doing this by 
contract; but, took it upon herself to supply the army, without reference to 
tiie inquiry, whether it would amount to more or less than her quota. 

At ih e close of the war, South Carolina was found to be the largest creditor 
state in the union : and when it is considered, how many years she had been 
the seat of active war, (not locally as oilier states, but in every rood of hcv 
extent :) how long she had supported two armies, and suffered every inter- 
rapt ion that agriculture could be subjected to, it will lather be matter of sur- 
prise, that it should have been done at all, than that it should not have been 
done in a better manner. 

But, South Carolina also passed a law to prohibit impressments \ and in the 
midst of uu paralleled sufierings : General Greene submitted, for a long time, to 
hs consequences : it will be found, he was con i pel led, at length, to assert the 
right which necessity, and the authority of the union gave him, and to resort to 
that mode of subsisting hii army, in opposition to an authority which had 
been vainly exerted, (although in good faith) for that purpose* 

When General Greene first entered South Carolina, he found it destitute of 
civil government, and uniform Ey exercised the right of Impressment, for the 
subsistence of his army. In this, there was found no difficulty, for Mr, J dm 
Eutledge had joined him on the Pee Dee, and was ready to support the mili- 
tary authority by tiie dictatorial powers vested in him. 

As far as General Greene was concerned, not a complaint was uttered 
against the latitude that had been assumed. The purity of the motives 
with which every act w-as performed, was unquestionable ; and while 
the legislature sanctioned all that had hitherto been done, it passed laws 
for confining to itself, exclusively, the exercise of this power for tiie 
future- For this purpose, the new governor, Mr, John Matthews, was 
instructed to " take order for subsisting the southern army ;" and a law 
was passed, requiring "that a sufficient number of fit and proper persons 
shed I be, from time to time, appointed by the governor, with die advice and 
consent of the privy council, in different parts of the state, as agents or com- 
missioners to procure those supplies," And enacting, f * that no other persons 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. Si 5 

than those who shall be appointed by the governor, for that purpose, as afore- char 
said* shall be allowed; w permitted, to procure supplies for the army*" 

Thts law, it is obvious, was calculated to make the army altogether dependent 
upon state authority for, subsists nee, Bat, whilst executed in good faith, no 
injury could result from it; and it was Time enough for the United States' au- 
thority to interfere, when the necessities of die army required it. The zeal 
and candour of the governor and council, as well as of the legislative bodv, 
were too conspicuous to admit a doubt of their Intentions; and the greater the 
responsibility they voluntarily assumed* the greater were the hopes, that the 
army might reasonably rest upon their exertions. General Greene, therefore/ 
made no complaint against these measures* as he was satisfied they were in- 
tended, as a candid eflbn to furnish supplies, without exposing the citizens to 
u&necessarv vexations. 

The quantity of provision, in bread and flesh, necessary for the daily allows 
ance of the army t being communicated to the governor, he undertook, without 
hesitation, to furnish it; and, with the advice of hb council, having no rn mated 
Mr. William Hort commissary and forage master general, in behalf of the State, 
the new system went into operation under the most favourable auspices. 

Short, very short, was the time of its duration, before the distresses, disap- 
pointments, and wants of the army, plainly demonstrated that there was a 
defect some where* Murmurs soon began to run high, and General Greene 
was constrained to address himself to the governor, to solicit his attention to 
discovering and removing the cause. t[ I am much afraid, 7 ' says be> in a letter 
of the 1st of April, " that Mr, Hon has not the activity or industry requisite 
for the duties of his appointment. We are from day to day kept uneasy for 
want of regular supplies of provision. One day we arc without beef, the next 
without rice, and some days without either. Supplies coming to the army in 
ibis way, keep the men continually murmuring and complaining. Men will 
bear disappointments for two or three days at a dme, but when the supplies are 
continually irregular, and frequently deficient, the soldiers will get impatient. 
and that will soon grow up info a disagreeable discontent* To produce these 
frequent disappointments, there must be a defect in the arrangements, or a 
want of industry in the execution. I am not acquainted with Mr. Hon. but I 
am afraid he has more method than dispatch. To fill the place he is in, acih irr 
ia no less requisite than method and integrity. Your excellency knows of how 
much importance it is, to have the army constantly and well supplied; and r in 
our situation, how dangerous a failure. 1 beg yon will, therefore, explain to 
Mr. Hort the necessity of being punctual The service must suffer if the troops 
are without provisions; and God only knows what may be the consequences 
should the enemy avail himself of one of these unfortunate moments to attack 



-. 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

tffeji? uSh Wo are vcrv near the enemv, even svhtihi surprising distance* It is dan* 
gerous, therefore, haaardmg the least discontent l*j a. matter which never fails to 
produce ill humour in' ail army. Oar troops were sieve 1 !* without provisions so 
much during all last campaign, as they have been since Mr. Hort baa under- 
taken the business, and the pre *■ felons not more than twenty or thirty miles 
S$ &%> 

Never t; id in mi make more earnest efforts than Governor Matthews did. to 
keep the troops supplied; bur bis confidence in Mr. [.tort's industry and 
capacity were mjt to be shaken, and the army went on suffering end comptatn- 
ing, at intervals well {&dj and as; ihn&s &EmasE in a stase of mutiny, and kept to 
&rtvonlv bv alternate saatkm&aitd severity 

Their discontent* on account of subsistence were greatly aggravated by oiher 
privations, which they had at this time to submit to. Rum and tobacco t two 
articles of indispensable necessity to American soldiery t could seldom be com- 
manded; and a very large proportion of the army were in a state of disgusting 
nakedness. A tattered remnant of some garment, clumsily stuck together 
with the thorns of the locust-tree, formed the sole covering of hundreds The 
clothing that had been obtained with so much pains and difficulty, in the early 
part of the winter y had been impartially distributed throughout the camp; a«d 
a very large proportion-of the soldiera who received it hnd, before this t&i-ife 
been discharged and gone home. Many of the sources of supply on winch 
Genera] Greene had counted with confidence, he had been disappointed in \ 
the articles purchased in North Carolina were much less than he expected j 
those coming on from the north, could not get on from Virginia, because of the 
derange ments in the quarter master's department; and the infatuating hope of 
peace, which had prevailed in the winter, .had rendered the exertions of tbose at 
the head of departments, languid iu their eftorta to supply him, « 

The disgusting details of the wretched state of the army arc in piles before 
us; we will select but one paragraph as a specimen of their contents.* " Your 
officers are in distress, having drained every private resource for support ; your 
soldiers are complaining for want of pay and clothing- and though both have 
shown as much merit and virtue, as much patience and- forbearance j as can be 
found in history * yet you canuot bat be sensible that this is a dangerous founda- 
tion to build upon, — though it may last for a time, it will have an end, I shall 
use all the address and influence I am master of to gain time ; taut some funda- 
mental alteration must take place, or opposition will fail ; and wherever a 



* To. the President of C«ims$ ; Much fth, 1762. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 31? 

gcnrrnJ discontent begins to discover it aelf, a dissolution will follow— a temper chap. 
J iWad :he approach of, and a consequence I fear much more than the force of % 
the ci if my. 

" Great part of my troops are in a deplorable situation for want of clothings 
air) they would have been mnch worse, had it nor been fur some small supplies 
from the people at large, and from the merchants of Charleston, by the advice 
and approbation of the governor and council of this state, who have-) upon 
every nen^ion, clone even thing in their power for our relief and support. 

" Nat a rag of clothing has come from the northward, escepE a small quan- 
tity of linen for the officers. A considerable quantity has been in Virginia all 
winter, and a number of arms which we have been, and still are, in great want 
of, We haze three hundred men without arms, mid more than a ihouscmd men 
art so mktdfor wi&tf of clothing, thai they can only be put on duty in casea of a 
desperate tuus&iy* Men in this situation; without pay or spirits, it is diffi- 
cult to tell what charm keeps them together. I believe that nothing but the 
pride of the army, andthe severity of discipline, support them under their suffer- 
tegs." 

BcftU^s a speciJiccoiitribution^ voluntarily collected among the inhabitants, 
all [he relief that could be administered to the sufferings of the army, was drawn 
from a contraband trade with Chart? ston, carried on under the concurrence of 
the governor and council, either directly* with an agent near the army, or elr- 
cuitously, through the port of Georgetown ; or from the trade which a few 
adventurous merchants carried on between the latter port and the West- 
ndies. 

Mercantile cupidity, which seldom wants a pretext, and is hawk-eyed in dis- 
covering the means of chiding restraint, very soon brought to the consideration 
of General Greene, certain offers of goods, in return for rice to be suffered to 
eater Charleston. They were readily embraced, and supplies for the more 
immediate and distressing wants of die army were received through that chan- 
nel, under the eve of Colonels Lee and Laurens. 

When the Jackson borough assembly adjourned, the army moved from Colo- 
nel Skirvcn Vdown to Bacon Bridge, at the head of Ashley River : and thus, 
a hour communication, direct with Charleston, was established, and this com- 
iftm# much facilitated. Still, however, its produce was small and pre c&riuus. 

Georgetown, and the ports of North Carolina, presented a more ample 
field for enterprise; and hi Mr. John Watirs, (the present Chancellor Waties of 
South Carolina,) GeinTa.1 Greene found a young, but active, intelligent, and 
honourable agent for drawing supplies from those sources. Hum, blankets, 
hospital stores, and some clothing, were purchased at these places, by means 
of bills drawn on the financier ; and particularly, the indispensable article of 



318 MAJOR GENERAL GREENE, 

frHAF. s ah. was tiko^i?thcr obtained through this ehauneJ. This article, the -best 
quality of which had occasionally been purchased for the army, at nine hard 
dollars the bushel, was absolutely indispensable to an army, which subsisted 
altogether on rice and fresh- beef : and the difficulty of obtaining 1c, was so 
embarrassing, that we |M the general, a? last, actually boiling it for himself 
an rf$ sea-coastj through the agency of Mr. Watfeft 

It was in one of the excursions of this gentleman to North Carol] ua, that 
General Greene was tijl Into negotiation with John Bank*, whu u hour he 
afterwards formed those contracts, which so much embarrassed the latrer 
vears of his Ofe threw a clou J of caMronv mid suspicion over his reputation, 
(not yet totally dissipated; had marly exhausted all the wealth winch the gra- 
titude of the southern slates had heaped upon him, and left his family te 
want. 

The house of Hunter & Banks, was established at Fredencksburgh iti £}*- 
sin I a, H av i ng ad veutu rod 1 ft r^eSy i n pr: vat eari ng, th ei r pr I zes u ere ge nera 1 1^ 
when practicable, run into the pore* of North Carmine '[>)£ circumstance 
had beforr led Mr Banks into some pecuniary rmnsactions with Mr. Clay, a> 
agent of the army ; and his conduct had acquired the confidence of that gen- 
tleman. Captain Pendleton, also one of General Greene's aids, had recog- 
nised in Bauks an early acquaintance, whom he had always considered a* 
highly worthy of esteem. 

Having made some considerable purchases of Banks, at Newberu t on the 
2d March » Mr* tt'atles received from him, and trans mi tied lo General Green e> 
a proposition to supply the American army, agreeably to invoices* from time 
to time, with suck articles as should be ordered, to be paid for in bills on Mr. 
Morris, or some one of the southern states, at ths ra&e often per cent, upon die 
cost at the place from which they should be shipped j the goods to be at the 
risk of the United States — the vessel at their 5 *; and, as compensation for this 
part of the contract, that Banks should be permitted to bad with rice in 
Georgetown* 

The offer was decidedly recommended by Mr. Watiea, as au excellent 
bargain when compared with the prices current of the day- The prospect, 
therefore, of an ample and tegular supply, was not the only recommend an on 
to prompt acceptance by General Greene* It was the cheapest method of 
obtaining those supplies. 

Banks, it seems, had in comemplarion ? a trade in Charleston* From causes 
then operating, the scarcity of provisions, in that place, had probably indeed 
General Leslie to wink at, or license a trade, enmed on by exchange* of Bri- 
tish goods for provisions, The advantages of it were reciprocal. He. accord- 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 311) 

ihgfy, some time after, and without receiving General Greene's acceptance of chap 
hU nflcr, mafic his appearance in Georgetown ; and making known Ills views 
to -olonel Lushlogtou, at that time in command at that place, he obtained 
frum Tli at officer passports, under which lie obtained access to Charleston, to 
prosecute his commercial schema*. Bur, this was wholly without General 
Grce ne : s knowledge ; although, had the application been made to the com- 
manding general himself, in March or April, it is, by no means, improbably 
thM the passports would have been granted, in the hope of expediting the 
reli ff of Ins wants ; yet, this certainly did not enter into the views of the 
jiarLiL's in ihe original contract, since the nsk of life own vessel could only be 
brought in view by Bank*, with refcrrence to a trade to some port not British. 
The Havana, the great depot of European articles at that lime, was certainly 
in contemplation of the general. 

The prospect of even a distant relief, brought with it some alleviation of 
the commander's anxieties ; but it was not sufficient to allay the ferment in the 
army. The wants of his soldiers were felt continually, and were ever urging 
their discontents. They hud too often been deceived— their hopes too often 
flattered and disappointed, for them to confide implicitly on contracts for relief. 
And there were other cause* now operating on some individuals of the army, 
which had grown out of the discontents previously excited. This was cor- 
ruption, if was not to he expected, that the state of the army, or the sonti- 
rnents of the soldiers, could be concealed from an enemy within twenty miles 
distant ; and, unfortunately, the army, at tMs time, had in It, a mass uf mate- 
rials too easily to be worked upon. 

This was hi the Pennsylvania line, composed of the very mutineers who had 
triumphed over government in the in -erection hi Jersey; and who, as La 
Fayette observed— " had been well paid, and well clothed m consequence of 
it." There was even in U one of the servants who had heen put in command 
of the regiments in the mutiny, and a number of others of the same descrip- 
tion, who hail deserted from the enemy whilst he lav hi Philadelphia. 

it is confidently believed, that this man. (of the name of Cornell) and 
several others, including the general's steward, had been brought over by some 
secret emissary ; nnd had their zeal not prompted them to make an attempt on 
the fidelity of the Maryland line, the most fatal consequences might have 
ensued. 

But, the sound principle of that body of men, the quick ears of one of 
their camp-women, and the vigour of CoioncJ iiarmm — furnished the evi- 
dence for fo^cnlug the crime on their leader. The night of the day he was 
taken up, ever^ soldier who apprehended he had committed himself, to the 



3£) MAJU3 GENERAL ®KKJ£&|!i 

ru > p ' number of at least a dozen, brokr away and joined the enemy, t.hcit advanced 
s^.-win force Eft receive the in ; {pi &f$, it appears* was the very day the plot was to 
be executed. For many day* previous, symptoms of mutiny liad appeared 
in tfis American camp; and movements had been made in that of the enemy, 
which put tin; American commander' on his guard, against some approaching, 
event of considerable moment. 

On the 22tl Aprit f Sergeant Uoruell was executed, and four other sergeants 
of the Pennsylvania line, were sent into the interior under guard. The ap- 
pearance* of "a mutinous temper ceased j bat it was confidently believed, that 
ihe- plan in such forwardness, was for the purpose of selling the person of the 
general, and delivering him to the enemy* It is certain, that such was the evi* 
deuce on Gorncu's trial, and for some days previous the forward movement* of 
rhe enemy so strongly indicated mi wrack, that Marion was ordered up from 
beyond Santcc, with all possible dispatch, and the army held in constant 

readiness for battle* 

Lieutenant Cclone] Harmar, after noticing in his journal the execution of 
Cornell, could not refrain from remarking, :i I hope it will gave a good effect, 

and in some meagre, quell that: mutinous spirit, which has hhherto prevailed 
Rmouast die troops, Their complaints, however, are too justly founded j sreat 

thingscannot be expected from troops who arc neither paid nor clothed, and but 

badly fed." 

Such are the painful duties to which a general is exposed when his men are 
driven to discontent by neglect or injustice, or the failure in a government eo 
nihil its contracts with them. Under penalty of death, im their part they must 

sftll be held bound to obey, and to combat, whatever injuries they may have to 

- 
nmrmnvat. 

There was one circumstance which, at Ms time, rendered the mutinous spirit 
of the &rmv peculiarly dangerous, General Greene was no lunger surrounded 
oy the tried and devoted friends, who had borne with him (i the heal and burthen 
of the day." Besides the immense loss which hadheen sustained at tire Kutaivsj 
a large proportion of the superior officers of the army had been, necessarily, 
indulged wlcb furloughs* and others had been detached wkh the troops that 
had been marched home, Although he was still surrounded by officers of un- 
exceptionable merit, they were comparatively! new to him, and to t lie arduous 
service of the southern campaign. Williams had been drrw i home by the 
exigencies of bis private affairs, aud the hopes of filling a vacancy of brigadier, 
at this time existing in the Maryland line; Howard was yet scarcely recovered 
of his wounds, but actively employed in promoting the interest* of the army at 
home; Wavne was gathering laurels in Georgia; General 8*. Clair had cb* 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 321 

fumed leave of absence, and Colonel Lee's legion was almost stripped of iis chap. 
officer Armstrong and Lieutenant Camngton Itad fallen Into the hands of JE!^ 
ike I'nciny; Egleston had requested a furlough, which his gallant services 
richK merited, and the colonel himself had retired to Virginia in the deepest 
disgust. 

From the time oF the attempt on Johns' Island, Colonel Lee h*d bem cm- 
ployed, as usual, in advance or the army, tils communication with the citv 
was nearly kept up, and he conduced the transportation to camp, of all iht- 
supplies which General Greene drew from Charleston. But his good fortune 
appears, in a great measure, to have deserted him, or the confidence of his 
officer* in their own prowess, and the speed of their horses, had been too much 
elevated by previous successes;, for his small parties met with several severe 
rebuffs ailL '? as has been mentioned, several of his b^t officers fell into die 
enemy -s hands. 

fa 1 

The co loiiel's request for leave of abseuce, bears date the 26th Januarv, and 
is couched in terms strongly expressive of the excitement under which it wftl 
was written. " I must at length ask permission to absent myself from thfi 
army. Disquietude of mind and infirmity of body unite In giving hirrh to 
my p#^L«i*fc Tin* fast arises from the Indifference with which my efforts to 
iidvancc the cause of my country is considered by my friends, the persecution 
uf my foes, ami my consciousness that it is not iu my power to efface the cli* 
agreeable Impression. The second owes k$ birth to\he fidelity with which I 
have served, ami Is nourished by my continuance in the same line of conduct. 

■ : Btkiraw divined 1 am wlcb hasun nature, I wUh, from motives oi sc!j: 
to make my way easy and comfortable. Tin's, if ever attainable, if to ho 
P>t only in an obscure retreat, 

Si 1 have nothing mire to *ny t and will but acid, Bijppt^ife the hououj* 
and pni.sj>crh\ of your muns** 

The answer will best ixjuc-?* the fuL-iings whh wMv-b riiis coiutiiuiuciuImIl 
was received. " 1 have beheld, with c\trenm anxlcts, for torn® lime, u -row 
in% tli^u:nenL inyoLir mind; and have li^i been wjrhunt my appreheii-Inrj-. 
that ymr vomphints or! ginned more in menmt auxktv, ilmnihe ruin of your 
tou$kaib& ISjiaWW m$ bo the clumc of your nraiufcj I wfeh it were in 
my power to lieni them. You say, your fronds wei\j m> tikpmtl] to «fa \u.r 
tlce to your f.vei'tbnd. If )vu mean mc, and any tiling [;as %ifffe!^d in mv 
conduct ia confirm it, fe iuis been owln^ tu mi m&s htjivfigmm or H^jfrfcaj, 
SUf not tfatil of hwiiu^imi. From our earliest ncrumintimce, I hud a nm- 
tfaltty lor you, which progressively grew i-ito friendship. 1 was under no 
etJigt^feni to you, until 1 came mto this country ; mid yet, I believe you w]f£ 

vol* ir. 4 J 



m MAJOR GENERAL 08K£$K. 

chap, do me the justice to sav, I never w an ted inclination, to serve yotJ, Here I 
have come under the greatest obligations — obli^aiinns which ! can titter r.m- 
eel ; and if, in this situation I *houlri be unwilling to fro justice to your exer- 
tions, I should not only be guilty of the basest ingratitude, but a strange 
contradiction hi my own conduct, 

* j i am far from agfpffoj with you in opinion, that the public unV not do 
yon justice, or tlmi they do hot do you jiisiico. 1 believe, toiV officers, ehhcr m 
America or Kurope, arc Ik Id in higher mi 3 .nation. Substantial service is w hat 
constimtf& tosttt^jj reputation; Find your own reports this eampn'urn, arc fhe J 
best \K\ne\t\ tic thai can be given to you action?. Fvr mr. therefore to have 
passed any extraordinary compliments upnn them, might have made me firiS- 
*:utous, but eould have given jio dignity to you. My character has been rmich 
misunderstood, and subjected to much calumny. In this situation, any thing 
that I mi;iht htive said, would have only served to discover my partiality, with- 
out benefitting your rcputfLiinn. There is no inconvenience I will nut submit 
to, to oblige you \ nor length I would not go, to serve you within the line of 
rrntli ami honour : but, I wish you not to think of leaving the service. Every 
body knows 1 have the highest opinion of you as an officer ; and you know \ I 
love you as a friend* Whatever may be your rletermiuationj whether to retire 
or continue in service* mv aneciion will accompany you ; and as fur as my 
little influence will go, I shall always take a pleasure in joying a just tribute 
to your merit," £t& 

The reply is mo full of the finest feelings, to he altogether omitted. It pro- 
fesses the most ardent and inviolable friendship for his eouunander; but, he 

nays i* 1 candidly told you, that 1 read some of your public reports wi-h 

dislrcss, because some officers and corps were lieid out 10 the world wiih a 
Just re superior to others, who, to say die Jcasr, deserved equally. But, this J 
attributed to accident of expression , or to the temper of i he momeui, and, 
therefore, regarded as nought. My attachment to you will end only with my 
jife. I am bold to use this expression, from my confidence, that your conduct 
will always claim the support of those who try to be virtuous. Could 1 sup- 
pose, my leaving tin 1 army now was a breach of private friendship, I would 
not hesitate, iti my decision; a moment, although unceasing affliction ^ould 
be inv portion. 13 ut, the prosperous train of your affairs, puts this matter 

beyond a don hi," 

" 1 communicated to Major Fcavce, the causes of my distress. I am candid 
to acknowledge my imbecility of mind, and hope time and absence may after 
my feelings . 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 3&3 

■ 

L: At present, my fervent wish is, for the most hidden obscurity : I want not en a? 
private or public apply use, My happiness will depend on myself; am! if I 
have but fort it lid c to persevere in my intentions, if in II not be in the power of 
malice, outrage, or envy, to afreet tun. Heaven knows the issue, i wish I 
could bend my mind to other decisions. I have tried much, bat the sores of 
my wounds are only irritated afresh by such efforts. My poor soldiers are 
dear to me, most dear. ] glial J pray your patronage to them if I must part. 
Throng Ei them I am open to feeling si of pleasure, and their woes will add to 
my misery. The subject of this letter is so affecting, that I cannot be correct 
or h a rd ly const? tent.' 5 

It concludes with pressing Captain Egleston'a request of leave of absence, 
though he should himself be obliged to remain until no inconvenience should 
arise for wa n t o f offic e r ?. S e vc r a I o i 1 1 er I en ers passed > eg ua 1 ly cicd I tab I e t o th u 
heads and the hearts of the correspondents; but finally. Lee and Egfeston both 
took their leave of absence from camp together 

The colonel's inter marriage with a lady conspicuous for merit ami fortune. 
which took place soon after he reached his native land, leaves a doubt whether 
his late vls-it to Virginia had not been productive of some of these severe mental 
distresses under which he appears to have suiTcmcd previous to his fearing the 
field of Mars. 

Be that as it may, he left the service with the reputation of an able oih'ccr, 
highly regarded for his talents by all who were capable of estimating them, 
and ecu -u red and suspected only, because no consideration could ever induce 
hi in to expose his cavalry to a capital misfortune. With regard to bis own 
person also, he was in the habit of asserting the prerogative of a commander, 
hi directing the efforts of others, and duly economising his own safety. But it 
was the prudence and self-command of courage, not the offspring of fear. A 
more inttllijECnt, zealous, and iiidcfutj^nbh ofikcr ni:vor existed, and so wary 
was he in all his muldpliud enterprises, that he never was, for a momenr, fuuud 
off ills guard. Not the smallest in stance of surprise ever occurred where be 
was present. His attachment to his general was cordial and devoted: and his 
supposed influence over his councils was the object of envy and a iii mad version. 
Singular fatality ! that he should at the same time cherish the firm belief thar 
the general treated his merits and services with injustice, or his councils with 
inattention ! fn a Jetttr of a private nature, to Colonel (then Genera]) Wil- 
liams, General Grrenc makes itiis remark, when speaking of Colonel Lee, 
**■ It is said by some of his friends, that he thinks the public- have not a just idea 
of hh merits, and xhxi I have not dune justice to his service! in my public 



M* MAJOR GENERAL GREENE 

, f j!J ^. ficcoiEiJts. /to A whoever rtw.k sftg ietto-s, A«rf A-hom; the f acts t will ttgrce that F 
^ fatpg dowe ftf^pft jto^fes both, to the friend and to ihr. officer " 

To the absence of so many excellent officers, we regret to add, that the ser- 
vice, at ihi*ume, suffered marcri ally from the biekciin^s of some who remain- 
ed; and, in more than one instant, the tranquillity ofd?e general was disturbed 
by the groundless remonstrance and discontents of his oJriccrs. 

The first instance occurred iu the Pennsylvania line; and it is impossible to 
compare the date of ii (the 28th of March) with the execution of Cornell., with- 
out recoil Oct! .113 the remark of Wayne, on the means In which the discontents 
of oncers are communicated to their men- 

The captains and so bah cms of the Pen nsv Ivan la line, it seems* had taken 
umbrage at some cl re tuns Lances occurring on die detaching of Captain Wihnor. 
of the Maryland line, on a critical service. It was a desperate attempt to be 
tnarlc to carry one of the enemy's post? on Coles' fsjand. 

Wit mot was designated for the enterprise, and permitted to select his men 
and officers, to the number of fifty of the former. In the order, as ivell as in 
the execution of it, die Pennsylvania captains and subalterns thought themselves 
aggrieved, in not being permitted to share in the perils of the enterprise, The 
feeling was highly honourable tu them, but the manner of Its expression equally 
numiJitnry. h was made the ground work or a remonstrance to the general 
which touched very close upon the doctrines on whit h the re vol in 3 on had been 
justified. " When the subjects of a state," say the remonstrants, " eunccive 
their rights infringed on, they readily suppose it arises from some mistake in 
the executive part of the govern in em, or that the governor means to adopt a 
mode of governing altogether new, and what the subjects have hitherto been 
unaccustomed to, ! * fce. Although the professions of the rci nous nan is were 
strong on the point of loyalty and obedience, yet the principle assumed louked 
too much like calling the executive to account before the legislative part of the 
i|overument T to be tolerated for a moment in an army. The general, there- 
fore, in his answer, tells them that the constitution of an army is totally differ- 
ent from thai of civil society: therefore to argue from analogy , of i he rights of 
men nnder those different government, is confounding things that have no 
relation, and reasoning on principles that never can be admitted in an army. 
That he would always be as Lender of the feelings of officers us possible, buUf 
they go into refinements, and urge injuries which have no foundation but in 
improper modes of reasoning, he cannot sacrifice the public good and the repu- 
tation of the army at large, to accommodate military operations to their wav 
of thinking »■ You must consider yourselves," he adds, " its oilioers of the 
continental army, bound by its laws, ami governed by military maxims. Yon 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE- 3£ 

are under military and not civil government* If you feel any injury, it must chap 
be as officers of the line of the army, and not those of any particular state- 
Yon may be assured, I have the strongest disposition to oblige, and to do jus- 
tice to the merit and services of every officer, but 1 must confine myself to such 
maxims of military government as are necessary to do justice to the public, and 
to die army at large" 

The; remonstrants would not quit the ecu test without a rcplv, in which tbex 
affirm, that the answer tl is not so saeis factory as they coy 3d have expected, but 
that I hey are induced, from the peculiar situation of the army, and their zeal 
for (fr? public good, to decline muj further steps on the occasion/* 

No farther notice was hikcu of die aflair; but, if is obvious, that a deep 
Wound must have been hi dieted on the morals of the army by the knowledge, 
that both men and platoon officers, of so large a portion of the army were 
ready, and asserted the privilege, in vulgar language, il to right themselves, 1 ' 

The wisdom of the laws of the United States, have made it a military 
offence in officers, to form these cabals; and even in civil society, in eases of 
fess immediate cvn\ and In the state to which that line belonged, much asso- 
ciations arc looked upon as offences. What follows, when such remonstrance 
are not attended to : Though the many may have been unwarily led on thus 
far* by the few, all are committed^ and none can retreat, 13 ut for the critical 
situation of the army at that moment, General Greene ft onld have sought out 
the means of pulling a stop, for ever, to a practice so dangerous in its eon- 
sccpieuee?, 

_ Nor was it long before it was followed by other occurrences, which deve- 
loped its evil tendencies. 

It was soon after this time, that General Greene- £0t involved in those dis- 
putes with settle of lias officers, which, final ly, it became necessary to refer to 
congress, and one of which hung on hmi to the day of \ t h deal!;. 

Considerable irregularities had crept into the cavalry, in (he appropriation 
■of public horses* Ijy the constitution of the corps, each officer was bound to 
provide his own horse, and an allowance was made him in money to mount 
hinist -If- As the government had failed altogether in making paymems to the 
troops, the officers of cavalry got into the habit, when they lost their own 
liormes, of dismounting their troopers who rode the best horses, or otherwise 
mounting themselves by the appro pri at ion of the 1 1 or scs purchased or Impressed 
for die public service. 

Congress had now a secretary of war in rhc person of General Lincoln, and 
an ii^pector general \n:A aEso been created in that of Steuben. Colonel Ter- 
nam, an oiTv:cv of Stcubuirs. was, at tins time, with the southern army, goinsr 



m MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cuaPl through ihc duty of Inspecting it. The inquiries emanating from, and the 
returns necessary to be metric to these officers, developed to General Greene, 
the prevkdence of this practice among the cavalry officers. The necessity of 
checking it was obvious ; for, however justifiable in its orgin, abuses had grown 
out of it, and the laws did not sanction it. That the evil had spread to on 
alarming extent: is conscious from the following passage of a letter from 
Colonel White of the iid regiment, justifying himself for having in some mea- 
sure, sanction eel it, by exchanging one of tils own for a public horse* ridden by 
a cavalry officer. " 1 believe" Sfjs he, u J am the only oiliccr in the cavalry* 
from Colonel lloylni to the youngest cornet, that dues not possess, at this 
hour, from one to three puMir h arses*" 

J t happened, unfortunately^ for Captain Gunn, of Whit e's regiment, tha t in 
a very recent transaciion, he had exchanged a public horse with Captain Arm- 
strong of the legion, for which he had received a slave and two other horses,* 
This, of rourse, was among the first ins ranees of the practice brought to the 
notice of the general ; and the audition of the slave to horses given in ex- 
change, was positive evidence, that the good of the service, or mutual accom- 
modation anions officers, had not been [he only hiducraent to the transaction, 
It bore the aspect of corruption, and he felt himself bound to notice it. Gunn 
was, accordingly ordered from Georgia, (ivhere he was serving under Wayne,) 
to explain or justify his conduct. 

He contended, that he had lost a horse of liU own hi the service, and was, 
therefore* justifiable, under a practice lung acquiesced In, to take one of the 
public's In exchange J that he had, Accordingly, appropriated the horse In que s- 
uun to his own use, and considered him as hi* own property. 

Not wishing to bring Captain Gunn to a court -martial, under the conviction 
that he would be cashiered, (and he was too brave an office* to he lost.) 
Genera] Greene referred the consideration of Captain Gunn's justification, to 
a court of inquiry; not doubting, but they would decide against his plea, and 
intending then to make it the subject of a general order. 

But the practice had been too Jong pre vakmt, and too far extended i to be 
easily put down. Gunn knew the ground he stood upon before a court of 
inquiry; and to the generaPs utter astonishment, the court decided in justifica- 
tion of the practice. This was immediately followed up by a demand from 
Captain Gunn, of the confirmation, by the general, of the decision of the court. 
as a matter of right. Such a decision > followed up by such a demand > in what 



* Cotond White, May sGtls, ITS 2. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 3Tt 

Appeared to Greene so flagrant a case, appears to have generated in him a chap. 
resolution to tosh, at once, the temper of his officers, and ascertain whether law 
and authority were to he surrendered. The decision of the court was disap- 
proved of in general orders, positive 1 notice given to both Gunn and Armstrong, 
that the horse must be restored, mid the subject laid before congress. 

Had the business stopped here, it is probable that ihc general would never 
afterwards have heard of it; but as the two officers implicated, belonged, one 
to euch of the two corps of cavalry serving hi the army, Gunn presumed too 
much on the support those corps would afford him, and demeaned himself with 
&i me thing like haughtiness* both in his personal address and correspondence 
wiih the general Certain it i^tlm: ihe letter addressed by the general to Captvihi 
Gunn. on this occasion* is expressed with a biting severity, absolutely unexam- 
pled in hi= correspondence, We would palliate, but cannot justify the want of 
temper which it displays. Corruption and insubordination, in his opinion, 
openiv vindicated in the army, were the objects of his mgm Rut there was 
another, of an individual nature, that had Its due influence. All the United 
States have heard of Amy Demdeirs horse Romulus, which, for tlihtv vears, 
occupied, each winter, so much of ihc rime of congress, This horse had been 
impressed, in the first instance, by a Lirutenaiij Rudder, of i he cavalry, and 
restored upon General Greene's express order. 13 m lie was too Jim: an animal 
to escape the notice of the cavalry o nicer*; and Cop lain Gimu was the mail 
who afterwards seized the horse, and appropriated him to the service, with 
such cheu instances of oppression as to form the subject of much discontent, 
and i hi ally, of ihe interference of the governor of Virginia, in council. The 
horse, it appealed, J tad been some how disposed of, so as to have passed into 
the hands of a third person, and poor Oearden was ruined,* 

The horse sold to Ann strong was returned, and rjad matter, for the present, 
blew over; but Gunn was far from forgiving U, g$ ui!] appear In the sequel ; 
and the disgust f Armstrong was probably among the causes, which operated 
soon after, in bringing the legionary Carps to the brink of dissolution. And it 
is not easy to decide how far the disgust of the cavalry officers may have led 
to that state of insubordination which Jed to the subsequent revolt of tlie cavalry, 
under Serjeant Daugcrncld. 

Colonel Lee's recollection has entirely failed him In relating the circum- 
stances wluYh led to the cabals that agitated the legionary corps, h was long 
before the establishment of General Gist's command, that they had their incep- 



Govcrnor Ilarrisnafs leucr, 24th DemmUr, irs^ 



3^(j MAJOR GENERAL GREENE. 

cl r iAr - lion; and some of the arrangements in that command had in contemplation 
me removal of their avowed causes. The discontents at Colonel Laurens- 
command were thought to have originated with Colonel Lee himself. . >r 
L&Efftfrf commission beitig anterior to his, when their detachments acted 
together, Colonel Lee necessarily acted under Laurens' command. This had 
hWH particularly ihc case hiihc attempt on John's Island \ on that occasion, it 
would seem from dates, Colonel Lee conceived that disgust which made him 
determine Jtt rciirc from the army. M to Laurens' exchange out of course, 
having caused discontent, the occurrence had < ring been forgotten, for Laurens 
hud since be en to France, anlfouiht at the capture of Lord Cormvallis. 

Genera) Gist's command was not formed until (he middle of June ; whereas 
Colonel Lcc had relinquished his command early in February j and, on that 
occasion, the two detachments were united under the command of Colonel 
Laurens This confounding of dates, had made Colonel Lee bring the cap- 
ture of Hie galley in Ashley River, by Rudolph, wkhin tEic time of his own 
command, whereas It happened long after his daparcuiT, and was executed 
expressly under Laurens' orders. His official account of the affair bears date 
the 20th of Marrh ; and the eclat acquired on the occasion* was probably 
among the causes that induced Rudolph to conceive the wish, to share the 
undMded honours of his. own enterprises. 

Sft find it repeatedly mentioned by General Greene to his private friends, 
that Laurens was not popular wiih the legion ; and that an opinion prevailed, 
unfavourable to his talents as a cavalry officer. Though he uniformly main- 
tains, that the imputation was unreasonable, as he had never had an oppor- 
t unity of exhibiting his talcn-. 

There were many reasons for gi\ ing Colonel Laurens the command of iIil 
light detachments, in preference to any other officer In the army, fflj know* 
ledo-e of the count ry, was far beyond that of any other: ami his intimate 
acquaintance with many persons in Charleston, and the canfi.lence with whirli 
all were ready to trufttlta hU honour and discretion; gave him decided advan- 
tage* fo^inlisgj intrjlignw:% encouraging desertion drawing out supplies, and 
evecutini confidi-miai duties; to which may he added, Straus private attach- 
ment* compliment to the AnwL'u'&tt commander in chief, ei a favourite did i 
and, above alL ihc zeal w-li aftjtfelj expressed by Laurel?. U) ktifi njidcr fcfeft 
as soon as he was $6#igH&! ro the southern dtmantuem. As to the fear of 
giving umbrage to General Washing u : we will nut assign suck a motive, 
where ttesi mkt so many good reasons 
; There was .<ho cue vmWt why Cjjjfi f{j0 c$£p tRfrM j^ longer act hv 
de pendancy. 



MAJOR GENERAL GREEN K- y^' 

After the passing of the confiscation act, find the seizure of tUe loyalists cuat. 
places into the hands of com mission ers, General Leslie had declared Iiis^'i 
rcsulmion to retaliate; and the strength of the detachments wliirii he, from 
lime to time, sent out from Charleston, exposed the American detach m curs to 
midbrain c, in their previous independent state. This induced General Greene 
to unite them under Colonel Laurens j and by this union, less waste of force 
was. necessary in patrols and reconnoiteriug parties. 

Bur, a change of circumstances soon made it necessary to give still Greater 
strength to his flying camp, or moveable detachment. When the vote of the 
British par] lame nt, for discontinuing aggressive war in America, was commu- 
nicated to General Leslie, he proposed to General Greene, a cessation of hos- 
rlliijt's, and chat he should he permitted to receive and purchase from the 
planters, such subsistence as he stood in need of* The cessation of hostilities 
General Greene referred ro congress; but, other subjects he referred to the 
governor and council But, their views on this subject had already been com^ 
municated to General Greene, in a request, *' that he would, by all means in 
lib power, prevent supplies from going into Charleston, except so far as his 
co] it tac ts re s pe ctl n g clo t h in g m ad c i t n eccss a r y . " The cause is obvious. The 
stare had undertaken to supply the army, and had declined imposing the taxes 
necessary to raise iis continental quota in specie. To have opened a market 
with Charleston, would have been, to drcan the country immediately, and 
perhaps have protracted the stay of the enemy, by lessening his inconveniences. 
Therefore, although several writers cast the odium of this restriction upon 
General Greene, it really emanated from the governor and council, and w eis 
indispensable under actual circumstances. 

General Leslie's offer was, of course, rcjec red ; and he thereupon intimate*, 
that, however anxious he was to discontinue the horrors of war, he would take 
provisions by force, wherever they could be obtained ■ and immediately com- 
mended preparations (w thai purpose. General Greene also prepared to 
oppose him ; and Marion was requested to strengthen himsrif, so as to meet the 
enemy in the quarter hi which he commanded, whilst a strong detachment 
was formed under General Gist, tg cover the country hing soudi and west of 
the army's position, The eavahy of the legion, and "that of the 3d and Uh 
Virginia regiments united tinder Colonel Baylor; the injamry of the legion, 
the dismounted dnt-oons cjf the 3d regiment, the Delaware regiment, ainf one 
hundred men clenched Horn the line and commanded by Mnjor Beak ; the 
whole infantry under command of Colonel Laurens ; formed lire brigade placed 
under the command of General Gist. 

vol. ii. 42 



SSO MA JO 11 GENERAL GREENE, 

chap In this arrangement, Genera J Greene flattered hi m self with the hope, that 
the murmur? of the cavalry, as they were no longer under L aureus, would sub- 
sides and the hi fanny would serve with pleasure, under m officer who had 
more than once led on the in fan try to honourable service* But, the late ar- 
rangements had been death to the hopes and views of Major Rudolph, who 
was anxious to succeed Colonel Lee in the command of 1 3 is corps — a com- 
mand to which, with all the high opinion Greene entertained of Rudolph's 
Gallantry, he did not think him possessing ah" the requisites for. Their discon- 
tents fastened then on the separation of the infantry from the cavalty of the 
lotion ; and a very strong remonstrance on the subject, in which they plainly 
charged their commander with injustice and breach of the privileges of that 
corps, was sent in, signed by all the ofiiccrs, accompanied with the resignation 
of their commissions, 

Previous to the actual delivery of this remonstrance, it was intimated to 
General Green e, that the thing was in agitation ; and bdt± really proud of the 
Corps, and attached persona My to the officers, (though he usually designated 
diem as Ins prctorlau-band, spoiled by indulgences) he sent for Major Ru- 
dolph, and explained to hit 11, that by the ten 01 of his orders, the two parts of 
which the legion consisted, were never, in fact, to be separated ; it being given 
expressly in charge to General Gist, to regard the habits and constitution of 
the different corps in his com m and > wherever it wad necessary to detach. He 
then pressed upon the Major, that the arrangement was perfect